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list in the My vyrian Archaiology of Wales, which, allowance being made for the intermixture of two generations, appears to give the names most correctly. It is supported by a greater number of authorities than the list to which the Historian of Brecknockshire has given a preference, and the names included are consonant with the names churches now existing. But in this part of the subject it is impossible to proceed with the satisfaction that can be wished; all the lists of this family are evidently so corrupt that the result of a comparison of them can be only a distant approach to the truth, and a great number of cases must be left undecided.

1. Cynawg or Cynog, according to all the lists, the eldest son of Brychan, by Banhadlwedd the daughter of Banhadle of Banhadla in Powys. “ Soon after his birth he was put under the care of a holy man named Gastayn, by whom he was baptized."* Cressy says—"the fame of his sanctity was most eminent among the Silures; his name is consigned among our English Martyrology on the eleventh of February,t where he flourished in all virtues about the year of Christ 492.”—The latter part of the sentence is ambiguously expressed, but the year mentioned may be taken for the date of his death, which is more agreeable to the chronology of the family than that he should have flourished in the prime of life at that time. The Truman MS states that he was murdered

* Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. Chap. III. and Cognacio Brychan.

+ Sir Harris Nicolas, in his Chronology of History, gives Oct. 7 as the festival of St. Cynog; which would seem to be correct, as the wake of that Saint was formerly held in the month of October in the parish of Defynog, Brecknockshire. According to Edwards's Cathedral of St. Asaph, the wake of Llangynog, Montgomeryshire, should be held Oct. 8, the difference between which and the authority of Sir H. Nicolas arises only from an error of computation, where Edwards should have deducted a day from the reckoning at the commencement of the present century.

| Cited in Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. Chap. III.

by the Pagan Saxons, upon a mountain called the Van, in the parish of Merthyr Cynog in Brecknockshire; and if


it may be concluded that the church of Merthyr was erected as a martyrium to his memory, and built over his grave.* But it does not appear how the Saxons could have penetrated so far westward at so early a date,t unless it be supposed that in their piratical excursions they occasionally landed upon the coast of Wales, and the MS. just quoted mentions an instance in which they joined arms with the Gwyddyl Ffichti.

To Cynog are to be attributed the churches of Defynog, Ystrad Gynlais, and Penderin, in Brecknockshire, forming with their parishes and chapelries three extensive and continuous endowments of the first class. To Defynog the following chapels are subject-Capel Illtyd, (St. Iltutus;) Llanulid, (St. Julitta ;) Capel Callwen, (St. Callwen ;) and Ystrad Fellte, (St. Mary.) Ystrad Gynlais has but one chapel, Capel Coelbren. Penderin stands alone. The parish of Merthyr Cynog, which, like that of Defynog, is of sufficient importance to give name to the Hundred in which it lies, formerly included the church of Llanfihangel Nant Bran, (St. Michael,|l) as well as the chapelry of Dyffryn Honddu. Battel chapel, now independent, and Llangynog subject to Llanganten, (St. Cannen,) are also dedicated to Cynog ;ş and it


* This inference from a general custom, explained in page 62 of this Essay, is confirmed by Cognacio Brychan, which says—“Sepulchrum Cynawc in Merthyr Cynawc in Brechenawc.”—The words of Bonedd y Saint are to the same purpose-“Kynawc ap Brychan, Merthyr, ac ym Merthyr Cynawc ym Mrecheiniog y mae'n Gorwedd.”

+ Hengist is usually believed to have carried devastation into the remotest corners of the island, but Mr. Sharon Turner has well observed that all his battles, particularized by the Saxon authorities, were fought in Kent.

# In one list of Saints, Callwen is said to have been a daughter of Brychan, and was therefore a sister of Cynog.

|| Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. page 193.
§ There are reason for supposing that Llangunog, a chapel in Carmar-

may be observed that all these religious edifices are situated in the territory of his father Brychan, a circumstance sufficient to account for his influence as a founder. Llangynog in the county of Montgomery is also attributed to him.

2. Clydwyn, the second, or as others will have it, the third son of Brychan, embraced a military life, and it is said that he conquered South Wales ;* but this assertion must be taken with great limitation, as it would seem to contradict the traditional accounts of Glamorganshire, Cardiganshire, and Radnorshire, where the native princes of this generation are known to have maintained possession. It may, therefore, be understood to mean that he established his dominion over the Gwyddyl Ffichti, who still remained in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire; and, to confirm the explanation, it may be shown that the churches dedicated to his family are more numerous in that district than in any other, and one church, Llanglydwyn, upon the confines of the two counties included, bears the name of the warrior himself. According to Mr. Theophilus Jones, he succeeded his father in the government of the western and more mountainous parts of Brecknockshire. His commemoration or festival is Nov. 1.

