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Jeffreys. He died in London and is buried in Christ Church, Newgate Street. He was a man of vast learning, the purest piety, and the most indefatigable industry. In prison, in extreme poverty, chased like a hunted beast, suffering from a weak constitution and a painful and incurable disease, this meek yet invincible spirit still fought his fight, pouring forth book after book in favour of free worship, and opposing the quiet endurance of a primitive martyr to the rage and tyranny of the persecutor. His works have little to recommend them to a modern reader, save their spirit of toleration, and are little known in the present day The Saint's Everlasting Rest (1650) is, however, still popular, and A Call to the Unconverted (1657) is remembered, if not read.

GEORGE Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, was the son of a weaver at Fenny Drayton in Leicestershire, and was so completely without education that his numerous writings are filled with unintelligible gibberish, and George Fox

(1624-1691). in many instances, even after having been revised and put in order by disciples possessed of more learning, present curious and insoluble problems of meaning to the reader. The life of Fox was like that of many other ignorant enthusiasts ; but he had something in him more enduring than mere fanaticism. Wandering about the country to preach his doctrines, the principal of which were a denial of all titles of respect, and a kind of quietism combined with hostility, not only to all formal clerical functions and establishments, but even to all institutions of government, he met with constant and furious persecution at the hands of the clergy, the county magistrates, and the rabble, whose manners were then much more brutal than in the present day. He has left in his Journal (1694) a curious record of his own adventures, and in particular of two interviews with Cromwell, upon whose mind the earnestness and sincerity of the poor Quaker seem to have produced an impression honourable to the goodness of the Protector's heart. Fox's claims to the power of prophecy and to the gift of detecting witches bear witness at once to his ignorance and to his simplicity, and to the universal prevalence of gross superstition; but we cannot deny to him the praise of ardent faith, deep, if unenlightened, benevolence, and a Christian spirit of patience under insults and injuries.

WILLIAM PENN, the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania, played a very active and, his enemies alleged, not always very honourable part at the Court of James II, when that prince, under a transparent pretext of zeal for religious William liberty, was endeavouring, by giving privileges to the PENN

(1644-1718). dissenting and Nonconformist sects, to shake the power and influence of the Church of England, and thus to pave the

way for the execution of his darling scheme, the establishment of the Roman Church in the country. Penn was the son of Admiral Sir William Penn and was for a while at Christ



Church, Oxford, but early adopted the Quaker doctrines. His name will ever be respected for the benevolence and wisdom he exhibited in founding that colony which was afterwards destined to become a wealthy and enlightened state, and in the excellent and humane precepts he gave for the conduct of relations between the first settlers and the Indian aborigines. The Society of Friends has always been conspicuous for peaceable behaviour, practical good sense, and much acuteness in worldly matters. Since their principles forbid them to take any part in warfare, and exclude them from almost all occupations but those of trade and commerce, the Friends have generally been thriving and rich, and, their numbers being small, they have been able to carry out those excellent and well-considered plans for mutual help and support which have made their charitable institutions the admiration of all philanthropists.

ROBERT BARCLAY was a Scottish country gentleman of considerable attainments, who published a systematic defence of

the doctrines of the sect which had been founded by

the rude zeal of Fox. His celebrated Apology for BARCLAY (1648-1690).

the True Christian Divinity (1676) was published

at Amsterdam in Latin. Like many controversial books, however, it attained its subsequent fame in an English form (1678).



THEOLOGIANS, &c., OF THE | himself is reputed to be the author

JACOBEAN AND CAROLINE of the curious Icon Basilike, or the : PERIODS.

