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temporary, called Ffinan, whose Welsh name, according to Usher, was Winnin. It is uncertain to which of them, Llanfinan, subject to Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog, Anglesey, is dedicated.

Senanus, an Irish saint and bishop, who was intimately acquainted with St. David, died A. D. 544. Llansannan, Denbighshire, and Bedwellty, Monmouthshire, are under his tutelage; and his festival is March 1.*

In ascertaining and verifying the commemorations or saints' days, great assistance may be derived from the list of fairs now held in the Principality; it being an opinion generally received among antiquaries that parochial wakes were the means of assembling people, who afterwards converted the occasion into an opportunity of buying and selling. Many of the village fairs in Wales are held on the saint's day Old Style, or rather eleven days later than the proper time according to the Gregorian Calendar ; for the Welsh peasantry have seldom taken into account, that since the year 1800 the discrepancy between the Old and New Styles has increased to twelve days. Thus it may be learned from a list of saints printed in the Cambrian Register,t and also from the Alphabetical Calendar of Sir Harris Nicolas, I that the festival of St. Gwenog should be held on the third of January; eleven days being added to that date will point out to Jan. 14, the day upon which, according to the Welsh almanacks, a fair is held at Llanwenog in the county of Cardigan. By inverting the computation, a satisfactory method is obtained of deciding between contradictory statements; for instance the list in the Cambrian Register states that the festival of St. Tyssul was kept on the third of February, while according to Sir H. Ni

*"Eodem tempore quo David Menevensis præsul, cui conjunctissimus vixit, lucis hanc usuram reddidisse traditur."-Usher, p. 874.

+ Vol. III. p. 219.
[ Inserted in his Chronology of History.

colas's authorities it was held Jan. 31. A fair, however, is held at Llandyssul, Cardiganshire, Feb. 11; and eleven days, reckoned backwards from that time, will bring the calculation to Jan. 31, proving the last of the two statements to be the correct one. Sir H. Nicolas assigns the festival of St. Caron to March the fourth or fifth, as if his authorities were doubtful as to the precise time; but eleven days, counted backwards from a fair at Tregaron on the sixteenth of March, will show that the commemoration of the saint ought to be kept March 5. The other day, March 4, was fixed apparently by some person, who followed the inverted mode of computation, but reckoned twelve days from the fair. In some villages it has been the custom to hold the fair on the vigil, or eve, before the festival; which is easily ascertained, as in that case the diference of reckoning is only ten days. The saints of Llangynidr, Brecknockshire, are Cynidr and St. Mary ; one of its fairs is kept on the fourth of April, or ten days after the twenty fifth of March, the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. In like manner St. Mary is the patron saint of Nefyn, Carnarvonshire, and three of its fairs are held, according to Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary, on the fourth of April, the twenty fifth of August, and the eighteenth of September, being ten days respectively after the feasts of her Annunciation, Assumption, and Nativity.*

In the large families, included in the period of this generation, there must be great disparity of age, and the lives of many of the persons named may be found to extend through the period assigned for the next generation.

* The festivals in this Essay are given principally according to Sir H. Nicolas, but they have not been compared with the fairs in every instance.


The Welsh Saints from the Accession of Cystennyn Goronog A. D. 512

to the Death of Maelgwn Gwynedd A. D. 566.

This period includes the reigns of Cystennyn, Cynan Wledig, Gwrthefyr or Vortimer the Second, and Maelgwn; who are popularly styled kings of Britain, though it would appear from the writings ascribed to Gildas, that three, at least, of them were contemporary princes, reigning at the same time in separate provinces,* which is more consistent with the view of affairs presented by the bards and genealogists.

The second bishop of Llanbadarn was Cynog, who was raised, upon the death of St. David, to the archbishoprick of Menevia. He appears, however, to have presided but a short time at both places, as no particulars of his life have been recorded, and his parentage, churches, and festival, are alike unknown. The short duration of his presidency at Menevia is shown by the fact that he was in turn succeeded by Teilo, who had been the associate and fellow-student of his predecessor.

