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the effect, that the place first chosen was not accepted by the Deity, for he foresaw that little or no fruit would be produced from it; but there was another place, not far from thence, more suitable for devotion and the purposes of a holy congregation.* This brief narrative, the miraculous part being set aside, is not unlikely to be true; and if, as the same author asserts elsewhere, a monastery had been founded by St. Patrick in the valley of Rosina, thirty years before the birth of St. David,t it would have furnished Gistlianus with a more obvious reason for changing his residence; but an appointment less than divine would ill become the hallowed glories of a spot regarded by the Welsh as the most sacred in Britain.

It would appear from the "Genealogy of the Saints" that Gynyr had a grandson, Ailfyw, the son of Dirdan by Danadlwen, who might have flourished about the end of this generation or the beginning of the following; and a church near the town of St. David's, called Llanailfyw or St. Elfeis, is considered to be dedicated to him. He derived his name most probably from St. Albeus or Ailbe, bishop of Munster in Ireland; who visited this district, and is recorded to have baptized St. David, the other grandson of Gynyr.

Non, the daughter of Gynyr, was married to Sandde the son of Ceredig ab Cunedda; and the following religious edifices

*"Post longa tam discendi primo, quam postea quoque docendi tempora, ad locum unde discesserat, Meneviam scilicet, demum vir sanctus (David) repatriavit. Erat autem eodem tempore ibidem Episcopus avunculus ejus, vir venerabilis, cui nomen Gistlianus. Huic igitur Angelica, quæ jam susceperat, monita nepos in hunc modum recitavit. Locus, inquit Angelus, in quo Deo servire proponis, non est ei acceptus. Modicum enim vel nullum sibi futurum fructum inde providit. Veruntamen est alius non procul hinc locus, ostendens Vallem Rosinam, ubi sacrum hodie Cimiterium extat, longè religioni et sanctæ congregationi competentior."-Giraldus Cambrensis de Vitâ S. Davidis, apud Wharton, Tom. II.

+ The residence of St. Patrick at Menevia, though noticed by Gwynfardd, is at variance with chronology and the most approved histories of his life.

have been dedicated to her memory:-Llan Uwch Aeron, a church in Cardiganshire; Llannon, a chapel under Pembre, Carmarthenshire, St. Nun's chapel in the parish of St. David's, Pembrokeshire; and Llannon, formerly a chapel under Llansanffraid, Cardiganshire; all of which are situated in the immediate neighbourhood of churches ascribed to St. David. The festival of St. Non was kept on the third of March.

The next founder of a family, that may be noticed, is Ynyr Gwent, who married Madrun, another daughter of Gwrthefyr or Vortimer. His territories consisted of a part of the present county of Monmouth, and he is considered a saint, probably on account of having founded a college or monastery at Caerwent under the superintendence of St. Tathan. His wife, Madrun, in conjunction with Anhun her handmaid, is said to have been the foundress of the church of Trawsfynydd, Merionethshire.*

Tewdrig, the son of Teithfallt ab Nynio, was a prince, or king as he is called, of Glamorgan; the sovereignty of which was retained by his descendants until it was wrested from them by the Normans in the eleventh century. The era of his life belongs to the past generation, but the first particulars, which are known of him, occur in the present. According to the most consistent authorities his pedigree commences with his grandfather, Nynio, whose age immediately precedes the departure of the Romans; while others, who state that his grandfather's name was Mynan, derive his descent from Caractacus.

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Emyr Llydaw was the prince of a certain territory in Armorica, and nephew to St. Germanus. He flourished in the early part of this generation, and is noticed here on account of his descendants, whose names appear conspicuous in the catalogue of saints.

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Ithel Hael o Lydaw was another Armorican prince, whose children in this and the following generation accompanied Illtyd and Cadfan to Britain, and became saints of the Welsh Church.

