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Samson, Archbishop of York
Archiepiscopal Pall claimed by the Bishops of St. David's 229
Maelog ab Caw
Family of Geraint ab Erbin
Families of Gwynllyw Filwr, and Ynyr Gwent
Inundation of Cantref y Gwaelod
Romance of Taliesin
Legend of St. Justinian
Festivals of Saints represented by modern Fairs and Wakes 240
The Welsh SAINTS FROM THE ACCESSION OP CYSTENNYN GORONOG
A. D. 542 TO TILE DEATH OF MAELGWN GWYNEDD A. D. 566.
Cynog, Bishop of Llanbadarn and Archbishop of Menevia 242
Refusal of the Britons to submit to the Pope
293 Legend of Gwenfrewi or St. Winefred
The DEATH OF CADWALADR A. D. 664.
300 Cadwaladr esteemed a Saint
306 Curig Lwyd
APPENDIX, No. I.-Saints of Britain from Cressy's “ Church History
of Brittany” APPENDIX, No. II.-Anglo-Saxon Saints to whom Churches have
been dedicated in Wales APPENDIX, No. III.-A List of Churches and Chapels in Wales, in
cluding the County of Monmouth and part of the County of
The comparative Antiquity of the Foundation of Churches and Chapels
in Wales ascertained from the nature of their Endowments.
ACCORDING to popular opinion, many of the churches in Wales were founded by certain holy persons or Saints whose names they retain, as if Llangadog and Llandeilo,* or the Churches of Cadog and Teilo, were not so called in consequence of any formal dedication, but named after their founders, who are alleged to have lived in the fifth and sixth centuries. Lest however it should be urged that the Welsh Records and Traditions, which support this opinion of their high antiquity, are of insufficient authority, it may be proved that churches of the class alluded to are necessarily, from the nature of their endowments, the most ancientt in the Principality, if indeed they were not founded in the early age to which they are attributed.
In the absence of positive evidence to the fact, it will readily be granted that the Welsh churches were at first few, and that they were afterwards multiplied to serve the occasions that required them. How soon certain districts were apportioned for their maintenance, cannot well be determined. It is, however, probable that the districts first appropriated were extensive; but when once they were attached to particular churches, the sacred
* Usually written“ Llangadock” and “Llandilo," but the Welsh mode of spelling is here preferred, in order to render the meaning of the names more obvious.
+ These obse ations apply to churches as regards their original establishment, the antiquity of the edifices which now exist, being more of an architectural question, does not belong to the purpose of this Essay.
of ecclesiastical property would tend to preserve their limits inviolate. If therefore any such extensive appropriations can be discovered, it may be presumed that the churches to which they belong are those of the earliest date. An example may be taken from the northern part of Radnorshire, where the churches of Nantmel, Llangynllo, and Llanbister are ascribed or dedicated to Cynllo. This tract of country was probably the scene of his ministry, or it will be sufficient if it be allowed that he possessed some influence over it. Whenever tithes would be assigned for the support of the clergy, this tract would be divided into three districts, which should maintain the ministers of the three churches mentioned. It would afterwards be found that these churches were insufficient for the accommodation of districts so extensive. Chapels of Ease were therefore built in the more remote parts ; and whenever the minister of the mother church found it inconvenient to attend in person, he would appoint Curates, to whom he allowed a certain stipend out of his own income ; for he still maintained his right to the tithes of the whole district as before. In process of time the district would be subdivided, and certain parts assigned to the Curacies, which would thus become Parochial Chapelries; and though the Curacy might become Perpetual, the minister still retained the right of nomination. He also maintained his right, though perhaps little more than nominal, to the tithes of the several parts which would together constitute so many parishes according to their modern arrangement,
At this day the district of Nantmel, in the county of Radnor, includes the several parishes of Nantmel, Llanfihangel-Helygen, Llanyre, and Rhayader. Nantmel is a Vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's; Llanfihangel and Rhayader are Perpetual Curacies in the gift of the Vicar of Nantmel, and the Curacy or Chapelry of