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Bran ab Llyr, to whom the first place in the Triad is usually assigned, have been proved to be without foundation.

Hywel, the eldest son of Caw, was slain in a civil war by Arthur ;* an event which probably took place before the emigration of his brothers.

Ane ab Caw Cowllwg was a saint, and Coed Ane, a chapel under Llanelian, Anglesey, is called after his name.

Aneurin, a son of Caw, was engaged in the battle of Cattraeth, the disasters of which he deplored in a long poem, called “ Y Gododin,” still extant, and deemed to be a composition of great merit for the age in which it was written. Out of upwards of three hundred British chieftains who entered the field, only four, of whom the bard was one, escaped with their lives. He was afterwards taken prisoner, loaded with chains, and thrown into a dungeon, from which he was released by Ceneu a son of Llywarch Hên. Upon his deliverance he appears to have retreated to South Wales, where he became a saint of the congregation of Cattwg at Llancarfan, but nothing further is known of him under the name of Aneurin, except that his death was occasioned by the blow of an axe from the hand of an assassin. It has, however, been suggested by two eminent antiquaries,t to whose researches the present writer acknowledges himself greatly indebted, that Aneurin was no other person than the celebrated Gildas. The reasons alleged are:-“ Aneurin, as well as Gildas, is reckoned among the children of Caw in our old manuscripts; but both do not occur as such in the same lists; for in those where Aneurin is said to be the son of Caw, the other is omitted ; and on the contrary, where Gildas is inserted, the other is left out.”I-Besides which, the name Gildas is a Saxon translation of Aneurin, according to a practice not

Caradocus Lancarbanensis in Vitâ S. Gildæ.
+ Mr. Edward Williams (lolo Morganwg) and Dr. Owen Pughe.

1 Cambrian Biography.

uncommon with ecclesiastics in the middle ages; and even the various

ways in which the names are written—“Gilda, Gildas y Coed Aur, Aur y Coed Aur, and Aneurin y Coed Aur"-all of similar signification, confirm their identity. Cennydd, a son, and Ufelwyn, a grandson, of Gildas, are sometimes called the son and grandson of Aneurin.* So far, therefore, the point is clear; that the Welsh genealogists have always considered the names Gildas and Aneurin convertible. The monkish writers of the Life of Gildas also state that he was a native of North Britain, and the son of Cauet a king of that country. But here the agreement ends; for they mention nothing of the battle of Cattraeth, and instead of showing that their saint was originally a bard and a warrior, they assert that he embraced the sacred profession at an early age, and was employed in Ireland, preaching the Gospel, until he heard that his eldest brother had been slain by Arthur; upon which he came over to Britain, and was reconciled to the king, who had solicited his pardon. He then removed to Armorica, where, after a residence of ten years, he wrote his “ Epistle” arraigning the kings of Britain for their vices. Upon his return, he abode for some time at Llancarfan, and was requested by St. Cadocus to direct the studies of the school at that place for one year; which he undertook, and performed to the great advantage of the scholars, desiring no other reward than their prayers. After this the two saints withdrew to two small islands, not far distant, intending to spend their days in retirement. Gildas, however, was disturbed by pirates, and in consequence removed to Glastonbury, where he wrote his “ History of the Britons," and remained to the close of his life. Such is a brief summary of their narrative, divested of several fables and

* Compare Cennydd and Ufelwyn in the Cambrian Biography.

+ Cau, Capgrave; Caunus, Floriacensis; Nau, Caradocus Lancarbanensis.

# The supposition, that there were two persons called Gildas, the one surnamed Albanius, and the other Badonicus, is apparently a modern dis

inconsistencies, for these writers differ in several particulars with each other; and uncertain as the authority of the genealogists may sometimes appear, it is better supported by external evidence than that of the monks, who have framed their account to suit the life of the author of the reputed works of Gildas; which, though ancient, * are not likely to have been written by Aneurin, or indeed by any one of British race. Their spirit is anti-national, and their design is obviously to depreciate the Britons. It is not improbable that they were intended to pass for the productions of the bard, for they contain no invective against the princes of the North ; but while Aneurin laments that the confederated chiefs should have entered the field in a state of intoxication, which he seems to regard more as a misfortune than a crime, he dwells upon the praises of his heroes, and treats his countrymen throughout with a friendly feeling.

Caffo ab Caw, a saint, and the patron of Llangaffo, a chapel under Llangeinwen, Anglesey.

