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to do those things which he thought would be pleasing to God. Now in those days the Scotts did grievously vex Brittany, * so that his father, unable to sustain the weight and troubles of government, would have resigned the province to Carantac. But he, who loved the celestial King far more than an earthly kingdom, fled away; and having bought of a poor man a wallet and a staff, by God's conduct was brought to a certain pleasant place, where he, reposing, built an oratory, and there spent his time in the praises of God. Froin his childhood he embraced purity and innocence. At last he passed over into Ireland, invited by his affection to St. Patrick. Whither being come, by common advice they determined to separate themselves, and that one of them should travel in preaching the Gospel toward the right hand, the other toward the left. In their company there were many Ecclesiastical persons attending them; and they agreed once every year to meet together at an appointed place. Whithersoever this holy man went, an angel of our Lord, in the likeness of a dove, accompanied him, who changed his name from Carantac into Cernach, which was an Irish appellation. All along his voyage he wrought great miracles for the confirmation of the faith preached by him, and healed many thousand. — The wonderful Gests of this holy man, Cernach or Carantac, are to be read in Irish historians, and how the grace at first given to the Apostles was plentifully given to him. He was an admirable soldier and champion of Christ, a spiritual and devout abbot, and a patient teacher, not refusing to preach saving truth to every one. During many years spent by him at that Island, he brought an incredible number to wash away their sins by Penance, and both day and night he offered innumerable prayers to God. After he had converted much people to our Lord, who wrought many miracles by him, he at last returned to his own native country in Brittany, where he retired to his former

Ciessy invariably uses the words—"Brittain" for Briton, and "Brittany" for Great Britain. He styles Armorica "Lesser Brittany."

cave, accompanied by many disciples. There having built a church he determined to abide. But not long after, being again admonished by a voice from heaven, he returned to Ireland, where in a good old age, and full of holy works, he rested in peace on the seventeenth of the Calends of June,* and was buried in his own city, which from him was called Chernach.

Pedrwn, brother of Tyssul, enrolled among the saints, but there is no church at present called after his name.

Pedr, brother of Tyssul ; his churches, if he founded any, cannot be distinguished from those which are dedicated to St. Peter, the Apostle.

Tyrnog, or Teyrnog, brother of Tyssul, a saint, but there are no churches ascribed to him. Llandyrnog, Denbighshire, is attributed to another person of the same name.

Cyndeyrn, a son of Arthog ab Ceredig; a saint to whom Llangyndeyrn, formerly subject to Llandyfaelog, Carmarthenshire is dedicated. His festival occurs on the twenty fifth of July.

Cyngar, the brother of Cyndeyrn; it is said that he “ tablished a congregation in Glamorgan, at a place now called Llangenys;”+ but perhaps the statement is an error, arising from confounding this person with another Cyngar, who is said to have founded the college of Cungarus in the diocese of Llandaff.

Dogfael, the son of Ithel ab Ceredig, was the founder of St. Dogmael's in Cemmaes, St. Dog wel's in Pebidiog, Monachlog Ddu, and Melinau, all in Pembrokeshire ; and has been accounted the patron saint of Llanddog wel under Llanrhyddlad, Anglesey, Festival, June 14.


Corresponding to May 16; eleven days after which, or on the twentyseventh of the same month, being the festival of St. Carantoc, Old Style, a fair is held at Llangranuog in Cardiganshire.

+ Cambrian Biography.

Einion, surnamed Frenhin, or the king, was the son of Owain Danwyn ab Einion Yrth ab Cunedda; and was the founder of a church in the district of Lleyn, Carnarvonshire, which has since been called Llanengan, or Llaneingion Frenhin. He also established the college of Penmon in Anglesey, over which he placed his brother, Seiriol, as the first princi. pal; and in conjunction with St. Cadfan, he founded a monastery in the Isle of Bardsey, of which that person was the first abbot. There was an inscription, now effaced, upon the tower of the church of Llanengan, the latter part of which, as decyphered by the author of Mona Antiqua, asserted that the founder of the edifice was a king of Wales :

ENEANUS REX WALLIÆ FABRICAVIT. The title, however, must be received with some limitation, as the presence of contemporary chieftains would show that the sovereignty of Einion must have been confined to the neighbourhood of Carnarvonshire. The form of the letters, as represented in the Mona Antiqua, is not ancient, and the name “Wallia” was not employed to describe the territories of ther

Cymry" until the middle ages. The festival of this royal saint is February the ninth.

