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appear that he derived the title from any particular see; but it is recorded that he was entrusted with the care of the diocese of Llandaff during the absence of Teilo, who was invited to Bardsey to regulate the affairs of the monastery upon the death of Cadfan. He is, perhaps, the founder of two churches in Glamorganshire, called Llandoch or Llandocha.

Mael, a companion of Cadfan; he is the saint, in conjunction with Sulien, of the churches of Corwen, Merionethshire, and Cwm, Flintshire, and their joint festival is May 13.

Sulien, called also Silin, a son of Hywel ab Emyr Llydaw, is said to have settled in Bardsey. He was the founder of Llansilin and Wrexham, Denbighshire, and of Eglwys Sulien, Cardiganshire. The chapels of Capel Silin under Wrexham, and Capel Sant Silin in the parish of Llanfihangel Ystrad, Cardiganshire, both in ruins, were called after him. His commemoration is Sept. 1. which led Browne Willis to confound him with St. Giles, whose festival occurs on the same day.

Cristiolus, another son of Hywelt ab Emyr Llydaw, and cousin to Cadfan, is reputed to be the founder of Llangristiolus, Anglesey, and of Eglwys Wrw, and Penrydd, Pembrokeshire. Ecton attributes also to him the church of Clydai, Pembrokeshire, of which, however, he must have been the restorer, if it be true that the original founder was Clydai, the daughter of Brychan. Festival Nov. 3.

Rhystud, a brother of Sulien and Cristiolus, was the founder of Llanrhystud, Cardiganshire ; and it is said that he was for some time bishop of Caerleon upon Usk; in which capacity he must have served as suffragan to the prelates of Menevia or Llandaff; the expression, however, may mean no more than that he was abbot of the monastery established

* Anglice Llandough.

+ According to some accounts, he was a son of Hywel Fychan ab Hy. wel, ab Emyr Llydaw.

there by Dubricius. His wake was held on the Tuesday before Christmas.

Derfel, called also Derfel Gadarn, a brother of the preceding, was the founder of Llandderfel, Merionethshire; from whence, his image, made of wood, was taken, and burnt at Smithfield at the time of the Reformation. His festival occurs on the fifth of April.

Dwywau, another brother of the preceding, is the patron saint of Llanddwywau, a chapel under Llanenddwyn, Merionethshire.

Alan, an Armorican and one of the sons of Emyr Llydaw, appears to have left his country and become a saint in the college of Illtyd or Iltutus. The three following were his


Lleuddad ab Alan, a member of the college of Illtyd ; after the death of Cadfan he was appointed abbot of the monastery of Bardsey, in consideration of which dignity he was also styled a bishop. Next to his predecessor, he has been esteemed the guardian saint of the island ; and there are poems extant, in praise of the protection, which he afforded to pilgrims on their passage to the sacred cemetery.*

Llonio Lawhir ab Alan was a member of the college of Illtyd, and afterwards dean of the college of Padarn at Llanbadarn Fawr. He was also the founder of Llanddinam, Montgomery shire; and it is said that there was a church dedicated to him in Cardiganshire, which, if it be identified with the modern name “ Llanio,” must have been a chapel to Llanddewi Brefi.

Llynab ab Alan accompanied Cadfan to Britain, where, like his brothers, he became a member of the college of Illtyd. In his old age he retired to Bardsey. The statement, in Achau y Saint, that he was archbishop of Llandaff, is probably a mistake, as it is inconsistent with all other accounts of that see.

Myv. Archaiology, Vol. I. p. 360, and Cambrian Register, Vol. II.

Meilyr, and Maelerw, or rather Maelrys, sons of Gwyddno ab Emyr Llydaw, and cousins to Cadfan, were saints who settled in Wales; the latter of whom resided in the Isle of Bardsey, and is the patron of Llanfaelrys, a chapel under Aberdaron, Carnarvonshire. His commemoration is Jan. 1.

Sadwrn, a son of Bicanys of Armorica, called also Sadwrn Farchog, was the brother of St. Iltutus, and nephew of Emyr Llydaw. He accompanied Cadfan to Britain in his old age, and is presumed to have been the founder of Llansadwrn in Anglesey. The church of Llansadwrn in Carmarthenshire, formerly a chapel under Cynwyl Gaio, is called after his


Canna, a daughter of Tewdwr Mawr ab Emyr Llydaw, was the wife of Sadwrn, to whom she was related before marriage, but she appears to have been a generation younger. She accompanied her husband from Armorica; and is considered the founder of Llanganna, commonly called Llangan, Glamorganshire, and Llangan, Carmarthenshire. After the death of Sadwrn she married Gallgu Rieddog, by whom she became the mother of Elian Geimiad.

