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In this part of the subject, it is necessary to pause awhile to consider the general state of the Church. It does not appear that the Principality of Wales was in this age divided into dioceses, or that there were any established bishops' sees; for it is generally agreed upon that the bishopricks of St. David's, Llanbadarn, Bangor, and St. Asaph, were not founded till some time in the following century. The archbishoprick of Caerleon was the only exception, and its permanency depended upon the importance which that place had maintained from the time it was occupied by the Romans. The jurisdiction of its archbishop, according to the rule observable in other parts of the Empire, would be co-extensive with the Roman province of Britannia Secunda; and his suffragans were so many "Chorepiscopi" without any settled place of residence; thus the names occur of Tudwal in Carnarvonshire, Cynin at Llangynin, Gistlianus at Menevia, Paulinus at Tygwyn, all of whom are called bishops, and to their number may be added Dubricius, bishop of Llandaff. The influence of the latter, together with the liberality of Meurig ab Tewdrig, king of Glamorgan, was the means of making the see of Llandaff permanent; whence Dubricius is said to have been its first bishop. It appears, however, that after his promotion. to the archbishoprick of Caerleon, he still retained the bishoprick of Llandaff; and that he mostly resided at the latter place, from which he is called archbishop of Llandaff.§ But that the title still belonged to Caerleon, is clear from the fact that St. David, his successor in the primacy, was appointed archbishop of Caerleon; and though the bishoprick of Llan
* In strictness the see of St. David's may be said to have commenced with Gistlianus, but as it had no diocese until it is was formed into an archbishoprick by St. David, its existence is usually dated from that event. † Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church, Book II; and Stilling fleet's Origines Britannica, Chap. II.
Registrum Landavense apud Godwin et Usher.
§ Achau y Saint, Registrum Landavense, and Godwin's Bishops.
daff merged into the archbishoprick in the person of Dubricius, it was not extinguished; for, upon his resignation of the primacy, Teilo was appointed bishop of Llandaff, as if the title had been kept distinct. St. David, after his election, removed the archiepiscopal see from Caerleon to Menevia, where he had lived before as Chorepiscopus. His successor was Cynog, who was translated to Menevia from Llanbadarn.* The third primate after Dubricius was Teilo, who, having appointed a suffragan at Menevia, continued his residence at Llandaff;t and is therefore styled its archbishop; but the migratory nature of the primacy seems to have weakened its stability, and it is not certain who was the next metropolitan. The partizans of the church of Llandaff, at a later time, contended that St. Oudoceus, its third bishop, succeeded to the archiepiscopal honours of Teilo;§ while the clergy of Menevia, who exhibit the name of Teilo in their own catalogue, maintained that Ceneu, their fourth archbishop, transmitted the primacy to a long list of successors. From a comparison of a variety of testimonies, it appears that upon the death of Teilo, the dignity sunk between contending parties; and at the time of the conference between St. Augustine and the British bishops it does not seem to have retained its existence. The title was, however, occasionally assumed by the different prelates who contended for it; and in the year 809 there were no less than three candidates for supremacy, a claim having been set up by the bishop of Bangor.* The bishops of Wales, as well as its princes, were jealous of each
+ Usher de Primordiis, Cap. XIV. p, 560.
Godwin. Usher, Cap. V.
§ Usher, Cap. V. p. 85.
|| Bede, Lib. I. Cap. 27, Lib. II. Cap. 2.-Giraldi Retractationes, apud Wharton.
*"Oed Crist 809, y bu farw Elfod Archescob Gwynedd, ac y bu diffyg ar yr haul, ac y bu terfysg mawr ym mhlith y Gwyr Eglwysig achaws y
other's ascendancy; and it is clear that a title so ill defined could be only a dignity of assumption, but the preponderance seems generally to have inclined in favour of Menevia or St. David's. These irregularities, though perplexing to the antiquary, are important as a proof of the independence of the ancient British Church; for had it been subject to the see of Rome, an appointment from the Pope would have settled all disputes; and Giraldus Cambrensis, upon referring the question to that tribunal in the twelfth century, was unable to prove that any Welsh prelate had ever received the pall.* The constitution of an archbishoprick, in the first instance, was a continuation of the plan established under the Roman government; but when its authority was once shaken, the interminable commotions of the people would prevent its effectual restoration and in the register of the Catholic Church, exhibited by the Pope to Giraldus, the names of the four Welsh bishopricks are given simply, without explaining that any one of them had authority over the rest, or that they were subject to a foreign metropolitan.† The gradual reduction of Wales by the English, obliged them to submit to the jurisdiction. of Canterbury.
Pasc, canys ni fynnai Escobion Llandaf a Mynyw ymroddi dan Archescob Gwynedd lle yr oeddynt eu hunain yn Archescobion hŷn o fraint.”—Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 474.
* The whole controversy may be seen in Wharton's Anglia Sacra. The story of Samson, archbishop of St. David's, and the pall, which was virtually surrendered by Giraldus in his chapter of Retractions, is completely overthrown by Archbishop Usher. Primordia, Cap. V.