Ceidio ab Caw; Rhodwydd Geidio, subject to Llantrisaint, Anglesey, and Ceidio, Carnarvonshire, are dedicated to him.

Aeddan Foeddog, a son of Caw. With respect to the name, Archbishop Usher observes :-Ædanus, the bishop, is called by the Irish “Moedhog and Mædog,” and by Giraldus Cambrensis “Maidocus.”—John of Teignmouth says:This holy person is named “ Aidanus” in the Life of St. David, but in his own Life" Aidus;" and at Menevia, in the church of St. David, he is called “Moedok," which is an Irish name, and his festival is observed with great veneration at that place.-All the legends agree that Aeddan was a disciple of

tinction, for the older biographers attribute both titles to the same individual.

* They were extant as early as the time of Bede, who quotes them as if they were authentic.

St. David at Menevia, from whence he passed over into Ireland, and was appointed the first bishop of Ferns. It was doubtless a reference to this circumstance that induced the clergy of Menevia, in a later age, to assert that the bishoprick of Ferns was once subject to the archbishoprick of St. David's, a proposition which Usher is not willing to admit. Giraldus tells a marvellous story of the manner in which St. Aeddan carried over a swarm of bees to Ireland ; for such creatures were never seen in that country before, and have never been seen at Menevia since!! Traces of his memory are still retained in Pembrokeshire, as he is the reputed founder of Llanhuadain or Llawhaden in that county, and the churches of Nolton and West-Haroldston are ascribed to him under the name of Madog. His festival is Jan. 31.

Cwyllog, a daughter of Caw, was the wife of Medrawd or Mordred, the nephew of Arthur; and is thought to have founded the church of Llangwyllog, Anglesey.

Dirynig, one of the sons of Caw; to whom it is said there was a church dedicated at York.

Cain, daughter of Caw; a saint, and the patroness of Llangain, Carmarthenshire.

Eigrad, one of sons of Caw; a member of the society of Illtyd, and the founder of Llaneigrad, Anglesey.

Samson, a son of Caw, was a saint of the college of Illtyd, and had a church at Caerefrog or York,—This person has been magnified by certain legendary writers into an archbishop of York; and they relate that when the Saxons took the city, and destroyed its cathedral, the prelate saved himself by flight; and carrying with him the ensigns of his dignity to Armorica, he was, by virtue of their possession, constituted archbishop of Dole in that country, a see which he continued to hold until his death, when he was succeeded by another Samson, who had arrived in the same country from Wales. The history of the two persons is frequently confounded; but if the circumstances related of the archbishoprick of the elder

Samson were true, it is remarkable that the Welsh authorities should have omitted to mention them; for without allusion to his station, they merely imply that he retired from the advance of the Saxons, and that, like several of his brothers, he passed the latter part of his life in the college of Illtyd. There was, however, another Samson at that college about the same time, the son of Amwn Ddu, who is recorded in Achau y Saint to have passed over into Armorica, and to have been elected bishop of Dole. His history, which is better attested than that of his namesake, is reserved to the next generation. But the question of the dignity, as well as the identity, of the elder Samson derives importance from its having been the subject of an appeal to Rome, grounded on the assertion that he had carried a pall into the country of his exile ; in consideration of which, it was alleged, palls were likewise granted to his successors at Dole, who exercised archiepiscopal authority until their privileges ceased through the intervention of the archbishop of Tours.* In the twelfth century, the clergy of St. David's maintained, that the pall, which was taken to Armorica, belonged to their church, and that it was carried over, not by an archbishop of York, but by Samson, the the twenty-fifth archbishop of Menevia; they, therefore, appealed to the Pope for the restoration of the dignity, and claimed to be independent of the jurisdiction of Canterbury. Their cause was advocated with all the learning and ability of Giraldus Cambrensis, who made three several journeys to Rome in its behalf; but after a long hearing, the prerogatives of Canterbury were confirmed; the evidence, adduced upon the occasion, not being sufficient to prove, that a pall had been sent from Rome to Menevia, or to any bishop in Britain before the mission of St. Augustin.

*** Contigit ut ob Pallii gratiam quod Samson illuc attulerat, succedentes ibi Episcopi usque ad nostra hæc fere tempora (quibus prævalente Turonorum Archipræsule, adventitia dignitas evanuit) pallia semper obtinuerunt.”—Giraldus in Dialogo de Ecclesia Menevensi.

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