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sequel, borrowed from New Testament history, Paradise Regained, which is very much shorter, and consists of only four books. Its subject is the temptation of our Saviour by Satan in the wilderness, and the narrative given "Paradise in the fourth chapter of St. Matthew is closely Regained." followed throughout. The subject is said to have
been suggested by Milton's extraordinary friend, Thomas Ellwood the Quaker. Its choice was evidently dictated by an immoderate estimate of the part played by the Tempter at the Fall, and perhaps from a certain affection for the stupendous conception of Satan. It is clear that the Temptation bears merely an external resemblance Unsatisfac to the Fall; the event which regained a lost Para- of its subject. dise for man was the Redemption of man through the Saviour's death and resurrection; the Cross, the "tree of glory," is the natural counterpart to the tree of knowledge of good and evil; Calvary is the true sequel to Eden. The Temptation, however important in itself, has nothing to do with the great act of human redemption; and Milton's selection was perhaps due to his advanced age and to his consciousness that he could attempt no worthy treatment of the Passion. A similar apprehension had, years before, put an abrupt end to his ode on the same subject. Some curious spirits have detected a modification of religious belief on Milton's part which prevented him from choosing the Crucifixion as his theme; most people, however, who have come into contact with his type of religious belief know that, whatever its eccentricities may be, the fundamental dogma of the Atonement is the last it is likely to give up. In any case, the almost universal consent of readers places Paradise Regained, in point of interest and variety, very far beneath Paradise Lost. This inferiority is to be attributed, of course, Inferiority to its want of action; for the whole poem is occupied Lost." to "Paradise with the arguments between our Lord and the Tempter, and with the description of the kingdoms of the world as contemplated from the mountain-top. Even in Paradise Lost the long dialogues, frequently turning upon the most arduous subtleties of theology, are now found to be tedious; although, in Milton's own day, when such topics were universally discussed, they probably enjoyed great popularity. But in that poem they are relieved by the constant interference of action. Where, as in Paradise Regained, there is no action whatever, they become doubly tedious. Nevertheless, in this shorter epic, the genius of Milton appears in its ripest and most complete development; the self-restraint of consummate art is everywhere apparent; and, in his descriptions of Rome, Athens, and Babylon, and of their state of society and knowledge, the great poet has reached a height of solemn grandeur which shows him to have lost nothing either of imagination or of learning. We may analyse the poem as
follows:-Book I. After His baptism, Jesus, meditating on His birth and His divine mission, retires into the wilderness. Satan appears under the disguise of an old peasant, and Analysis of endeavours to justify himself. Book II contains Regained." a consultation of the evil spirits, after which Satan tempts our Lord with a banquet and afterwards with riches. In Book III Satan pursues his attempts, and endeavours to excite ambition in the Saviour's mind by showing Him the kingdoms of Asia. Book IV exhibits further the greatness of Rome and the intellectual glories of Athens. Our Lord, after having been conveyed back to the desert, is exposed to a pitiless storm; Satan again appears, and, after carrying his divine Adversary to the pinnacle of the temple, is again defeated and reduced to silence. The poem ends in the triumphant hymn of the angels ministering to our Lord after His fast. In grandeur and elevation Paradise Regained in no sense yields to its immortal companion; but the brilliance of its colouring and the intensity of its interest are inferior. It may be said that the beauties of Paradise Regained will, generally speaking, be more perceptible as the reader advances in life, and especially if his contemplative faculty be more fully developed than his imagination.
