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may be considered the founder of Penmynydd, Anglesey ; and Fflewyn is the saint of Llanfflewyn, a chapel subject to Llanrhyddlad in the same county.

Tecwyn ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandecwyn, Merionethshire. * Festival Sept. 14.

Trillo ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandrillo in Rhos, Denbighshire, and Llandrillo in Edeyrnion, Merionethshire. Festival June 16.

Tegai ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandegai, Carnarvonshire, which place it would appear was at one time called called Maes Llanglassawg.

Twrog ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandwrog, Carnarvonshire. He is also the patron saint of Maentwrog, a chapel subject to Ffestiniog, Merionethshire, and his festival has been held on the twenty sixth of June.

Baglan, a son of Ithel Hael, has obtained the credit of sanctity ; but as there was another saint of the same name, it is uncertain to which of them the patronage of the two chapels following should be ascribed ;-Llanfaglan under Llanwnda, Carnarvonshire, and Baglan subject to Aberafon, Glamorganshire.t

Llechid, a daughter of Ithel Hael, was the foundress of Llanllechid, Carnarvonshire, and has been commemorated on the second of December.

Tyfodwg was one of the associates of Cadfan, but the pedigree assigned to him in the Cambrian Biography is inconsistent with chronology. He was the founder of Llandyfodwg, Glamorganshire, and one of the three founders of Llantrisaint in the same county. There is also a chapel under Llantrisaint, called Ystrad Tyfodwg.

* Chapel, Llanfihangel y Traethau (St. Michael.)

+ Rhychwyn is said in one MS. to have been a son of Ithel Hael, apparently by mistake for one of the sons of Helig ab Glanog. My vyrian Arcbaiology, Vol. II.

liar, sometimes styled Ilar Bysgottwr, or "the Fisherman," was the founder of Llanilar, Cardiganshire, and probably of other churches now thought to be dedicated to St. Hilary.

Ust and Dyfnig accompanied Cadfan to Britain, and were the joint-founders of Llanwrin, Montgomeryshire.*

Eithras, Llywan or Llywyn, and Durdan, were companions of Cadfan, of whose lives no particulars can be traced ; except that the last mentioned settled in Bardsey, and has been considered one of the presiding saints of the island.

The foregoing list is thought to comprise the entire number of holy persons who emigrated from Armorica in this generation, and it may be interesting to enquire how far the situations of their churches illustrate the history of their settlements. Before the close of the present period, another large emigration is reported to have been made by the children of Caw, who were obliged to leave their dominions in North Britain, and become saints in Wales under similar circumstances.

Caw was the lord of Cwm Cawlwyd or Cowllwg, a district in the North, but its particular situation is uncertain.t According to Achau y Saint, he was deprived of his territories by the Gwyddyl Ffichti, or as the general term may be interpreted, by the Picts and Scots; in consequence of which he and his numerous family retired to Wales. He settled at Twrcelyn in Anglesey, where lands were bestowed upon him by Maelgwn Gwynedd ; and it is also said that lands were granted to some of his children by Arthur in Siluria. His name is enrolled in the catalogue of saints; and his children are, in one record, styled the third holy family of Britain; an honour, to which they are fairly entitled if the accounts of

Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. † A Life of Gildas, from the Monastery of Fleury in France, published by Johannes a Bosco, and quoted by Usher, says that Caunus (Caw) lived in Arecluta, or Strath Clyde.

# Llyfr Bodeulwyn, Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 29.

Bran ab Llyr, to whom the first place in the Triad is usually assigned, have been proved to be without foundation.

Hywel, the eldest son of Caw, was slain in a civil war by Arthur ;* an event which probably took place before the emigration of his brothers.

Ane ab Caw Cowllwg was a saint, and Coed Ane, a chapel under Llanelian, Anglesey, is called after his name.

