« PrejšnjaNaprej »
some years ago, in the church-yard of Tywyn, two rude pillars, one of which, of the form of a wedge, about seven feet high, and having a cross and inscription upon it, went by the name of St. Cadfan's stone, and was thought to have been a part of his tomb. Engravings of the inscription, as copied at two several periods in the last century,* are given in Gough's Camden, from which it appears that the letters resembled those used by the Anglo Saxons, but the only word legible was the name of Cadfan. As there is a tradition that the saint was buried in Bardsey, which an obscure passage from the poem just quoted, would seem to confirm, it may be judged that the stone was merely a rude cross of which similar specimens, bearing the names of sainted persons, may be found in other parts of the Principality. He has been considered to be the patron of warriors, which countenances the supposition that he led a military life in Armorica; and his festival has been celebrated on the first of November. His mother, Gwenteirbron, is mentioned as a saint in one of the catalogues, but no churches have been erected to her memory.
Cynon accompanied Cadfan to Bardsey, where he was made chancellor of the monastery; but whatever was the nature of this and other offices occasionally attributed to the primitive Christians, it may be said that the compiler of Achau y Saint has chosen to call them by names which were familiar in his own time. Cynon is the reputed founder of the church of Tregynon, Montgomeryshire; and Capel Cynon subject to Llandyssilio Gogo, Cardiganshire, is dedicated to him.
Padarn, the son of Pedrwn, or Pedredin, ab Emyr Llydaw, visited Britain, according to Usher, in the year 516; and though no ancient authority is given for the date, it may be presumed upon as the time when Cadfan and his companions arrived in this country. According to Achau y Saint, Padarn, after his arrival in Wales, became a member of the college of
* By Lhuyd before 1709, and by Dr. Taylor in 1761.
Illtyd. He afterwards established a religious society, consisting of a hundred and twenty members,* at a place in Cardiganshire since called Llanbadarn Fawr;t where he also founded an episcopal see, of which he became the first bishop. He was the founder of the churches of Llanbadarn Trefeglwys or Llanbadarn Fach, and Llanbadarn Odin, Cardiganshire, and of Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire. The chapels of Llanbadarn Fynydd under Llanbister, and Llanbadarn y Garreg under Cregruna, both in Radnorshire, are named after him; and the situations of some of these places serve to point out the extent of his diocese to the southward, along the limits which have been assigned to the diocese of St. David. To the north its extent is uncertain, but it probably included a considerable part of Montgomeryshire. How long Llanbadarn continued to be the capital of a bishoprick cannot be ascertained, as very little is known of its history, and the last notice of it, under that character, in the Welsh Chronicles, is in the year 720; when it is recorded that many of the churches of Llandaff, Mynyw, and Llanbadarn, meaning the three dioceses of South Wales, were ravaged by the Saxons. It is reported, however, to have lost its privileges through the turbulent conduct of its inhabitants, who killed their bishop; and the diocese was in consequence annexed to that of Menevia. From the Latin Hexameters of Johannes Sulgenus, || it may be learned that Padarn presided over the see twenty one years, during which time he spent his life in the practice of such religious exercises
* John of Teignmouth differs from the Welsh accounts, in saying that this institution contained eight hundred and forty seven monks, who came with St. Paternus from Armorica; and adds that it was governed by an @conomus, a provost, and a dean.
+ Its Latin name is Mauritania, which Archbishop Usher observes is derived from Mawr, greut, an epithet added merely for the purpose of dis. tinguishing this Church from others of less importance.
| Brut y Tywysogion, Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 472. || Son of Sulien, or Sulgen, Bishop of St. David's in 1070.
as were approved in the age ;* and the Triads assert that he went about the country preaching the faith in Christ without pay or reward to all ranks of people, for which reason he was counted one of the three blessed visitors of the Isle of Britain. It is mentioned by John of Teignmouth that he built monasteries and churches throughout the whole region of Ceretica; and that he rebuked Maelgwn Gwynedd, from whom he had received certain injuries in an excursion of that prince into South Wales : but no other incidents of the time spent at Llanbadarn are recorded, upon the truth of which any
reliance may be placed. At the expiration of the twenty one years he returned to his native country, where he was made bishop of Vannes. A dissension, however, broke out between him and the other Armorican bishops; upon which a synod was convened, and a reconciliation effected. Notwithstanding this, he continued to dread their hostility, and retired to the Franks, among whom he remained till the close of his life. He subscribed the decrees of the council of Paris,t which was held in the year 557, and is commended both as an abbot and a bishop in the writings of Venantius Fortunatus, a Latin
1 poet of Gaul, who was his contemporary. One of his early biographers, quoted by Usher, says that three days were held sacred to his memory; April 15, being the anniversary of his death ; June 20, in remembrance of his consecration as bishop; and Nov. 1, on account of his reconciliation with the prelates of Armorica.
