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learned work called The Court of the
Gentiles (1669-1677), in which he B.-SCOTTISH DIVINES.
attempts to prove that every Euro-

SAMUEL RUTHERFORD (1600pean language springs from Hebrew, and that all heathen philosophy was

1661). borrowed from the Scriptures, or at

Thomas HALYBURTON (1674least from the Jews. As a Noncon

1712).

THOMAS BOSTON (1677-1732). formist, he was deprived of his fellow

During this age the Presbyterians ship at the Restoration. MATTHEW HENRY (1662-1714)

and Nonconformists generally were

much was the son of Philip. Henry (1631- "Marrow"controversy, the occasion

perturbed by

the great 1696), and became, like his father,

of which was a book called The an eminent Nonconformist divine. His well-known commentary on the Marrow of Modern Divinity. It had Bible (1708-1710) still enjoys a

been published in 1645, more than certain popularity ; its style is plain covered it and started the dispute.

seventy years before Boston re-disand concise. lain to Cromwell, was an eminent rejected it. It gave rise to much JOHN Howe (1630-1705), chap- This work was warmly received by

one party, while another as warmly Independent minister, and wrote

disturbance and contest. The author various theological treatises and

was commonly supposed to be one Sermons. ROBERT LEIGHTON (1611-1684),

Edward Fisher, but his identity is

uncertain. Archbishop of Glasgow from 1670 to

The three writers mentioned above 1674, has earned a most illustrious reputation from his Commentary on

took part in the quarrel, all three of

them divines of a severe and sombre the First Epistle of St. Peter. Its

cast. However, their massiveness of magnificent style almost takes us back to the Elizabethan age; but thought and richness of style con

trast very favourably with the dull there is very little overcrowding of words, while the depth of its thought produced by the later Puritans in

and formless theology which was is amazing. Coleridge called attention to it in his Aids to Reflection, of Anwoth in Galloway, and prin

England. Rutherford, the minister and although, unfortunately, the book is little read to-day, it has Andrews, is a remarkable instance

cipal of St. Mary's College, St. never wanted its students and ad

of self-denial and devotion to his mirers. It was published, with the rest of Leighton's Remains, between living in 1636 and exiled to Aber

calling. He was deprived of his 1692 and 1708. WILLIAM LOWTH (1660-1732), minster Assembly, and died soon

deen. He took part in the Westprebendary of Winchester and rector

after the Restoration. He is menof Buriton, made valuable additions to the theology of his age in his

tioned by Milton in his sonnet on

" The New Forcers of Conscience Commentaries and his Vindication of the Divine Authority of the Old

under the Long Parliament.” and New Testaments 21692). He was the father of the well-known C.-OTHER PROSE WRITERS. Rishop Lowth. (See p. 503.)

JOHN OWEN (1616-1683) was the ELIAS ASHMOLE (1617-1692) was most famous of all the Independent a learned antiquary, and married divines, and a most voluminous the daughter of Sir William Dugwriter. His Exercitations on the dale (see below). His chief work Epistle to the Hebrews (1668–1684) is was The Institutions, Laws, and his best known work. He was a man Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of great benevolence and piety, and of the Garter (1672). He wrote wrote good, albeit rather featureless numerous other works, and was the English. Under Cromwell, he was founder of the Ashmolean Museum chosen to usurp the offices of dean at Oxford, whose origin was of Christ Church and Vice-Chan- museum bequeathed to him by his cellor of Oxford.

friend Tradescant.

a

JONN AUBREY (1526-1697) col. 1 of political tracts, and, in his Second lected materials for many works, | Discourse concerning the Affairs of but published only one, the Miscel- Scotland (1698), is to be found the lanies (1696), containing an account extravagant, but, in those days, not of popular superstitions, and bearing altogether unreasonable proposal witness to his own credulity. This, for reducing the wandering beggars however, does not represent the or "gaberlunzies" to a state closely full extent of his learning, or his resembling slavery, with the extraliterary value as one of the most ordinary rider that the most hardened agreeable of gossips.