Teilo,t the second bishop of Llandaff, was the son of Enlleu ab Hydwn Dwn ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, by Tegfedd, daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn. His Latin name was Teliaus, and, by a sort of monkish trifling with the sound of

* Namely; Constantinus, the tyrant, as he is called, of the Damnonii, or people of Devon and Cornwall; Vortiporius, the tyrant of the Dimetæ, or inhabitants of the western part of South Wales; and Maglocupus, the tyrant of North Wales.

+“Nai, fab Cefnder i Ddewi.”—Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 53.

of the word, he was also called Hios and Eliud.* He was born at a place once called “Eccluis Gunnian,” or “Gunniau," in the neighbourhood of Tenby, Pembrokeshire. It is said that he studied first under Dubricius, by whose assistance he attained to great proficiency in the knowledge of the Scriptures; his next instructor was Paulinus, under whom he pursued the same study, and in whose school he was the associate of St. David. Under the patronage of Dubricius, he opened a college at Llandaff, which was called Bangor Deilo; and his settlement at that place may serve to account for his appointment to fill the see of Llandaff upon the retirement of his patron to the Isle of Bardsey. The idea that he was made bishop of Llandaff at the time Dubricius was raised to the archbishoprick of Caerleon is irreconcilable with chronology; and the assertion that he succeeded Dubricius as archbishop, without the intervention of St. David,t is contrary to all received history, unless it be supposed that Llandaff was an archbishoprick independent of Caerleon, a position which is certainly untenable. The original diocese governed by Teilo, as ascertained by the absence of churches founded by St. David, was coextensive with the ancient Lordship of Glamorgan, containing the present rural deaneries of Groneath, Llandaff, and Newport. How long he continued to preside over this limited district is uncertain; but in the reign of Maelgwn Gwynedd, a plague, called “ Flava pestis,” and in Welsh “Y Fall felen,” is recorded to have desolated the Principality.

*" Post incrementum ætatis, virtutum et sapientiæ, congruo nomine Helios a sapientibus nuncupatus est. Elios autem Græcè Latinè Sol interpretatur. Fulget enim ut Sol ejus doctrina, fidelium illustrando corda. Sed illiteratis hominibus extremum vocabuli corrupté proferentibus, adolevit quod non Helios sed Heliud appellatus est.”—Life by Galfridus."Non Elios sed Eliud.”—John of Teignmouth.

+ The assertion was made in the Regestum Landavense, at a time when the clergy of Llandaff wished to show that their diocese had never been subordinate to the primacy of Menevia.

Upon this occasion, Trilo, with several others, retired to Cornwall, and afterwards to Armorica, where he was honourably received by Samson, the bishop of Dole. After he had remained seven years and as many months in Armorica, he returned, with several of his disciples, to his native country; and upon his arrival was elected to the archbishoprick of Menevia, then vacant by the death of Cynog. Like Si. David, however, he retained a predilection for the seat of his original bishoprick, and, appointing Ismael to the situation of bishop of Jenevia, he removed the archbishoprick to Llandaff.* In order to maintain his title to the primacy undisturbed, he appears to have kept under his immediate government the whole of the diocese held before by St. David, with the exception of the part north of the river Tivy, which was henceforth attached to the diocese of Llanbadarn. In support of this view it may be explained that churches founded by Teilo still exist throughout the whole of the country specified, and that one of them, Llandeloi, is situated within a few miles of the cathedral of St. David's; but north of the Tivy, no church of this description is to be found. The proof, however, does not rest solely upon the analogy of existing monuments; for the records of Llandaff show that its bishops continued for several centuries to claim the whole of the country from the mouth of the Taradr, or extreme point of Monmouthshire, to the mouth of the Tivy, including, of course, Pembrokeshire and so much of Herefordshire as lay to the west of the river Wye. It does not appear that any separate district was apportioned as a diocese for Ismael, who must have been no more than an assisting suffragan, and his name is not inserted

* Regestum Landavense; Life by Galfridus; and Usher pp. 83, 517, 559, 560. + The extension of the diocese of Llanbadarn confirms the supposition

its bishop at this me was Afan, the brother of Teilo. # There is abundant evidence of this in the formulæ of the Councils of Llandaff, which are inserted at length in Spelman's Concilia.

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