Seiriol, the brother, or according to other accounts, the nephew, of Einion Frenhin, was the first president of the college of Penmon, which became so celebrated that “the men of Llychlyn," or the Scandinavian rovers, resorted there for religious instruction. Subordinate to this institution was a cell in the island of Glanach, or Priestholm, off the coast adjacent, of which Seiriol has been deemed the patron saint.

Meirion, another brother of Einion Frenhin, was a saint, and Llanfeirion, formerly a chapel of ease under Llangadwaladr, Anglesey, has been dedicated to him. His wake has been held on the third of February.

Cynyr Farfdrwch,* the son of Gwron ab Cunedda, lived at Cynwyl Gaio in Carmarthenshire, and was the father of six

* He is also called Cynyr Farfwyn, and Cynyr Ceinfarfog.

sons, five of whom were saints. The names of the five saints were Gwyn, Gwynno, Gwynnoro, Celynin, and Ceitho ;* and, according to the fable reported of them, they were all produced at one birth. There was formerly a chapel of ease in the parish of Caio, called Pumsaint, which, as well as Llanpumsaint, still existing, subject to Abergwyli, Carmarthenshire, was dedicated to them. Their festival is said to have been held on the day of All-Saints; but no further information can be obtained respecting them, except that Ceitho is presumed to be the founder of Llangeitho in Cardiganshire, and his festival was kept on the fifth of August.

Between the commencement of this century and the synod of Brefi, may be dated the arrival of Cadfan at the head of a large company of saints from Armorica. He appears to have been a person of distinction, being the son of Eneas Lydewig, by Gwenteirbron, a daughter of Emyr Llydaw, one of the princes of that country. Among his companions are mentioned, Cynon, Padarn, Tydecho, Trinio, Gwyndaf, Dochdwy, Mael, Sulien, Tanwg, Eithras, Sadwrn, Lleuddad, Tecwyn, Maelrys, and several others. As most of these were men of princely family and relatives of Cadfan, the analogy of other cases suggests that the reason, which induced them to leave their country and devote themselves to religion, was the loss of their territories : for the Armoricans struggled hard to maintain their independence against the Franks, who, under Clovis, were at this time establishing their dominion in Gaul.t Cadfan, after his arrival in Wales, became the founder of the churches of Tywyn' Merionethshire, and Llangadfan, Mont

* The other son was Cai, who possibly gave name to the district in which he lived.

+ The Welsh accounts do not mention this circumstance, but the chronological coincidence is remarkable. Paris was made the capital of the dominions of Clovis in the year 510.

Chapels.-Llanfihangel y Pennant (St. Michael,) Pennal (St. Peter,) and Tal-y-llyn (St. Mary.)

gomeryshire; but he is known more especially as the first abbot of a monastery, founded by him in conjunction with Einion Frenhin, in the Isle of Bardsey, off the western promontory of Carnarvonshire. It was, probably, the establishment of this institution that induced St. Dubricius to make choice of the spot, as the place where, remote from the world, he might end his days in the uninterrupted practice of devotion. Other holy men retired thither for the same purpose ; in consequence of which, the soil of the island at length acquired a sacred character, and it was deemed meritorious to be buried there. Its narrow limits, scarcely exceeding three miles in circumference, were said to enclose the bodies of twenty thousand saints. Pilgrimages were made to it for the sake of obtaining the intercession of the departed; and as the voyage was often attended with danger, several of the bards have employed their verse in describing its difficulties, not forgetting to celebrate the guardian influence to which the faithful owed their protection amid the waves. Nor has the church of Tywyn remained without its eulogy; in a poem* written between the years 1230 and 1280, the author asserts that it possessed three altars,t and was furnished like the church of David, meaning that of Llanddewi Brefi, where, according to Gwynfardd, the number of altars was five. He proceeds to praise “its choir, and sanctuary, and its music, its warriors, and its waters of grace;” and maintains that it was not right to pass over the place in silence, for its dwellings were equal to the mighty mansions of heaven. I–There were

* Canu i Gaduan, Llywelyn Vart ae cant, Myv. Arch. Vol. p. 360.

+ The first belonged to St. Mary, the second to St. Peter; and the third, “happy was the town in its privilege of possessing it, for it was sent by a hand from heaven,” was dedicated to St. Cadfan.

# Cadr y ceidw Cadfan glan glas weilgi,

Cadr fab Eneas, gwapas gweddi,
Cadr fryn yw Tywyn, nid iawn tewi ag ef,
Cadr addef per ail ei athrefi.

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