offenders should be sent to serve in EDWARD BROWNE (1644-1708) the Venetian galleys against the of Norwich and Trinity College, Turk! His courageous projects Cambridge, was the eldest son of were never adopted; and he lived Sir Thomas Browne, and rose to to see, with mortification, the union great eminence as a doctor, being a against which he had so vehemently physician to Charles II, and, for declaimed. the last four years of his life, Presi- Sir MATTHEW HALE (1609dent of the Royal College of Phy- 1676). Chief Justice of the King's sicians. He did some work as a Bench in the reign of Charles II, translator, but his most nemorable wrote several works, many, such book is his Brief Account of Some as the Contemplations Moral and Travels in the Balkan peninsula and Divine (1700), being of a moral and the Austrian dominions. He went religious character. as far as Larissa in Thessaly, out of SiR GEORGE MACKENZIE (1636– respect to the memory of Hippo- 1691), King's Advocate from 1677 to crates, who had been a doctor there. 1686, was hated by the Covenanters

SIR WILLIAM DUGDALE (1605- as the "bloodthirsty advocate." The 1686) produced one of the most reputation which he thus gained valuable contributions to the know- seems to have rested on no founda. ledge of ecclesiastical antiquities- tion, so far as his own character was the English Monasticon (1665-1673). concerned, beyond a certain heat He also published The Baronage of and sternness of temper, and, in his England (1676), The Antiquities of early days at the bar (1661), he had Warwickshire Illustrated (1656). pleaded the cause of Lord Argyll. A History of St. Paul's Cathedral He wrote both verse and prose. (1658), etc. It is impossible to do His prose style is a remarkable sufficient justice to Dugdale's as- example of belated enthusiasm for tonishing learning, which justifies us the long period, which had, in his in calling him the first of English own day, given place to the short sen. antiquaries. His work, unlike that of tence; and, both in his early novel, so many of his contemporaries, can Aretina (1661), and in his later never go out of date, but must al. essays, he imitates the great masters ways remain a leading authority on of Caroline prose with considerable its special subject. And, further, he success. He is buried in the Grey. is almost a solitary example of the friars' Churchyard at Edinburgh. scholar the extent of whose learning HENRY Neville (1620-1694), the is fully represented by the quantity friend of Harrington, the author of as well as the quality of his writing. the Oceana, was also a member of “What Dugdale has done," says the republican party. His treatise, Anthony Wood, “is prodigious. His Plato Redivivus, or a Dialogue conmemory ought to be venerated and cerning Government (1681), shows, had in everlasting remembrance." however, a political change, as, in a

ANDREW FLETCHER (1655-1716) dialogue between a Venetian nobleof Saltoun was a Scottish political man, an English doctor (supposed writer of some note, who spent a to be Harvey), and an English very turbulent life, first, in opposing gentleman, it advocates the monar. the Stewart government in Scotland, chical form of government. and, after his return from exile in THOMAS RYMER (1641-1713). 1688, in inveighing against union historiographer from 1692 to his with England. His work consists | death, is principally known as the compiler of the Fædera. His im- minent member of the Long Parliaportance as a writer consists, how- ment, was entrusted with an embassy ever, in a pair of essays in which he to Sweden, and with other high vehemently attacked the Elizabethan offices, by the Protector. He wrote drama and advocated a return to Memorials of English Affairs from the Greek model. The first of these the beginning of the reign of appeared in 1678, the year after his Charles I to the Restoration (1682), own frigid tragedy, Edgar, and which are familiar by name to all may therefore be considered as a readers of Carlyle's Cromwell. piece of special pleading. The ANTHONY WOOD (1632-1695) of second diatribe, dealing with Othello Merton College, Oxford, is well and Julius Cæsar, appeared in known as the historian (1674) of the 1692, fourteen years later than the city and University of Oxford, and as first. The serious attention of his the author of Athena O.xonienses closing years was devoted to the (1691-2), an account of the eminent Fædera (1704-1713). one of the most men educated at Oxford. His extraimportant collections of state papers ordinary and admirable devotion to in existence, Fifteen volumes were his University has done something, issued during Rymer's lifetime, the perhaps, to hinder his wider reputaremaining two (1715 and 1717) were tion as a writer of charming and edited by his assistant, Robert quaint English prose ; but all subseSanderson.

quent writers on Oxford owe almost BC LSTRODE WHITELOCKE (1605- everything to him, while his own life 1675), an ab lawyer and a pro- ' in Oxford was his ideal of happiness.

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THE AGE OF ANNE.
I. POPE, SWIFT, AND THE AUGUSTAN POETS.