§14. To this closing period of Milton's literary life belongs the tragedy of Samson Agonistes, which is constructed according to the strictest rules of Hellenic drama. The preface, "Samson a noble explanation of the scope of the work as an Agonistes." experiment in the highest style of tragedy, “the gravest, moralest, and most profitable of all other poems," is well worth careful reading as a type of Milton's prose style at his best. It is astonishing to find how, in adopting this intensely artificial manner, the poet overcomes all its hindrances. As in the Greek drama, the action is simple, the persons few, the statuesque severity of the iambic dialogue is relieved by the majestic lyrics given to the Chorus. Samson himself acts as spokesman, in the Greek manner, at the beginning of the poem; similarly, the catastrophe, which cannot be worthily represented on the stage, is related by a messenger. In the character of the hero, his blindness, his sufferings, and his resignation to the will of God, Milton refers to his own afflictions. The whole piece reflects most faithfully the austere patriotism and religious feeling of the Old Testament, and the lyric choruses are perhaps the highest flight of the author's genius. He copies all the details of style and construction from the ancient dramas, and so closely that it is no exaggeration to say that, from a study of Samson Agonistes, a modern reader will obtain a more exact impression of the nature of Greek tragedy than from the most faithful translation of Sophocles or Euripides. Further, the stories of the Old Testament are, to our minds, precisely what the legends of heroes and demigods were to the Greeks; and therefore Milton's Samson, con
structed on the lines of Eschylus' Prometheus Vinctus or Euripides' Hercules Furens, and dealing with the sacred life and death of a religious hero, gives us some apAppropriate preciation of the hallowed meaning which those ness of the tragedies conveyed to the Athenian mind. It is treatment of hardly too much to say that the Miltonic scholar "Samson" to its subject. -and the word implies a scholarship reaching beyond Milton's own vast horizon, which few can compassfinds his final feast amid the treasures of the Samson Agonistes, and in the closely compressed beauty of its difficult, elliptic, and involved style, which to many readers proves somewhat formidable. And it is certainly true, so far as English literature goes, that the end of tragedy, its ideal representation, its unfolding of the ways of fate in human affairs, has only in two cases been approached as nearly-in Hamlet and King Lear.
NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS.
Closely connected with Milton, principally in a political, but in some degree also in a literary relation, is the name of ANDREW MARVELL (1621-1678). He was born at Winestead, near Hull, in 1621, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and passed the earlier part of his life in travel. About 1650 he became tutor in the Fairfax family at Nun Appleton in Yorkshire, where he wrote lyric poetry fit to rank among the best pre-Restoration verse. In 1653 Milton recommended him to Bradshaw for the post of assistant Latin secretary. The appointment did not fall to him till 1657; but Marvell seems to have entertained all along the strongest admiration for the great poet whose colleague he thus became, and a friendship sprang up between them, founded on a common bond of tastes and agreement in religious and political questions. During the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell, Marvell was returned to Parliament as member for Hull, and, to his death he maintained an incorruptible honesty and fidelity to his rigid principles. The Restoration was a bitter thing to him, in whose display of licence and arbitrary power he could not acquiesce. Under these
circumstances the poet and scholar
little has a distinction of its own which raises it far above the mediocrity of much contemporary writing-Waller, for instance, or even Cowley, wrote more and wrote worse. The first collected edition of Marvell's poems appeared in 1681, three years after his death.
Another political writer of this period is JAMES HARRINGTON 1611-1677), author of the Oceana, whose once famous republican theory may be regarded as the antithesis of Hobbes' monarchial scheme in the Leviathan. Har rington was brought up at Trinity College, Oxford, where, it is said, he was the disciple of Chillingworth, and for a long time resided abroad, attaching himself in Holland to the Court of the exiled Elector Palatine, Frederick, and visiting Rome, Copenhagen, and Venice. He was appointed, in 1647, one of Charles I's attendants during the King's imprisonment in the hands of the Parliament, and succeeded in inspiring the captive sovereign with feelings of confidence and attachment. His great work, Oceana, was published in 1656. It contains an elaborate project for the establishment of a pure republic upon philosophical principles, carried out to those minute details so frequent in paper constitutions, and so impossible in practical execution. Harrington's organisation is founded upon landed property, which he maintains to be the only solid foundation of power; and the distinguishing characteristic of his plan is the principle of an elective administration, whose members are to go out of office by a complicated system of rotation. His exposition is clear and logical, but the method he proposes has the never-failing defect of all these scientific systems of ideal constitution - makers; it calculates upon results as if they could be predicted with unerring certainty upon mathematical premises, and overlooks the fact that it has to do, not with ciphers or the unvarying forces of inanimate nature, but with the fickle elements of human caprice.
