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Brychan in the second, if not in the third, degree. The distinction did not escape Cressy, who falls into a great part of the confusion, though he warns his reader against it. According to this author, he died A. D. 490, and is commemorated in the Calendar Jan, 24. The churches founded by him are—Llanspyddyd, Brecknockshire, subject to which is the chapel of Bettws or Penpont; and Llangadog Fawr, Carmarthenshire, under which are Llanddeusant (St. Simon and St. Jude,) Capel Gwynfai, and Capel Tydyst now in ruins. There was formerly a chapel in the parish of Kidwelly dedicated to Cadog, and perhaps one or two churches, which have been confounded with those attributed to Cattwg, ought to be added to the number.

10. Mathaiarn was a saint in Cardiganshire, or, according to the Cognacio and Llewelyn Offeiriad, in Cyfeiliog, Montgomeryshire, where there is a place still called Mathafarn. In the list of Llewelyn this saint is called Marchai.

11, Pasgen, Neffai, and Pabiali, according to Bonedd y Saint, were all of them sons of Brychan by a Spanish woman, and they went to Spain, where they became saints and legislators; but as the distance of Spain renders this story unlikely, those authorities are more probable which say that Pasgen was the son of Dingad, and therefore a grandson of Brychan.*

12. Neffai is not mentioned in the Cognacio and Llewelyn's MS. unless he be the same as Dedyn or Neubedd, the son of Clydwyn.

* It has been suggested that a stone, which formerly existed in the church-yard of Tywyn, Merionethshire, having on it the letters PAS. CINT without any further explanation, was a monument to the memory of the son of Dingad ; and though the circumstance of other persons, pamed Pasgen, occurring in Welsh history, may so far render the fact uncertain, the coincidence that Gwenddydd, a daughter of Brychan, is recorded as one of the Saints of the place, seems to offer a strong con. firmation of the supposition.

13. Pabiali is called Papai by the Cognacio and Llewelyn. He is described as the son of Brychan, and it is added that the Irish call him Pianno, Pivannus, and Piapponus.

14. Llecheu lived at Tregaian in Anglesey, or, as others, at Llanllecheu, in Ewyas, Herefordshire.*

15. Cynbryd was the founder of Llanddulas, Denbighshire, and was slain by the Saxons at a place called Bwlch Cynbryd. His commemoration is March 19.

16. Cynfran, the founder of Llysfaen in Rhos, Denbighshire, where, according to Edward Llwyd, there is a well called Ffynnon Gynfran, at which offerings used to be made to the saint to procure his blessing upon cattle.

17. Hychan, the saint of Llanhychan in the vale of Clwyd. No further particulars are known of him ; but as neither this, nor the three saints preceding, are to be found in the lists of the Cognacio and Llewelyn Offeiriad, it may be suspected they were grandsons of the Brecknockshire chieftain. The festival of Hychan is Aug. 8.

18. Dyfrig; the Truman MS. says, with the appearance of correctness, that he was Dubricius, the Archbishop of Llandaff, and the time, in which the latter flourished, agrees with the probable date of the grandchildren of Brychan; but the particulars of his life must be reserved for the next generation. Another authority,t which says he was a saint in Cardiganshire, appears to have mistaken him for the saint of Llandyfrïog in that county, who was the son of Dingad ab Nudd Hael.

19. Cynin, according to the Cognacio, was the son of Tudwal Befr by a daughter of Brychan. He was the founder of Llangynin near St. Clears, Carmarthenshire. Achau



* Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. p. 59. +Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 39.

| Llangypin is now a chapel subject to St. Clears, but as the latter is of Norman dedication, the chapel and church have probably changed their relationship.

says moreover that he was a bishop; and as the church, which he founded, has been called Llangynin a'i Weision neu a'i Feibion,* the additional designation of “his servants or his sons” may mean the clergy in attendance


him. 20. Dogfan, according to the Silurian MSS. was slain by the pagan Saxons at Merthyr Dogfan in Dyfed, or Pembrokeshire, where a church was consecrated to his memory, the particular situation of which is at present unknown. He is also the patron saint or founder of Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant, Denbighshire, to which are subject-Llanarmon Mynydd Mawr (St. Germanus,) Llangedwyn (St. Cedwyn,) Llanwddin (St. Gwddin,) and Llangadwaladr (St. Cadwaladr.) His commemoration is July 13.

