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or Flemings. Forty five out of the number are chapels, and therefore of later date than the churches to which they belong. The remainder are, nearly all of them, churches of the last foundation ; and in those parts of Wales which preserved their independence longest, the proportion is very small. . This would almost induce a suspicion that the homage paid to the Virgin was not of native growth, but was forced upon the inhabitants of the Principality by their English neighbours. But with the aid of a map, and some knowledge of the history of the country, the subject may be examined more narrowly.

The number in Pembrokeshire alone is twenty three, but many of these parishes do not even possess a Welsh name, and in the greatest part of the county the system of Welsh endowments is entirely subverted. This tract was colonized about A. D. 1100 by English and Flemings, whose descendants still remain; and the churches enumeraterl probably date their origin from that period. In the adjoining counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan, the numbers are only five and six, being the smallest proportions of any, and four of the former are chapels; but these counties preserved their independence down to the time of Edw. I. In Glamorganshire, the number is eighteen, but the same reasons apply to this county as to Pembrokeshire, it being conquered by Norman adventurers from England, who divided the county between them about A. D. 1090. The proportions in Brecknockshire and Monmouthshire must be referred to the conquest of both of them by Bernard Newmarch and others. Out of eight, the number in Radnorshire,* five are chapels. In Carnarvonshire also, the number is eight, two of which are chapels; and if these churches were not founded after the death of the last Llewelyn, they at least present a fair specimen of the number to be looked for under the supremacy

* Including that portion of the county which forms a part of the Diocese of Hereford.


of the Welsh Princes. In Montgomery, Merioneth, and Denbigh the proportion is small. Out of ten, the number for Anglesey, there are nine chapels; while in Flint, being a border county, and at one time an appendage of the Earldom of Chester, the proportion is large,*

Most of the towns in Wales are of late origin, being built to suit the convenience of castles in their vicinity, which are known to have been erected by Norman and other adventurers. It might, therefore, be expected that the churches of these would present the features of a late foundation. Upon referring to the list, churches are found at Fishguard,+ Newport, Haverford West, Tenby, Pembroke, Brecon, Hay, Builth, Kidwelly, Swansea, Cardigan, Rhuddlan, Flint, Mold, Llanfair Caereinion, Welsh Pool, Newtown, Carnarvon, Conway, Dolgelleu, Beaumaris, Cardiff, Bridgend, Cowbridge, Abergavenny, Chepstow, Usk, Monmouth, and New Radnor, dedicated to St. Mary, comprising nearly half the towns in the Principality. Several others, as Roch, Brwynllys, and Coetty, are in the neighbourhood of Norman castles, where no towns have been built; and a few more, as Abbey Cwm Hir, Strata Florida, Margam, Beddgelert, and Creswell, owe their dedications to the Monasteries which formerly existed on their sites.

The late introduction of the homage of St. Mary may be proved by another mode of computation. Forty five of her places of worship are chapels, while only sixteen of her churches are of sufficient antiquity or importance to have chapels under them. Again, twenty four} chapels, dedicated to St. Mary, are found subordinate to churches ascribed to Welsh Saints; while only five chapels named after Welsh Saints are subordinate to churches of St. Mary. The inference is, that the custom of ascribing churches or chapels to Welsh Saints had nearly ceased before that of dedicating to St. Mary had commenced; and perhaps the exceptions to the rule may be referred to an accident, where the chapel had taken precedence of the mother church.

* Three churches in the list are in the county of Salop, and four more, including one chapelry, are in the Diocese of Hereford.

+ In Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary of Wales, reasons are given for the supposition that the parish of Fishguard was formed upou the dissolution of two others more ancient.

# By an amendment of the list, without the introduction of any new names, this number may be increased to thirty three. The five exceptions are the chapels of Cadog and Teilo under Kidwelly, Llanrhychwyn subject to Trefriw, Llandyssilio subject to Llanfihangel Pwll Gwyngyll, and Baglan subject to Aberafon. As the church of Kidwelly is presumed to be of a date subsequent to the erection of a castle there by William de Londres, a Norman adventurer, A, D. 1094, the parish church before that time was probably the chapel of Cadog, or, as it is called, Llangadog, to which the chapel of Teilo might have been subordinate. A similar reason may perhaps be found to account for the three remaining irregularities.

The justness of these conclusions, as regards one county, can be verified from a document of unquestionable authority. In the preceding list, the county of Flint has a proportion about three times greater than any of the rest; as the entire number of its churches and chapels is only twenty eight, twelve of which are dedicated to St. Mary; and of these twelve, eight are in the ancient Lordship of Tegeingl, or Englefield. It happens that this Lordship, as being part of the Palatinate of Chester, is included in the Survey of Domesday Book, made by order of William the Conqueror; and in the enumeration of its churches, two* only of those dedicated to St. Mary are mentioned as then existing. It must therefore be concluded that the remainder were built at a later period; and as the same document describes this Lordship, which it calls the Hundred of Atiscros, as if it had been some time in the occupation of the Saxons, the dedication of the two churches mentioned may be attributed to their influence.

*"Widford” (Whitford,) and “Roeland” (Rhuddlan.)

The next Saint, to whom the largest number of churches is dedicated, is St. Michael, the Archangel.

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Rudbacston, R.

St. Michael's, Pembroke, V. Stack poole Boscher, alias Bo Whitchurch, R..-1 Chapel, sheston, R.

Llanfair Nantywyn, St. Mary.)
Castle Martin, V.--1 Chapel, Castle Beith, R.

Llanfihangel Penbedw, R.
Cosheston, R.


Llanfihangel Nant Bran, C. Llanfihangel Tal y Llyn, R.
Llanfihangel Fechan.- chapel to Llanfihangel Abergwesin,-chap-

Llandytaelog (St. Maelog.) el to Llawatan Fawr. (St. Atan.) Llanfihangel Cwm Du, R. & V.- Llanfihangel Kryn Pabuan.--chap1 Chapel, Tretwr.

el to Llanatan Fawr, (St. Atan.) Cathedin, R.

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Egermond, C.

Llanfihangel Rhos y Corn,Llanfihangel Abercywyn,-chap- chapel to Llanllwni, (St. Llw

el to Meidrym (St. David.) ni.) Llanfihangel, in ruins,-chapel to Llanfihangel Aberbythych, C. St. Mary's, Kidwelly.

Talley, c.-5 Chapels, all in Cil y Cwm, V.

ruins, Capel Crist (Holy TrinLlanfihangel Fach Cilfargen, R. ity :) Capel Mair, ( St. Mary:) Llangathen, V.

Llanfihangel, (St. Michael :) Llanfihangel Ararth, V.-1 Chap- Cynhwm and Teilo, (St. Teilo.) el, Pencadair.

Llanfihangel, in ruins,-chapel to Llanfihangel Uwch Gwyli,-- Talley, (St. Michael.)

chapel to Abergwyli, (St. Da- Myddfai, v. vid.)


Llwchwr, or Loughor, R.


Llanfihangel Ystrad, P. & V. Tremain, C.
Llanfihangel Penbryn, V.--2 Llanfihangel Geneu'r Glyn, V.

Chapels, Bettws Ifan, (St. Llanfihangel y Creuddin.-
John,) and Bryngwyn, (St. Chapel, Eglwys Newydd.

Lledroed, P.
Troedyraur, R.

Rhosdeiau, R.

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