Portraiture of His Sacred Majesty in

His Solitudes and Sufferings, which To the great name of Taylor we | is a series of pious meditations upon might add a host of names whose the troubles of his reign. The book writings and piety were the bulwarks is of little literary value, but there of the Anglican position in their seems to be no sufficient evidence to own day, and, amid the religious doubt its authorship. JOHN GAUDEN deadness succeeding the Puritanism (1605-1662), a not too estimable divine, of the Commonwealth, preserved who became Bishop of Exeter at the the Church of England from mere Restoration, and was translated to secularity. WILLIAM LAUD (1573- | Worcester and died two years later, 1645), Archbishop of Canterbury : almost certainly edited it, and even JOSEPH HALL (1574-1656), Bishop of claimed its authorship; and, on the Norwich, famous too as a satirist ; ground of this statement, Puritan LANCELOT ANDREWES (1555-1626), detractors have gladly accepted the Bishop of Winchester ; and JOHN book as a forgery, Cosin (1594–1672), Bishop of Dur- JOHN EARLE (1601 ?-1665), who ham, to say nothing of other names, succeeded Gauden at Worcester in contributed rather to the doctrinal 1662, and was translated to Salisand controversial than to the literary bury in 1663. wrote, while fellow side of things. A few prelates and of Merton, Microcosmographie, or a laymen, however, should be men- Piece of the World discovered in tioned.

Essays and Characters, which apKING CHARLES I (1600-1649) pears to descend in a direct line


from the Characters of Sir Thomas ( and prebendary of Westminster, was Overbury (see below). The book a divine and historian of pronounced was published anonymously in 1628. Royalist tendencies, and was deHallam says, “In some of these prived of his prebend and other short characters, Earle is worthy of benefices for his loyalty. His Microcomparison, with La Bruyère ; in cosmus, or a Description of the Great others, perhaps the greater part, he World, was published in 1621; but has contented himself with pictures he is known principally as the chapof ordinary manners, such as the lain and biographer of Archbishop varieties of occupation, rather than Laud, whose life he wrote under the of intrinsic character, supply. In title of Cyprianus Anglicus (1668). all, however, we find an acute obser- SIR THOMAS OVERBURY (1581vation and a happy humour of ex. 1613), who was poisoned in the pression. The chapter entitled the Tower, wrote a work entitled CharSceptic is best known; it is witty, acters (1614), which shows a great but an insult throughout on the power of observation and consider, honest searcher after truth, which able skill in description. His charac. could have come only from one that ter of A Fair and Happy Milkmaid

content to take up his own has been often quoted and is one opinions for ease or profit. This of the best in the book. Overbury severe remark, by the way, does also wrote poetry : his chief poem, not correspond with Earle's actual A Wife now the Widow of Sir character as known to his contem- T. Overbury (1614), dealing with poraries, and is, besides, a shallow the subject of marriage, produced generalisation. Earle is always many contemporary imitations. gay and quick to catch the ridicu- RÓBERT SANDERSON (1587-1663), lous, especially that of exterior fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, appearances ; his style is short, who became Bishop of Lincoln at describing well with a few words, the Restoration, was one of the but with much of the affected quaint- most eminent Anglican divines. He ness of that age. It is one of those wrote works on casuistry and very books which give us a picturesque erudite sermons; but he is chiefly idea of the manners of our fathers remarkable for the piety and beauty at a period now become remote, of his life, which is recorded in and for this reason, were there no Walton's Lives. other, it would deserve to be read. JAMES USSHER (1581-1656), the

OWEN FELLTHAM (1602?-1668) learned Archbishop of Armagh(1625), was a Suffolk man, and lived in is best known by his chronological the Earl of Thomond's household. work, The Annals, which contains His work, entitled Resolves : Divine, chronological tables of universal Moral, Political, which he published history from the Creation to the first at the age of eighteen and aug. time of Vespasian. This work was mented very largely in 1628, enjoyed published in Latin (first part 1650, great popularity for many years. second part 1654), and was transHallam says that Felltham is "not lated into English in 1658, after only a laboured and artificial, but Ussher's death. The marginal dates a shallow writer." He owed much of the Authorised Version of the of his popularity to a pointed and Bible are taken from Ussher. His sententious style, which, however, Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anpartakes too much of the literary tiquitates (1639) should not be forvices of his age to be anything but gotten. Selden spoke of him as obsolete.

** learned to a miracle"; and proPETER HEYLYN (1600-1662), fel- bably Selden himself was his only "low of Magdalen College, Oxford, / superior in scholarship.

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JOHN MILTON—A.D. 1608-1674.

