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a translation of Rohault's Physics ( he achieved some notoriety: and his (1695), which he augmented two sermon on The Nature of Christ's years later, revising it by comparison Kingdom, preached before George I with the Newtonian philosophy. In in 1717, raised about his ears the 1701 he was presented to the living storm of the “ Bangorian controof Drayton, near Norwich ; and, in versy." He was a friend and, to 1704 and 1705, was Boyle lecturer. some extent, a disciple of Clarke ; His lectures on The Being and but his religious views were tainted Attributes of God and The Obliga- by a greater secularity, and he tions of Natural Religion form his unquestionably was one of those most important contribution to divines who did irreparable injury metaphysical literature. Very soon to the English Church during the after delivering these he was ap- Hanoverian period. Nevertheless, pointed royal chaplain and we must give him his due, and rector of St. James', Westminster. acknowledge that he acted withal His treatise on The Scripture Doce sincerely.

Moreover,

his work trine of the Trinity (1712) caused happens to be quite readable. The some stir in Convocation. Clarke's controversy in which he was enviews were distinctly of an Unita- gaged was more than ephemeral ; rian type ; as a philosophical Low and he approached it with a certain Churchman he was naturally at- humour and capacity for satire tracted by the deism of his day; and which was not always to be found his metaphysics, of course, had a in the controversial literature of his strong intiuence on his theology. time. A notable instance of this is the Perhaps a more fortunate contribu- ironical dedication Pope Clement tion to philosophy was his corre- XI which he prefixed to Steele's spondence with Leibnitz, in which he Account of the State of the Roman defended the Newtonian philosophy. Catholic Religion (1715)--a jeu This was published in 1717, the d'esprit, which was the first maniyear after Leibnitz' death. Among festo of his views, and the immediate his remaining works are his para- cause of his preferment. phrases of the Gospels (1701-2) and NATHANIEL LARDNER (168.4his seventeen sermons, partly meta- | 1768), a Nonconformist divine, was physical and partly practical (1724). the author of a very learned work on În' 1727 he refused to accept the The Credibility of Gospel History, mastership of the Mint. Although published between 1727 and 1757, one cannot deny to Clarke the virtue and of a somewhat similar treatise of ability, he was not one of the entitled A large Collection of Ancient, great metaphysicians. His doctrine Jewish, and Heathen Testimonies to that the rule of virtue consists in the the Truth of the Christian Religion fitness of things, or in their "con- (1764-7). gruity of relation," which neglects CHARLES LESLIE (1650-1722) was the distinction and prior discernment an Irish nonjuring clergyman and of good things from bad, was con- controversialist, who, after attacking demned by Butler and later moralists the Quakers in a treatise called The as too limited and confined. His Snake in the Grass (1696), followed style is neither very simple nor very it up with A Short and Easy Mlethod difficult; its tendency is to be plain with the Deists (1698). He lived and vigorous; it is, however, seldom abroad for

time with the more than mediocre.

Pretender. His voluminous works BENJAMIN HOADLY (1676–1761), were published in London (1721) born at Westerham in Kent, and and reprinted at Oxford in 1832. educated at Catharine Hall, Cam- HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX (1648bridge, was “a man of much motion 1724), student of Christ Church, and promotion," rector of St. Peter- Oxford, and dean of Norwich, wrote le-Poor and Streatham, Bishop of The Old and New Testaments Con. Bangor (which he never visited) innected (1716-18) and a book on 1715, of Hereford in 1721, of Salis- Tithes (1710). His most interesting bury in 1723, and of Winchester in work, however, is contained in his 1734. As a Whig and latitudinarian, letters to his friend Ellis, which are ENG. LIT.

2 F

some

full of gossiping details as to the pointed out the way to the "free Oxford life of his time. These were thought " of a later age. published by the Camden Society in William WHISTON (1667-1752), 1875.

of Clare College, Cambridge, was a THOMAS SHERLOCK (1678-1761), mathematician of the school of Newthe antagonist of Hoadly, was the ton, and succeeded his master as son of William Sherlock, Master of Lucasian professor of mathematics. the Temple (see p. 375), and suc- He was at first in Holy Orders, but ceeded his father in that post. In was expelled from the Church on 1714 he became Master of Catharine account of his Arian opinions, and, Hall, Cambridge, where Hoadly, before his death, became a Baptist two years his senior, was fellow. and espoused millenarian doctrines. The lives of the two ran in a curi. His chief works were-A New Theory ous parallel Sherlock, as dean of of the Earth (1696), an Essay on the Chichester, took a foremost part in Revelation of St. John (1706), Serthe Bangorian controversy of 1717. mons (1709), Primitive ChristianHe, like Hoadly, became Bishop of ity Revived (1711-2), and Memoirs Bangor; he was Hoadly's successor (1749-50). at Salisbury; from Salisbury he was translated to London in 1748, and died in the same year as

(3.) HISTORIANS, ETC. his old enemy.