They are thus summed up by Sulgenus :-
Esuris alimenta simul, nexisque levamen,
Prudens quæque gerens, perfecit cuncta potenter." + Usher, Cap. XIV.
Cressy; who gives the following references,-1, 7. Epig. 3. and I. 3. Epig. 52.
Tydecho, the son of Amwn Ddu ab Emyr Llydaw, and cousin to Cadfan, left Armorica, and settled in company with his sister, Tegfedd, in the district of Mawddwy, Merionethshire, where he founded the church of Llanymmawddwy, to which the neighbouring churches of Mallwyd and Garthbeibio, both dedicated to him, were formerly subject.* In this retreat he is said to have suffered from the violence and oppression of Maelgwn Gwynedd, the prince of North Wales; upon whom, as the legend relates, he retaliated with such a host of miracles, that the tyrant was glad to make amends, and grant him several immunities. Tegfedd also was forcibly carried away by another chief, named Cynon, who in like manner was compelled to restore her unhurt, and purchase the peace of the saint by a grant of the lands of Garthbeibio-t He is considered to be the patron of Cemmaes, Montgomeryshire, and a chapel was consecrated to his memory in the parish of Llandegfan, Anglesey. His festival is Dec. 17.
It is uncertain whether Amwn Ddu, the father of the preceding, left Armorica at the same time with Cadfan, but it is recorded that he quitted that country, where he had been sovereign of a district called Graweg ; and settling in Wales, he married Anna, a daughter of Meurig, the prince of Glamorgan, by whom he had two sons, Samson and Tathan, who were afterwards eminent for their sanctity. It is said that he enjoyed the friendship of Dubricius, as well as of Iltutus of whose institution he became a member; and that he resided in a small island near Llantwit Major, until he removed to a desert on the shores of the Severn, where he seems to have passed the remainder of his life. The locality of this desert is not well defined, but it would appear that Anna settled in the
They now form separate benefices, but are described as chapels to Llanymmawddwy in the Taxation of Pope Nicholas.
+ See a Welsh poem inserted in the Cambrian Register, Vol. II. p. 375. | Achau y Saint, Silurian copies.
same quarter, and built a church there, which was consecrated for her by Samson.*
Gwyndaf Hên ab Emyr Llydaw, an Armorican and brother of Amwn Ddu, married Gwenonwy, another daughter of Meurig, by whom he was the father of St. Meugan. He was a confessor or chaplain in the monastery of Illtyd, and afterwards superior of the college of Dubricius at Caerleon In his old age he retired to Bardsey, where he died. He
be deemed the founder of Llanwnda in Carnarvonshire, and of another church of that name in Pembrokeshire.
Hywyn, the son of Gwyndaf Hên, is said to have accompanied Cadfan from Armorica, which makes it probable that he was the issue of a former marriage. He was confessor to the congregation of saints assembled in the Isle of Bardsey, and the foundation of Aberdaron, on the opposite coast of Carnarvonshire, from whence pilgrims generally crossed over to the island, is ascribed to him.
According to the Life of St. Maglorius,t Umbrafel, another brother of Amwn Ddu, married Afrella, a third daughter of Meurig. He is not noticed by the genealogists, but the “ Book of Llandaff” states that after having been ordained a priest, he was appointed abbot of a monastery in Ireland, by his nephew, St. Samson. I
Trinio, the son of Difwng ab Emyr Llydaw, was a saint who emigrated with Cadfan, and afterwards settled in the Isle of Bardsey. He was the founder of Llandrinio, Montgomeryshire.
Dochdwy, whose genealogy is unknown, accompanied Cadfan to Bardsey, where he was ordained a bishop: it does not
* Liber Landavensis, as quoted by Usher.
Chapels--Llandyssilio (St. Tyssilio,) Melverley (St. Peter,) and New Chapel (Holy Trinity.)