To return to the older families, the distinguished hero of the line of Cunedda, during this period, was Caswallon Lawhir. His history as related in Achau y Saint, under the head of Meigyr, is as follows:-" Meigyr, with his brothers, Cynyr and Meilyr, accompanied Caswallon Lawhir, their cousin, to drive the Ffichti out of Mona,* to which island they had retreated from the sons of Cunedda, and had strengthened themselves there. After cruel fighting they drove the Gwyddelians out of Mona, in which Caswallon slew Serigi, the Gwyddelian, with his own hand. This Serigi was the leader

* Anglesey.

of the Gwyddelians and the Ffichti that had overrun Gwynedd from the time of Macsen Wledig. And after driving the strangers out of Mona, the Cymry took courage, and chased them from every part of Gwynedd, so that none remained in the country but such of them as were made slaves."+―This account is important as it records the final expulsion of the Gwyddyl Ffichti from North Wales; and though the precise time of the event is not mentioned, there are reasons for supposing that it took place near the close of the century. There was formerly a chapel near the church of Holyhead, called Eglwys y Bedd or Llanygwyddyl, which, as reported by tradition, had been erected over the grave of Serigi.+

Meigyr was the son of Gwron ab Cunedda; he and his brother, Meilyr, are included in the Silurian catalogue of saints, though there are no churches which bear their names. The same may also be said of Sandde ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, who married Non, the daughter of Gynyr of Caer Gawch, by whom he became the father of St. David. The only remaining saint of the family, for this generation, was Gwenaseth, daughter of Rhufon ab Cunedda, who was married to Pabo Post Prydain: but in connexion with the tribe may be mentioned, Tegwedd, the daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn, Merionethshire. She was married, first to Cedig ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, by whom she became the mother of Afan of Buallt; and secondly to Enlleu ab Hydwn

*North Wales.

+ Translated in the Cambrian Biography.

The author of a “History of Anglesey,” London, 1775, says,—“ The ruins of it a few years ago were removed in order to render the way to the church more commodious. Here formerly was the shrine of Sirigi, who was canonized by the Irish. It seem to have been held in exceeding great repute for several very wonderful qualities and cures: but according to an old Irish chronicle, it was carried off by some Irish rovers, and deposited in the cathedral of Christ Church, in Dublin.”

Dwn ab Ceredig, by whom she had Teilo, bishop of Llandaff. A church in Monmouthshire, called Llandegfyth, is ascribed to her, at which place, according to Achau y Saint, she was murdered by the Saxons.

It appears that upon the progress of the Saxon arms in the south of Britain, the families of Coel Godebog and many others retreated to the north,* where, as in Wales, the Britons endeavoured to concentrate themselves. Here, however, they were obliged to maintain an unequal contest with the Picts on one side and the Saxons on the other. And though the Britons of Cumberland, and more especially those of Strath Clyde, maintained their independence for some two or three centuries, the chieftains of other districts were not equally fortunate; and when stripped of their territories by the continual aggressions of the invaders, their practice was to seek an asylum in Wales, and, in several instances, to devote their lives to the service of religion. Of the latter description was Pabo Post Prydain, the descendant of Coel in the fourth degree. He first distinguished himself as a brave warrior, but eventually he was obliged to give way and leave his territory in the north. He sought refuge in Wales, and was hospitably received by Cyngen ab Cadell, the prince of Powys, by whom he had lands given to him. He afterwards lived a holy life, and was accounted a saint of the British Church. To these

* The cause of this migration, which is more probably due to internal warfare, is here given in accordance with popular opinion, as the subject requires a more extensive investigation than could be included within the limits of this Essay. The slow progress of the Saxons has been well described, according to their own authorities, by Mr. Sharon Turner; and it is remarkable that the Welsh records of the sixth century allude to but few instances of conflict with that people. Between them and the Cymry from whom the Welsh are descended, another race of Britons, alike hostile to both, intervened. They were called Lloegrwys, and appear to have been incorporated with the Saxons upon the establishment of the kingdom of Mercia.

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