$ 1. Milton's early life and education. § 2. Travels in Italy. $ 3. Re.

turns to England and espouses the popular party. His Areopagitica. § 4. Made Latin secretary to the Council of State. His prose works. $ 5. History of his life after the Restoration. His death. $6. Three periods of Milton's literary career. FIRST PERIOD, 1623-1640 :-Hymn on the Nativity ; Comus. § 7. Lycidas. $ 8. L'Allegro and 11 Penseroso. $ 9. Milton's Latin and Italian writings. His English Sonnets. § 10. SECOND PERIOD, 1640-1660 :-Style of his prose writings. § 11. THIRD PERIOD, 1660-1674:--Paradise Lost. Analysis of the poem ; its versification. $ 12. Incidents and personages of the poem. Conduct and development of the plot. § 13. Paradise Regained. § 14. Samson Agonistes.

§ 1. ABOVE every figure of the seventeenth century, great or small, towers in solitary grandeur the sublime form of JOHN

Milton. It is no easy task to give even a cursory JOHN sketch of a life so crowded with literary as well as MILTON

He was born in London on (1608-1674). political activity.

December 9th, 1608. His father's house was at the sign of the Spread Eagle in Bread Street, and his baptism took place at the neighbouring church of Allhallows. It is

interesting to note that the great Republican poet His family.

came of an ancient and gentle stock, which had forfeited its Oxfordshire estates during the Wars of the Roses. His grandfather had been keeper of Shotover Forest, and when his son deserted his forefathers' religion, disinherited him. This son, the father of John Milton the poet, and himself another John, was an ardent Republican with strong leanings towards Puritanism, a skilled musician, and, so far as we know, an energetic and prosperous man. After his quarrel with his father, he had embraced the profession of a money-scrivener, in which, by industry and integrity, he made some money, and was able, in 1632, to retire to a pleasant country-house at Horton, not far from Colnbrook in Buckinghamshire. The poet's mother was Sarah Jeffrey, the daughter of a merchant tailor in the City. The boy evidently gave indications, from his early

childhood, of the extraordinary intellectual powers Education.

which distinguished him from all other men; and his father, whose own culture was by no means small, aided his genius by giving him a generous opportunity of study and leisurely preparation for his great career. He enjoyed the rare advantage of an education which trained him admirably for the profession of letters ; and the proud care with which he collected all his youthful productions, his first verses and his college exercises, shows that he was well aware that of everything proceeding from his pen,“ whether ... prosing or versing, but chiefly by this latter, the style, by certain vital signs it had, was likely to live.” What in other men would have been a pardonable vanity, in him was a duty he owed to his own genius and to posterity. He was most carefully educated, first at home, under the supervision of Thomas Young, who afterwards became Master of Jesus College, Cambridge. This is the Thomas Junius, to whom his fourth Latin elegy (1627) is dedicated. From his private tutor he went to St. Paul's School, and from thence, a child in years, but a consummate scholar, to Christ's College, Cambridge, which he entered on February 12th, 1625. Of his residence at Cambridge very little is known. There is a legend that, from his personal beauty, he Eesidence at was known as the “lady of the college”; and the mulberry tree which he planted is still one of the sights of Cambridge. He now and then refers to the University, and always with affection ; and it was at Christ's that he made the acquaintance of Edward King, whose death he bewailed so magnificently in later years. Perhaps his most direct allusion to Cambridge is his short elegy on Hobson, the University carrier, a character well known both in Cambridge and in London-but this tells us nothing about himself. But there can be very little doubt that Mr. Chappell, his tutor, and the other dons who came into contact with him were infinitely delighted with his wonderfully precocious exercises and prolusiones. Dr. Johnson, seeking internal evidence in one of his Latin poems (the first, addressed to Diodati), evolved a groundless, if not improbable, story about rustication and flogging, and, on the slightest evidence, traced in his later writings a strong hostility to the University. However, he took his Bachelor's degree in 1629, and did not go out of residence until 1632, when he graduated as Master of Arts. This fact of itself shows very little hostility to the place, and the intensely academical spirit of all his work speaks volumes in contradiction of any occasional and obscure expression of distaste with the manner of his studies. His first attempts at poetry were made in his fifteenth year, while he was still at St. Paul's ; and some of his finest, most characteristic, and most intellectual verse was written during his early years at Cambridge. The sublime Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity was begun on Christmas Day, 1629; and most of his shorter occasional pieces, including the wonderful Verses at a Solemn Musick, belong to his Cambridge period.

On leaving Cambridge he resided for about six years at his


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