+ The account of this particular must be given in Giraldus's own words, as the force of the argument depends upon the construction of Latin."Accidit autem, ut vesperâ quadam, cum ad Papam in camerâ suâ Giraldus accessisset; cum semper eum benignum satis et benevolum, ut videbatur, invenire consueverit; tunc forte præter solitum amicabilem magis et affabilem ipsum invenit. Inter primos igitur affatus, cum de jure Mene. vensis Ecclesiæ Metropolitico mentio facta fuisset; præcepit Papa Registrum afferri, ubi de universo fidelium orbe singulorum regnorum, tam
Dubricius is distinguished as the founder of colleges; and besides tho-e, already mentioned, on the banks of the Wye, it is more rational to suppose that he, and not St. Germanus, was the founder of the colleges of Llancarfan, Caerworgorn, and Caerleon. At any rate, if the origin of those institutions be referred to this generation, which it is necessary to do to avoid anachronisms, they are situated so closely under the jurisdiction of Dubricius that they could not have been founded without his concurrence. The first principal or abbot of Llancarfan was Cattwg, the eldest son of Gwynllyw Filwr, of whom it is recorded that he chose a life of religion and learning rather than succeed to his father's principality. On account of his wisdom he is generally known by the appellation of Cattwg Ddocth, or the Wise, and a large collection of his maxims and moral sayings, both in prose and verse, is preserved in the third volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology. His college, like all the rest founded in Wales in the infancy of monastic institutions, seems to have partaken of the characters both of a monastery and a place of education; and several
Metropoles per ordinem, quam earum quoque Suffraganeæ numerantur Ecclesiæ Pontificales. Et cum verteretur ad regnum Anglorum, scriptum io hunc modum ibidem et lectum fuit. "Cantuariensis Metropolis Suffragancas habet Ecclesias istas, Roffensem, Londoniensem," et cæteras per ordinem. Enumeratis autem singulis Suffraganeis Ecclesiasticis Angliæ; interposita Rubrica tali De Wallia, prosequitur in hunc modum. "In Wallia Menevensis Ecclesia, Landavensis, Bangoriensis, et de Sancto Asaph." Quo audito, subjecit Papa quasi insultando et subridendo. Ecce Menevensis Ecclesia connumeratur. Respondit Giraldus. Sed non eo modo connumeratur ista vel aliæ de Walliâ per accusativum scilicet, sicut Suffraganeæ de Angliâ. Quod si fieret, tunc revera reputari possent subjectæ. Cui Papa. Bene, inquit, hoc notâsti. Sed est et aliud, quod similiter pro vobis et Ecclesiâ vestrâ facit, de Rubricâ sc. interpositâ; quæ quidem in Registro nusquam apponitur, nisi ubi transitus fit, de regno ad regnum, vel Metropoli ad Metropolim. Verum est, inquit Giraldus; Et Wallia quidem portio est regni Anglicani et non per se regnum. Ad quod Papa. Unum sciatis, quod non est contra vos Registrum nostrum.
of the most eminent of the Welsh bards and clergy were ranked among its members. Though it is said to have been situated at Llancarfan, the particular spot on which it stood was called Llanfeithin, for which reason the names are used indiscriminately. It is said that Dubricius was so partial to the society of Cattwg that he made him his companion in his travels ; and, that they might be more constantly together, Dubricius continued to live at a place, near Llanfeithin, called Garnllwyd, after he was appointed bishop; but the statement must be received with some qualification, as his usual residence was at Llandaff or Caerleon. Cattwg was an attendant at the court of Arthur; and though for the sake of convenience the particulars of his life are detailed in this generation, his history belongs more properly to the following, as he is said to have lived to the patriarchal age of a hundred and twenty years,* and the assertion is in some measure borne out by the great discrepancy in the ages of persons who shared his instructions. He is considered to be the founder of several churches, of which the following is a list.
Llangattock Crickhowell, R. with 2 chapels, Llangeneu (St. Ceneu) and Llanelly (St. Ellyw) Brecknockshire.
Porteinion, R. Glamorganshire.
Gelli Gaer, R.-1 chapel, Brithdir, Glamorgan.
Cadoxton juxta Barry, R. Glam,
Llancarfan, V.-2 chapels, Llanfeithin, Liege Castle, Glam.
Pendeulwyn, V. Glam.
Pentyrch, R. Glam.
Llanmaes, R. Glam.
Cadoxton juxta Neath, V.-2 chapels, Creinant, Aberpergwm, Glamorganshire.
Llangattock near Usk, R. Monmouthshire.
Llangattock Lenig, V. Monm.
Llangattock Lingoed. V. Monm.
Llangattock Feibion Afel, V.-1 chapel, St. Moughan's (Qu. Meugan?) Monm.
Caerleon upon Usk, V. Monm.
Besides the foregoing, Penrhos, subject to Llandeilo Cresenni, Monmouthshire, and Trefethin under Llanofer, in the
* Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. III. p. 2.