Aneurin, a son of Caw, was engaged in the battle of Cattraeth, the disasters of which he deplored in a long poem, called “ Y Gododin,” still extant, and deemed to be a composition of great merit for the age in which it was written. Out of upwards of three hundred British chieftains who entered the field, only four, of whom the bard was one, escaped with their lives. He was afterwards taken prisoner, loaded with chains, and thrown into a dungeon, from which he was released by Ceneu a son of Llywarch Hên. Upon his deliverance he appears to have retreated to South Wales, where he became a saint of the congregation of Cattwg at Llancarfan, but nothing further is known of him under the name of Aneurin, except that his death was occasioned by the blow of an axe from the hand of an assassin. It has, however, been suggested by two eminent antiquaries,t to whose researches the present writer acknowledges himself greatly indebted, that Aneurin was no other person than the celebrated Gildas. The reasons alleged are:- .“ Aneurin, as well as Gildas, is reckoned among the children of Caw in our old manuscripts ; but both do not occur as such in the same lists; for in those where Aneurin is said to be the son of Caw, the other is omitted ; and on the contrary, where Gildas is inserted, the other is left out.”I-Besides which, the name Gildas is a Saxon translation of Aneurin, according to a practice not

* Caradocus Lancarbanensis in Vitâ S. Gildæ. + Mr. Edward Williams (Iolo Morganwg) and Dr. Owen Pughe.

| Cambrian Biography.

uncommon with ecclesiastics in the middle ages; and even the various ways in which the names are written—“Gilda, Gildas y Coed Aur, Aur y Coed Aur, and Aneurin y Coed Aur”—all of similar signification, confirm their identity. Cennydd, a son, and Ufelwyn, a grandson, of Gildas, are sometimes called the son and grandson of Aneurin.* So far, therefore, the point is clear; that the Welsh genealogists have always considered the names Gildas and Aneurin convertible. The monkish writers of the Life of Gildas also state that he was a native of North Britain, and the son of Caut a king of that country. But here the agreement ends; for they mention nothing of the battle of Cattraeth, and instead of showing that their saint was originally a bard and a warrior, they assert that he embraced the sacred profession at an early age, and was employed in Ireland, preaching the Gospel, until he heard that his eldest brother had been slain by Arthur; upon which he came over to Britain, and was reconciled to the king, who had solicited his pardon. He then removed to Armorica, where, after a residence of ten years, he wrote his “ Epistle” arraigning the kings of Britain for their vices. Upon his return, he abode for some time at Llancarfan, and was requested by St. Cadocus to direct the studies of the school at that place for one year; which he undertook, and performed to the great advantage of the scholars, desiring no other reward than their prayers. After this the two saints withdrew to two small islands, not far distant, intending to spend their days in retirement. Gildas, however, was disturbed by pirates, and in consequence removed to Glastonbury, where he wrote his “ History of the Britons,” and remained to the close of his life. I-Such is a brief summary of their narrative, divested of several fables and

* Compare Cennydd and Ufelwyn in the Cambrian Biography.

+ Cau, Capgrave; Caunus, Floriacensis; Nau, Caradocus Lancarbanensis.

# The supposition, that there were two persons called Gildas, the one surnamed Albanius, sand the other Badonicus, is apparently a modern dis

*

inconsistencies, for these writers differ in several particulars with each other; and uncertain as the authority of the genealogists may sometimes appear, it is better supported by external evidence than that of the monks, who have framed their account to suit the life of the author of the reputed works of Gildas; which, though ancient, are not likely to have been written by Aneurin, or indeed by any one of British race. Their spirit is anti-national, and their design is obviously to depreciate the Britons. It is not improbable that they were intended to pass for the productions of the bard, for they contain no invective against the princes of the North; but while Aneurin laments that the confederated chiefs should have entered the field in a state of intoxication, which he seems to regard more as a misfortune than a crime, he dwells upon the praises of his heroes, and treats his countrymen throughout with a friendly feeling.

Caffo ab Caw, a saint, and the patron of Llangaffo, a chapel under Llangeinwen, Anglesey.

Ceidio ab Caw; Rhodwydd Geidio, subject to Llantrisaint, Anglesey, and Ceidio, Carnarvonshire, are dedicated to him.

Aeddan Foeddog, a son of Caw. With respect to the name, Archbishop Usher observes :-Edanus, the bishop, is called by the Irish “Moedhog and Mædog," and by Giraldus Cambrensis “ Maidocus.”—John of Teignmouth says:—This holy person is named “ Aidanus” in the Life of St. David, but in his own Life “Aidus;" and at Menevia, in the church of St. David, he is called “Moedok," which is an Irish name, and his festival is observed with great veneration at that place.-All the legends agree that Aeddan was a disciple of

tinction, for the older biographers attribute both titles to the same individual.

* They were extant as early as the time of Bede, who quotes them as if they were authentic.

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