Harrington was the founder of the celebrated Rota Club, a society composed of political enthusiasts and principally of the most philosophical republicans of the day-the Girondins of the English Revolution-who met to discuss their opinions together. He was imprisoned in the Tower in 1661, and was removed to Plymouth; but, in consideration of his growing insanity, was liberated from his confinement and restored to his friends. In spite of their care, however, he never recovered altogether from his obsession, and died of paralysis.
ALGERNON SIDNEY (1622-1682), the son of Robert, Earl of Leicester, was beheaded for high treason in the reign of Charles II, and bears in consequence the reputation of a Republican martyr. His Discourses on Government, not published till 1698, contain a refutation of that patriarchial theory of government which was most fully propounded in SIR ROBERT FILMER'S (d. 1653) Patriarcha, written in the reign of Charles I, but not published till 1680. Filmer's treatise was answered by Locke in his first Treatise on Government (1690).
The Civil War and Revolution, amid their exciting history, were not without many noble instances of virtue and intellect on the part of women. The most distinguished Republican ladies of the time were RACHEL, LADY RUSSELL (16361723), the wife of the unfortunate William, Lord Russell, and Lucy HUTCHINSON (b. 1620), wife of John Hutchinson the regicide. Both occupy an honourable place in the literature of their time: Lady Russell by the collection of letters written to her friends after her bereavement; Mrs. Hutchinson by the memoirs, which are among the most valuable and interesting, although not always the most trustworthy, documents of that agitated time. Lady Russell, whose husband was executed in 1683, survived him till 1723, but her correspondence was not collected and published till 1773..
BUTLER, DRYDEN, AND THE PROSE WRITERS OF THE
§1. SAMUEL BUTLER: his life. § 2. Hudibras. §3. Butler's miscellaneous writings. § 4. Life of DRYDEN. § 5. His dramas. § 6. His shorter poems. $7. Absalom and Achitophel; The Medal; Mac Flecknoe. §8. Religio Laici and The Hind and the Panther. §9. Odes; Translations of Juvenal and Virgil. § 10. Fables. § 11. Dryden's prose works. 12. BUNYAN: his life. § 13. His works: Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. § 14. The Pilgrim's Progress. § 15. The Holy War. 16. CLARENDON. § 17. His History of the Great Rebellion. § 18. IZAAK WALTON: his Lives and Complete Angler. §19. JOHN EVELYN. § 20. SAMUEL PEPYS. § 21. SIR ROGER L'ESTRANGE; GEORGE ŠAVILe, Marquess oF HALIFAX. § 22. The change in prose style.
§ 1. IF the greatest name in the literature of the Puritan and Republican party is that of Milton, the most illustrious literary representative of the Cavaliers is certainly SAMUEL BUTLER. Any comparison between the two is for BUTLER obvious reasons impossible: the only point at which (1612-1680). they seem to approach one another is their almost Life. universal erudition. Butler's life was melancholy; he was incessantly persecuted by disappointment and distress; and he died, according to tradition, in such indigence that he was indebted for his grave to the pity of an admirer. His family was respectable but not wealthy: he himself was born in 1612, and was educated at Worcester free school. Great obscurity rests upon the details of his career. One account sends him to Oxford, another to Cambridge; while against these remains the doubt whether he was at either University. In all probability this last is the true conclusion, and lack of means certainly deprived him of any prolonged opportunity of acquiring in this way any portion of that immense learning which his works prove him to have possessed. As a young man, he was clerk to a country justice of the peace, one Jeffereys; and there is little doubt that in this situation he made himself acquainted with the details of English legal procedure. He was afterwards preferred to the service of the Countess of Kent. Very probably he owed this favour to Selden, who had long resided as steward in this lady's town house, and is supposed,