3. Dingad, son of Brychan, the founder of a church in Carmarthenshire called Llandingad, and of another called Llaningad or Dingatstowet in Monmouthshire, where it is said he was buried. “He was of the congregation of Cattwg, # but like

many others he must have entered that society in his

He is not to be confounded with another Saint, called Dingad ab Nudd Hael. The commemoration of Dingad ab Brychan is Nov. 1; and the chapels subject to Llan

old age.

thenshire, is dedicated to another Cynog, who succeeded St. David as Archbishop of Menevia.

* Cognacio, and Bonedd y Saint.
+ Generally written Dingestow or Dynstow.
| Cambrian Biography.

dingad are Llanfair ar y Bryn (St. Mary,) Capel Peulin (St. Paulinus,) Capel Cynfab (St. Cynfab,) and Eglwys Newydd, the last two of which have been come time in ruins. Dingatstowe has one chapel, Tregaer (St. Mary.)

4. Arthen, the fourth son, is stated in Bonedd y Saint to have been buried in the Isle of Man ;* and according to the Truman MS. there was a church dedicated to him in Gwynllwg, Monmouthshire, which was demolished by the Saxons. The Cognacio says he was the father of Cynon who lived near Llynsafaddan, or Llangorse Pool, Brecknockshire.

5. Cyflefyr;-as the Cognacio and the MS. of Llewelyn Offeiriadt state that he was the son of Dingad and grandson of Brychan, he may, upon their authority, be considered as such, and restored to his proper generation, The Cognacio intimates that he suffered martyrdom at a place since called Merthyr Cyflefyr, and the Truman MS. says that he was murdered by the Saxons in Cardiganshire ;I but it does not appear where Merthyr Cyflefyr is situated, as no place is known by that name in the county which the two authorities taken together would indicate.||

6. Rhain, surnamed Dremrudd, was the only son of Brychad, who, besides Clydwyn, embraced a military life. He succeeded to the eastern part of his father's possessions, which he transmitted to his descendants; and according to the Cognacio, as explained by Mr. Theophilus Jones,* he was buried at Llandefaelog Fach near Brecon. The catalogue in the Archaiology of Wales, which says he was a saint in Lincolnshire, is therefore mistaken, the solitary instance of connexion with so distant a county being of itself improbable ; and when it is stated by the same authority that he had a church in the Isle of Man, he appears to be confounded with one of his brothers, named Rhwfan or Rhawin.

* Qu. Mona, Anglesey ?
+ In the archives of Jesus College, Oxford.
† Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. p. 59.

|| There is, or was lately, a stone in the parish of Crickhowel, Brecknockshire, with an inscription, part of which a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1768 conjectured to be-VERI TR FILIUS DUNOCATI, and if this reading were correct, it might point out the burying-place of Cyflefyr the son of Dingad; but the Historian of Brecknockshire says those letters inay be “any thing the antiquary supposes or wishes them to be,” and another part of the inscription, more legible, shows that the stone was erected over the grave of Turpilius.-Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. 433, and Plate VI. Fig. 4.

7. Dyfnan son of Brychan, was the founder of Llanddyfnan in Anglesey, where he was buried.f Its chapels are Llanbedr Goch (St. Peter,) Pentraeth (St. Mary,) and Llanfair ym Mathafarn Eithaf (St. Mary.) The festival of St. Dyfnan is April 23.

8. Gerwyn, or as others Berwyn, son of Brychan, a saint who settled in Cornwall. Mr. Owen, from Achau y Saint, says he was slain in the isle of Gerwyn; but as it is also recorded that there was another Gerwyn, the son of Brynach Wyddel, by Corth one of the daughters of Brychan, it may be concluded that they were the same person, and that the latter account is the true one, thus adding one more to the list of grandchildren. Gerwyn, the son of Brynach Wyddel, is said to have had three sisters—Mwynen, Gwennan, and Gwenlliw, who in one MS. are all called daughters of Brychan,& affording another instance of the confusion of two generations, though their names do not appear in the list of children in the Myvyrian Archaiology.

9. Cadog, the son of Brychan, is said to have been buried in France, which identifies him with Rheidiog in the Cognacio and Llewelyn Offeiriad. He is not to be confounded with Cattwg the abbot of Llancarfan, who was a descendant of

* History of Brecknockshire, Vol. I. p. 61, and Vol. II. p.

174. † Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 39. | Compare “Mwynen” in the Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 40. with the

Gerwyn” in the Cambrian Biography.

two names

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