Crallo, the son of Sadwrn and Canna, probably came over to Britain at the same time with his parents. He was the founder of Llangrallo, otherwise Coychurch, Glamorganshire.

Besides the tribe of Emyr Llydaw, the children of Ithel Hael, another Armorican prince, are said to have joined in this migration, and taken upon them the profession of sanctity in Wales. Of these, Tanwg may be deemed the founder of Llandanwg, Merionethshire.

Gredifael and Fflewyn, sons of Ithel Hael, were appointed superintendents of the monastery of Paulinus at Tygwyn ar Dâf, Carmarthenshire. Gredifael, whose festival is Nov. 13,

* Llanbedr (St. Peter,) and Hurlech (St. Mary Magdalen,) chapels to Llandanwg.

may be considered the founder of Penmynydd, Anglesey ; and FAewyn is the saint of Llanfflewyn, a chapel subject to Llanrhyddlad in the same county.

Tecwyn ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandecwyn, Merionethshire. * Festival Sept. 14.

Trillo ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandrillo in Rhos, Denbighshire, and Llandrillo in Edeyrnion, Merionethshire. Festival June 16.

Tegai ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandegai, Carnarvonshire, which place it would appear was at one time called called Maes Llanglassawg.

Twrog ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandwrog, Carnarvonshire. He is also the patron saint of Maentwrog, a chapel subject to Ffestiniog, Merionethshire, and his festival has been held on the twenty sixth of June.

Baglan, a son of Ithel Ilael, has obtained the credit of sanctity; but as there was another saint of the same name, it is uncertain to which of them the patronage of the two chapels following should be ascribed ;-Llanfaglan under Llanwnda, Carnarvonshire, and Baglan subject to Aberafon, Glamorganshire.

Llechid, a daughter of Ithel Hael, was the foundress of Llanllechid, Carnarvonshire, and has been commemorated on the second of December.

Tyfodwg was one of the associates of Cadfan, but the pedigree assigned to him in the Cambrian Biography is inconsistent with chronology. He was the founder of Llandyfodwg, Glamorganshire, and one of the three founders of Llantrisaint in the same county. There is also a chapel under Llantrisaint, called Ystrad Tyfodwg.

* Chapel, Llanfihangel y Traethau (St. Michael.)

+ Rhychwyn is said in one MS. to have been a son of Ithel lael, apparently by mistake for one of the sons of Helig ab Glanog. Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. II.

Ilar, sometimes styled Ilar Bysgottwr, or “the Fisherman,'

" was the founder of Llanilar, Cardiganshire, and probably of other churches now thought to be dedicated to St. Hilary.

Ust and Dyfnig accompanied Cadfan to Britain, and were the joint-founders of Llanwrin, Montgomeryshire.*

Eithras, Llywan or Llywyn, and Durdan, were companions of Cadfan, of whose lives no particulars can be traced ; except that the last mentioned settled in Bardsey, and has been considered one of the presiding saints of the island.

The foregoing list is thought to comprise the entire number of holy persons who emigrated from Armorica in this generation, and it may be interesting to enquire how far the situations of their churches illustrate the history of their settlements. Before the close of the present period, another large emigration is reported to have been made by the children of Caw, who were obliged to leave their dominions in North Britain, and become saints in Wales under similar circumstances.

Caw was the lord of Cwm Cawlwyd or Cowllwg, a district in the North, but its particular situation is uncertain.t According to Achau y Saint, he was deprived of his territories by the Gwyddyl Ffichti, or as the general term may be interpreted, by the Picts and Scots; in consequence of which he and his numerous family retired to Wales. He settled at Twrcelyn in Anglesey, where lands were bestowed upon him by Maelgwn Gwynedd; and it is also said that lands were granted to some of his children by Arthur in Siluria. His name is enrolled in the catalogue of saints; and his children are, in one record, I styled the third holy family of Britain ; an honour, to which they are fairly entitled if the accounts of

* Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II.

+ A Life of Gildas, from the Monastery of Fleury in France, published by Johannes a Bosco, and quoted by Usher, says that Caunus (Caw) lived in Arecluta, or Strath Clyde.

Llyfr Bodeulwyn, Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 29.

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