21. Rhawin, a son of Brychan, whom Llewelyn Offeiriad calls Rhwfan, and states that he settled in the Isle of Man, where there was a church dedicated to him ; but the Silurian MSS. record that he, and one of his brothers named Rhun, were slain on a bridge called Penrhun at Merthyr Tydfyl, while defending it against the Saxons; which, if both accounts were true, would imply that he had returned from the Isle of Man, and that persons, who have obtained the honours of sanctity in Wales, occasionally took up arms in defence of their country.

22. Rhun, a son of Brychan, of whom the Cognacio records that he was a saint near Mara, or Llangorse Pool, Brecknockshire, and the Silurian MSS. state that he was slain together with Rhawin by the Saxons at Merthyr Tydfyl. He appears to have had two sons, Nefydd and Andras, both of whom were saints; and the surname of Dremrudd has been occasionally given him, apparently by confounding him with Rhain already mentioned.

23. Cledog or Clydog, “it is agreed by all the MSS. was buried at Clodock in Herefordshire,”+ of which church he is

* See Cyvin in the My vyrian Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 35.

† Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. 59.


supposed to be the founder. The Cognacio and Llewelyn mention that he was the son of Clydwyn and grandson of Brychan; he appears to have had a brother, whom different MSS. call Dedyn or Neubedd, and a sister, St. Pedita. Cressy states that he suffered martyrdom A. D. 492, and is commemorated in the martyrology on the nineteenth of August. The chapels to Clodock are—Llanfeuno (St. Beuno,) Longtown (St. Peter,) and Cresswell (St. Mary.)

24. Caian, perhaps a grandson of Brychan, as his name is omitted in the Cognacio and Llewelyn's MS. Tregaian, a chapel under Llangefni in Anglesey is dedicated to him, and his festival occurs in the Calendar on the twenty fifth of September.* The Silurian catalogue of Saints omits this name, and inserts in its stead, Nefydd, who was the son of Rhun ab Brychan.

It is recordedt that Nefydd, in his younger days, collected a party of followers, and put to flight the Saxons who had killed his father at Merthyr Tydfyl. He was afterwards a bishop in North Britain, where he was slain by the Picts and Saxons. Andras, a son of Rhun and brother of Nefydd, is also described as the founder of St. Andrew's or Dinas Powys near Cardiff, and should therefore be considered as its patron saint instead of St. Andrew the Apostle.

The alleged daughters of Brychan are the following:

1. Gwladus, the wife of Gwynlly w Filwr ab Glywys of Glywyseg or Gwynllwg in Monmouthshire. From the dates of her husband and children, which are easily computed, it would appear that she was a grand-daughter, rather than a daughter, of Brychan.

2. Arianwen, called by Llewelyn Offeiriad, Wrgren, probably another grand-daughter, married Iorwerth Hirflawdd of Powys, son of Tegonwy ab Teon. She was the mother of Caenog Mawr, to whom Clog-caenog in Denbighshire is ascribed. *

* Sir Harris Nicolas's Chronology of History,

† Achau y Saint.

3. Tanglwst, Tudglyd, or Gwtfil, married to Cyngen, the son of Cadell Deyrnllug. She was mother to Brochwel Ysgythrog; and without bringing the life of her son down to A. D. 600, about which time he is alleged to have commanded the Britons in the battle of Bangor Iscoed, the era of her husband would render it necessary to consider her a grand-daughter of Brychan. She had two other sons, Maig and Ieuaf.

4. Mechell, according to some MSS. the eldest daughter of Brychan, was married to Gynyr of Caergawch near Menevia. t

5.Nefyn, probably a grand-daughter, was married to Cynfarch Oer, the father of Urien Rheged; and may perhaps be accounted the founder or patron saint of Nefyn, Carnarvonshire.

6. Gwawr, seemingly a grand-daughter, was the wife of Elidyr Lydanwyn, by whom she was the mother of the bard Llywarch Hên.

7. Gwrgon, daughter of Brychan, was married to Cadrod Calchfynydd, who flourished about A. D. 430.

8. Eleri, daughter of Brychan, married to Ceredig ab Cunedda, of the same generation as the preceding. She was the paternal grandmother of St. David.

9. Lleian, the wife of Gafran ab Dyfnwal Hên, by whom she was the mother of Aeddan Fradog, who after his defeat in the battle of Arderydd, in North Britain, was compelled to fly for safety to the Isle of Man. The Cognacio says that Lleian herself settled in that island, and the era of her song

* Myv. Archaiology sub voce Arianwen.
+ Cambrian Biography.
| The modern saint of this church is St. Mary the Virgin.

$ “On the death of Conal, king of the British Scots, in the year 572-3, Aidan, the son of Gauran, succeeded to the throne; and it is mentioned as

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