§ 1. Pope : his early life and poems. The Rape of the Lock and Windsor

Fores. § 2. His translation of Homer. $ 3. Publication of his complete poems. His life at Twickenham and his edition of Shakespeare. $ 4. The Dunciad, the Essay on Man, etc. $ 5. Criticism of The Rape of the Lock. Pope's death and character. $6. SWIFT: his early life and connection with Sir William Temple. $ 7. Settles in Ireland. The Tale of a Tub. $ 8. Returns to England and joins the Tories. Made dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin. $ 9. Takes up his residence finally in Ireland. The Drapier's Letters. Gulliver's Travels. His death. § 10. His relation to Stella and Vanessa. $ 11. Criticism of Gulliver's Travels. $ 12. Of The Tale of a Tub and other works. Comparison between Swift, Rabelais, and Voltaire. $ 13. ARBUTHNOT. His History of John Bull. § 14. MATTHEW PRIOR. § 15. GAY: The Beggar's Opera. $ 16. GARTH, PARNELL, and TICKELL 17. YOUNG: the Night Thoughts. § 18. ALLAN RAMSAY.

$1. The literary period inaugurated by Dryden and the great wits of the Revolution reached its climax in the reign of Annethe so-called Augustan age of English literature. The classical spirit ruled supreme in verse and prose alike, and produced a degree of polish in both, which, in inferior hands, became dangerously like a mere mechanical regularity. It was an age pre-eminently of literary cliques, of great patrons and clients of genius. Its whole tendency was unimaginative and matter-of

fact ; its Titerature deals, not with ideas, but with men and things--and, above all, politics-and studies not so much what it says as the way to say it. This is the spirit which we have seen coming in like a float with Dryden ; and, as he dominated his own age, so the epoch in which his work was carried to

perfection has its own laureate. Far above all other

poets of this epoch shines the brilliant name of (1688-1744).

ALEXANDER POPE. His family was of the Roman Life.

communion ; his father carried on a linen draper's business in Lombard Street, and there he was born on the 21st of May, 1688. About 1700 his father retired to a pleasant country-house at Binfield, between Windsor and Wokingham, so that, from his earliest years, Pope was familiar with the rural scenery of Windsor Forest. The boy's

ALEXANDER
PoPE

growth was retarded by a severe illness in childhood; he remained almost a dwarf, and so deformed that his after-life was “one long disease," which not only precluded him from the possibility of embracing any active profession, but made constant care and nursing necessary to the preservation of his life. Like many other deformed persons, he had a face which was singularly intellectual and expressive, and his eyes were remarkable for their tenderness and fire. He was sent to school for a short time, but returned home when he was twelve. His intellect was extraordinarily precocious, and the literary ambition by which he was devoured from his early boyhood at once pointed out his destined career. He said of himself, “ I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came," and his earliest attempts at poetry were made when he had hardly left his nursery. His father was in easy circumstances; and thus the boy was able to indulge that taste for study and poetical reading which continued to be the passion of his life. He was so struck with reverence for Dryden's glory that, at the age of twelve, he is said to have persuaded a friend to accompany him to Will's Coffee-house, which the illustrious veteran frequented ; and so obtained a glance at the patriarch of letters, whose mantle he himself was destined to wear. Dryden died in that very year, 1700; and Pope's first work belongs to 1702 or 1703, when, although only fifteen, he translated the first book of Statius' Thebais ; and he composed a collection of Pastorals, if his own statement is to be trusted, in 1704. These Pope's early

poetry. were not published till 1709, when they appeared in one of Tonson's Miscellanies, side by side with the Pastorals of Pope's future enemy, Ambrose Philips. To nearly the same time as the Pastorals, which are stiff imitations from Virgil, belong certain paraphrases of Chaucer, which prove him eager in all things to follow the example of his great master, Dryden. In 1705, or about that time, he met Wycherley; and the famous but ill-assorted friendship of the old and young poets lasted, with considerable heart-burnings on either side, and one serious break, till Wycherley's death in 1715. Another early friend, to whom Pope was apparently introduced by Wycherley, was William Walsh, something of a poet himself and a considerable critic. His influence and advice appear to have had much to do with the formation of Pope's style. At any rate, he receives a fine tribute of praise in the Essay on Criticism,

Publicawhich, written in 1710 and published in 1711, was

tion of the the first poem to fix Pope's reputation, and to give Essay on a foretaste of his immense popularity. His precepts

Criticism"

(1711). are those inculcated by Horace, repeated by Boileau, and by all the poets and critics of the classical school ; but they are expressed by Pope with such an union of force and delicacy, such ripeness of judgment, such grace of expression and melody of verse, that the poem appears less like the effort of a young writer than the result of consummate experience and practice

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