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227

Samson, Archbishop of York

228

Archiepiscopal Pall claimed by the Bishops of St. David's 229

Maelog ab Caw

230

Family of Geraint ab Erbin

232

Families of Gwynllyw Filwr, and Ynyr Gwent

233

Inundation of Cantref y Gwaelod

234

Romance of Taliesin

236

Legend of St. Justinian

238

Festivals of Saints represented by modern Fairs and Wakes 240

SECTION XI.

The Welsh SAINTS FROM THE ACCESSION OP CYSTENNYN GORONOG

A. D. 542 TO TILE DEATH OF MAELGWN GWYNEDD A. D. 566.

Cynog, Bishop of Llanbadarn and Archbishop of Menevia 242

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Teilo, Bishop of Llandaff .

242

He retires to Armorica

243

He returns and is appointed Archbishop of Menevia 244

The Archbishoprick removed to Llandaff

244

Diocese of St. Teilo

244

List of his Churches

245

Grant to the Church of Llandaff by Rhydderch ab lestin 246

Death of St. Teilo

250

Ismael, Tyfei, and Oudoceus

251

Samson, Bishop of Dole in Armorica

252

Disputes between the Bishops of Dole and Tours

255

Welsh Saints in Armorica

256

Gwynno or Gwynnog ab Gildas

257

Daniel or Deiniol, the First Bishop of Bangor

258

Consecrated probably by St. David

259

Cyndeyrn or St. Kentigern, the First Bishop of Glasgow 261

He retires to Wales, and founds the Bishoprick of St.Asaph 262

His alleged Correspondence with the Pope

262

Consecration of British Bishops not deemed valid by the

Romanists.

264

Cybi

266

Beuno

268

Ancient Welsh Bards

271

Did the Primitive Christians of Wales possess a Trans-

lation of the Scriptures ?

272

SECTION XII.

The Welsh SAINTS FROM The DeaTH OF MAELGWN GWYNEDD A. D. 566

TO THE CLOSE OF THE SIXTU CENTURY.

Advance of the Saxons

273

St, Oudoceus, Bishop of Llandaff

274

Tyssilio, Bishop of St. Asaph

277

Not the Author of the Chronicle of the Kings of Britain 277

His Churches

278

St. Columba, Founder of the Monastery of Iona

281

Landing of St. Augustin

281

SECTION XIII.

The Welsh SAINTS FROM A. D. 600 To The DEATH OF CADWALLON AB

CADFAN A. D. 631.

View of National Affairs

283

Bede's Account of the Conference between St. Augustin

and the Monks of Bangor Iscoed

284

Observations upon Bede's Account

288

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B

.

Refusal of the Britons to submit to the Pope

288
Alleged Reply of Dunawd to St. Augustin

289
Silence of Bede respecting an Archbishoprick in Wales. 291
Commissions received by St. Augustin from Pope Gregory 291
Seven Bishops of the British Church at this time

292
Massacre of the Monks of Bangor by Ethelfrith

293 Legend of Gwenfrewi or St. Winefred

295

SECTION XIV.
The Welsh SAINTS FROM The Death Op CadwALLON A. D. 634 TO

The DEATH OF CADWALADR A. D. 664.
Reign of Cadwaladr

299
Confounded with Ceadwalla, King of Wessex

300 Cadwaladr esteemed a Saint

301 Peris

302 Edwen

303

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SECTION XV.
The Welsh SAINTS FROM THE Death of CADWALADR A. D. 664 to the End
Of The Seventh CENTURY, INCLUDING THOSE OF UNCERTAIN date.
Little known of the history of this Generation

304
Degeman or St. Decumanus

305
Saints after the Conformity of the Welsh to the Church
of Rome

305
Welsh Saints of uncertain date

306 Curig Lwyd

307
Objection respecting the number of Saints

309
Epistle of St. Aldhelm to Geruntius respecting the Ton-
sure and Paschal Cycle

311
The Britons at this time not under Papal Jurisdiction 312
Concluding Observations

313

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315

APPENDIX, No. I.-Saints of Britain from Cressy's “ Church History

of Brittany” APPENDIX, No. II.-Anglo-Saxon Saints to whom Churches have

been dedicated in Wales APPENDIX, No. III.-A List of Churches and Chapels in Wales, in

322

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cluding the County of Monmouth and part of the County of

Hereford INDEX

323 353

SECTION I.

The comparative Antiquity of the Foundation of Churches and Chapels

in Wales ascertained from the nature of their Endowments.

ACCORDING to popular opinion, many of the churches in Wales were founded by certain holy persons or Saints whose names they retain, as if Llangadog and Llandeilo,* or the Churches of Cadog and Teilo, were not so called in consequence of any formal dedication, but named after their founders, who are alleged to have lived in the fifth and sixth centuries. Lest however it should be urged that the Welsh Records and Traditions, which support this opinion of their high antiquity, are of insufficient authority, it may be proved that churches of the class alluded to are necessarily, from the nature of their endowments, the most ancientt in the Principality, if indeed they were not founded in the early age to which they are attributed.

In the absence of positive evidence to the fact, it will readily be granted that the Welsh churches were at first few, and that they were afterwards multiplied to serve the occasions that required them. How soon certain districts were apportioned for their maintenance, cannot well be determined. It is, however, probable that the districts first appropriated were extensive; but when once they were attached to particular churches, the sacred

* Usually written“ Llangadock” and “Llandilo," but the Welsh mode of spelling is here preferred, in order to render the meaning of the names more obvious.

+ These obse ations apply to churches as regards their original establishment, the antiquity of the edifices which now exist, being more of an architectural question, does not belong to the purpose of this Essay.

of ecclesiastical property would tend to preserve their limits inviolate. If therefore any such extensive appropriations can be discovered, it may be presumed that the churches to which they belong are those of the earliest date. An example may be taken from the northern part of Radnorshire, where the churches of Nantmel, Llangynllo, and Llanbister are ascribed or dedicated to Cynllo. This tract of country was probably the scene of his ministry, or it will be sufficient if it be allowed that he possessed some influence over it. Whenever tithes would be assigned for the support of the clergy, this tract would be divided into three districts, which should maintain the ministers of the three churches mentioned. It would afterwards be found that these churches were insufficient for the accommodation of districts so extensive. Chapels of Ease were therefore built in the more remote parts ; and whenever the minister of the mother church found it inconvenient to attend in person, he would appoint Curates, to whom he allowed a certain stipend out of his own income ; for he still maintained his right to the tithes of the whole district as before. In process of time the district would be subdivided, and certain parts assigned to the Curacies, which would thus become Parochial Chapelries; and though the Curacy might become Perpetual, the minister still retained the right of nomination. He also maintained his right, though perhaps little more than nominal, to the tithes of the several parts which would together constitute so many parishes according to their modern arrangement,

At this day the district of Nantmel, in the county of Radnor, includes the several parishes of Nantmel, Llanfihangel-Helygen, Llanyre, and Rhayader. Nantmel is a Vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's; Llanfihangel and Rhayader are Perpetual Curacies in the gift of the Vicar of Nantmel, and the Curacy or Chapelry of

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