once

Sherlock was at THOMAS CARTE (1686–1754) was a High Churchman and a the author of a History of England Hanoverian royalist; his spiritu- (1747-55), which came down to 1654. ality was perhaps not great, but he and of a Life of James, Duke of was an eloquent speaker and wrote Ormond. He was a strong Jacobite. well. His work is composed of LAURENCE ECHARD (16707sermons and controversial treatises ; | 1730), archdeacon of Stow and and, beside the part which he took canon of Lincoln, was an extensive in the Bangorian controversy and compiler and careful annalist. His the Boyle and Bentley quarrel, he histories of England (1707-20), wrote a book against the deists Rome (1697-8), and the Church called The Trial of the Witnesses (1702), were considered valuable of the Resurrection of Jesus (1729). collections in their day, and several

MATTHEW TINDAL (1653?-1733) | editions of the Ecclesiastical History may be considered as the leader of have been published. the deists—that is to say, of the party BASIL KENNETT (1674-1715) was whose scepticism was thorough educated at Oxford, and became going He is said to have turned English chaplain at Leghorn. He Romanist under James II, but, later was the author of a book on Roman on, he developed a form of unbelief antiquities-Romæ Antique Notitia which found its practical expression (1696). in Christianity as old as the Creation CONYERS MIDDLETON (1683(1730). Tindal had some claims to 1750), of Trinity College, Camliterary distinction, which were not bridge, librarian of the University shared by his contemporaries of the and Woodwardian professor of same way of thinking. The most geology, is known as one of Bentnotorious of these, JUNIUS JANUS, ley's chief opponents in his famous or, as he called himself, JOHN quarrel with the fellows of Trinity. TOLAND (1670-1722), the author of Bentley is said to have been afraid Christianity not Mysterious (1696), of Middleton alone among all his was little more than a vigorous pam- foes. The ill-natured spite of the phleteer. The rationalism of these man is shown in the story that, when writers was principally destructive. the University had deprived Bentley The Discourse of Freethinking (1713) of his degree, Middleton addressed of ANTHONY COLLINS (1676-1729) is

a letter to him with the superscripan apologia rather than a positive tion, “The Rev. Richard Bentley, treatise, and WILLIAM WOLLASTON | late D.D." Middleton's chief work, (1660-1724), in his, Religion of by which he is now best known, is Nature' Delineated (1724), merely | his Life of Cicero (1741), plagiarised

for the most part, from the Scottish published between 1725 and 1731 ; historian of more than a century the continuation appeared in 1744 before, William Bellenden. His and 1745. Rapin's work had been Free Inquiry into the Miraculous published in 1723. Powers which are supposed to have existed in the Christian Church (1743), which showed a very strong

B.—THE BOYLE AND leaning to rationalism, created a

BENTLEY CONTROVERSY. great sensation, and was certainly a This celebrated controversy, which curious book to have been written has been alluded to more than by an Anglican clergyman. Middle- once in the immediately preceding ton wrote a weighty, classical prose chapters, arose out of another upon style which enjoyed a great contem- the comparative merits of the ancient porary fame. It is totally without and modern writers. This dispute ornament; at the same time, even had its origin in France, where to-day, it is lively and vigorous; and | Fontenelle and Perrault claimed for even its sternness and slight incli- the moderns a general superiority nation, here and there, to stiffness, over the writers of antiquity. A never prevents it from achieving its reply to their arguments was pubpurpose and carrying home its lished by Sir William Temple in author's meaning.

his essay, Of Ancient and Modern WILLIAM NICOLSON (1655- Learning (1692). Sir William was 1727), Bishop of Carlisle from 1702 nothing if not elegant ; but his to 1718, then of Derry, and eventually answer was puerile and exposed Archbishop of Cashel, was a learned great credulity. Not content with antiquarian, who wrote books on the pointing out the undoubted merits Border Laws (1705) and the Laws of the great writers of antiquity, he of the Anglo-Saxons. From 1696 to undervalued modern labours and 1724 he produced a catalogue of discovery, and passed over Shake. Mss. called The English, Scottish, speare, Milton, and Newton without and Irish Historical Libraries. mentioning their names.

JOHN POTTER (1674? - 1747) Two years later a more accomwas born at Wakefield, educated plished and impartial writer entered at University College, Oxford, and the field. WILLIAM WOTTON (1666. eventually became Archbishop of 1726) had been a boy of astonishing Canterbury in 1737. He is best precocity, and had been admitted known for his work, Archæologia to Catharine Hall, Cambridge, when Graca (1697-8), which was for a under ten years old. When he took long time the chief authority on his degree, at the age of thirteen, Hellenic antiquities.

