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plural of Ceredig, and meaning his followers. Arwystl had Arwystli, or the western part of Montgomeryshire. Dunod had Dunodig, or the northern part of Merioneth with part of Carnarvonshire. Edeyrn had Edeyrnion, and Mael had Dinmael, both in the eastern part of Merioneth. Coel had Coeleion, and Dogfael had Dogfeilin, both in Denbighshire. Rhufon had Rhufoniog, in Denbigh and Carnarvonshires. Einion had Caereinion in Montgomery, and Oswal had Osweilin on the borders of Shropshire. Tibion, the eldest son of Cunedda, died in the Isle of Man; but his son, Meirion, was one of these adventurers, and had Cantref Meirion. The date which may be assigned to this expulsion of the Irish is the period between A. D. 420 and 430.

Another chieftain, contemporary with Owain ab Macsen and Cunedda, was Brychan, the regulus of Brecknock. It is said that his mother was Marchell, the daughter of Tudur or Tewdrig, who is styled the king of Garthmadryn, by which is conceived to be meant the present county of Brecknock southward of the Eppynt hills. The genealogy of Tewdrig is carried up to Gwraldeg, king of Garthmadryn, who is computed to have lived about A. D. 230. But here the same process may be detected at work which has been demonstrated in the case of Cadfrawd ab Cadfan and Cynan Meiriadog. I Two, if not three pedigrees show that the ancestry of Meirig ab Tewdrig, who lived about A. D. 500, has been given to Tewdrig of Garthmadryn, who must have flourished about A. D. 370. The majority of authorities, it is true, give the older names differently, but they all agree in saying that the father of both the persons named Tewdrig was Teithfallt or Teithffaltim. Notwithstanding the opinion of the historian of

* The Silurian Achau y Saint, and Nennius.

+ According to Nennius, the hundred of Builth, or the northern part of the county was included in the possessions of Vortigern.

| Page 94 of this Essay.

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N. B. This and the other pedigrees do not contain all the names that might be introduced, but only so many as are

sufficient to determine the era and genealogy of the Saints.

Brecknockshire,* there is reason to conclude, as shown by the minority, that one Tewdrig has been mistaken for the other; since the alternative would render it necessary to explain how the ancestry of the elder Tewdrig could have been preserved at so early a time; and it should be noticed that the pedigree is disjointed within two generations of the departure of the Romans, about the very period at which the authority of other genealogies seems to commence. The claims of clanship were, doubtless, acknowledged by the Britons, as they are by most nations in a rude state of society; but as the heads of families were in a state of dependency, there could have been no great inducement to preserve the memory of their affinities. From the departure of the Romans, downwards, the celebrity and independence of the chieftains, together with the claims of their descendants to the inheritance of their territories, are a sufficient reason to account for the preservation of the record.

Marchell, the daughter of Tewdrig, is said to have been married to Anllech Goronog, “ Brenhin Ewerddon," or, according to others, to Aulach, the son of Cormac mac Cairbre, one of the kings of Ireland. He was, probably, the captain of a band of Irish rovers who infested the coast of Wales after the departure of Maximus, and might have penetrated into the interior. The fruit of this union was Brychan. In the “ History of Brecknockshire" may be found a long legend respecting the visit of Marchell to Ireland, and her marriage there, attended with the parade which a writer of romance might deem necessary upon such an occasion ; but as the story, which has been recorded in Latin and English, has never appeared in the Welsh language, it may be said that the silence of the earlier Welsh writers, as to events which concerned the honour of their country, affords a presumption that such events were either unknown or discredited.

Mr. Theophilus Jones, in Vol. I. Chap. II. of his “History" of that country.

+ Vol. 1. Chap. II, and Appendix No. VI.

Brychan is computed to have reigned, such is the term, from A. D. 400 to A. D. 450.* The computation may, however, be altered so far as to bring down the commencement of his reign to about A. D. 410, in order to allow a sufficient interval, after the departure of Maximus in 383, for the marriage of his mother with an Irish adventurer, as well as for his own growth to manhood. That he commenced his reign later than A. D. 410 is not likely from the chronology which it is necessary to give to his descendants. His grandfather and mother must have lived in the Roman time, and therefore in a state of dependence, if not of obscurity; for, that Brychan attained to power not possessed by his ancestors is probable from his having given his name to the district where he exercised his authority ;t and the date here assigned to his accession agrees well with the time in which, according to Zosimus, the Britons threw off the Roman yoke.

A fourth chieftain, contemporary with the preceding, was Cystennyn Gorneu, the founder of a family in Cornwall. No further particulars are known respecting him; but the pedigree of his descendants, which includes several Saints, is given as follows.

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A fifth chieftain of this time was Cadell, who is often confounded with Cadell Deyrnllug. From the pedigree of his

* Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. Chap. III.

+ The names “Brecon and Brecknock” are but English modifications of "Brychan and Brycheiniog."

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family it may be concluded that his territories lay in Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire.

[TABLE VIII.)

CADELL

Tegyd

Glywys of Glewyseg
Gwynllyw Filwr of Gwynllwg

Cattwg Cammarch Glywys Cerniw Hywgu Maches Cynfyw or Cyfyw Guyddlew
Ddoeth
Gwodloew Beuno

Cannen

Cadrod Calchfynydd is the last that may be mentioned of this early date. His territories were situated about the middle of England.

Of these contemporary chieftains there are reasons for adjudging the seniority in respect of age to Cunedda.* But he is deserving of notice more especially, as the Triads record that he was the first who gave lands and privileges to God and the Saints in the island of Britain ; by which may be understood that this was the first time the Church received temporal possessions and endowments in this country. It is not stated what particular churches were thus endowed by Cunedda, but they probably existed in his northern territories, or in England, and subsequent revolutions have swept away every trace of them. Before this time the British chieftains were not in a condition to give lands to the Church, and perhaps the practice did not commence elsewhere before the con

An elegy on the death of Cunedda is printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Vol. I. p. 71, from which his character as a warrior and some particulars of his history may be collected. It was composed by a Taliesin, older than the Bard usually known by that name, and is perhaps the earliest specimen of Welsh poetry extant. An English translation of it is given in Davies's Claims of Ossian, Section 1, accompanied by several interesting and appropriate remarks.

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