he was acquainted with twelve JOHN STRYPE (1643-1737), son languages. În 1694 this young of a refugee from Brabant, was scholar brought out his Reflections educated at Catharine Hall, Cam upon Ancient and Modern Learning, bridge, and took Holy Orders in in which, speaking with authority, the Church of England. He devoted he assigned to the ancients their real himself to history and biography, merits, and, at the same time, pointed and wrote lives of Cranmer (1694) out the superiority of the moderns in Grindal (1710). Parker (1711), and physical science. Whitgift (1718); Annals of the These books formed the prelude Reformation (1709-31); and was to the real contest. Sir William editor (1724) of Stow's Survey of Temple in his essay, among other London, beside other works of his arguments to prove the decay of torical and antiquarian interest. He humour, wit, and learning, had died at Hackney at the age of ninety- maintained that the oldest books four.

extant were still the best of their NICHOLAS TINDAL (1687-1774), | kind," and in proof of this assertion the nephew of Matthew Tindal the had cited Æsop's Fables and the deist, was the translator and con- Epistles of Phalaris. Temple's praise tinuator of Rapin's History of led to the publication of a new England. His translation edition of Phalaris by the scholars

was

of Christ Church, Oxford (1695). / their acquaintance with several of Dean Aldrich was at the back of the books upon which they comthe scheme, but the nominal editor ment appears only to have begun on was Charles Boyle, a brother of that occasion, and sometimes they Lord Orrery; and, in his preface, are indebted for their knowledge of he inserted a bitter attack on the them to their adversary; compared royal librarian, who had refused with his boundless erudition, their to lend him a Ms. from the King's learning was that of school-boys, library beyond the proper time and not always sufficient to preserve allowed.

them from distressing mistakes. It Boyle's recriminations opened the may be doubtsul whether Busby real contest. The King's librarian himself, by whom every one of the was RICHARD BENTLEY (1662-1742), confederate band had been educated, a rough Yorkshireman, who had possessed knowledge which could been educated at Wakefield school have qualified him to enter the lists and St. John's College, Cambridge, in such a controversy." But they and was already regarded as the made up for their deficient learning finest classical scholar of the time. by their wit and raillery, and when He had been tutor in Stillingfleet's their book appeared (1698) it was family, and had been appointed received with extravagant applause. royal librarian in 1694 He It bore the pretentious title of retaliated upon Boyle two years Dr. Bentley's Dissertations on the after the appearance of Phalaris. Epistles of Phalaris and the Fables To the second edition of Wotton's of Æsop examined by the Honourable Reflections (1697) he added a dis- Charles Boyle, Esq., which has sertation, in the form of letters to usually been abbreviated into Boyle the author, proving that the author against Bentley. Boyle had, howof Phalaris' Epistles was not the ever, very little if any share in the Sicilian tyrant, but some sophist of composition of the work. It was a later age. Sir William Temple, generally supposed that Bentley who had been greatly annoyed by was silenced and crushed. Public Wotton's book, was still more angry opinion was entirely on the side of with Bentley's essay; and Swift, the Christ Church scholars, whose who was then living in Temple's work represented good breeding and house, took up the cudgels for his humour. Bentley, on the other patron in The Battle of the Books, in hand, had the reputation of a gauche, which he ridiculed Bentley in the ill-bred person, with no manners and inost ludicrous manner. The satire a rough-shod wit which naturally was not published, however, till 1704. made more enemies than friends :

Temple's part in the controversy and, for such an individual to is a side issue. The centre of set his scholarship up against the indignation was at Christ Church. prestige of great foundation like Bentley's attack was considered an Christ Church, was considered an affront to the whole college; and it impertinence. was resolved, at once and for ever, It was expected that Bentley to crush the audacious assailant. would bow his head and say All the strength of the college was nothing. However, he had very enlisted in the contest, but the chief little respect for ancient foundations task of the reply was undertaken by and honourable disputants; and, Atterbury, who succeeded Aldrich in 1699. he surprised his foes with as dean some years later. His Bentley against Boyle-A Dissertaassistants were George Smalridge, tion upon the Epistles of Phalaris : who succeeded him in the deanery, with an answer to the objections of Robert Friend, afterwards head. the Hon. Charles Boyle, by Richard master of Westminster School, his Bentley, D.D. In the history of brother John Friend, and Anthony controversy there has been no more Alsop. “In point of classical learn- striking success. The book was no ing," wrote Bentley's biographer, bitter retort ; it did not attempt to

the joint stock of the confederacy make its adversaries look ridiculous bore no proportion to that of Bentley ; | by its witty ingenuity alone. It was

on

a serious tribute to scholarship, consequently in literature and learn. confuting the Christ Church dons on ing throughout the kingdom. Its almost every point, direct and in- direct influence is seen in scholars direct, which they had raised; and like Porson, in the growth of it won, although not all at once, Shakespearean criticism under a well-merited success. There was Steevens and Malone, in historiars no official answer: the reply had like Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson, been so complete and crushing in Johnson's English Dictionary. that it was useless to attempt a And, indirectly, there is a deeper rejoinder. The professors of politc note in all the writing of the coming leiters who disliked Bentley's labo- age: satire gives way to humour ; rious scholarship, the Tories who superficial observation to the real disliked his Whiggism, agreed that study of character in the great he had triumphed and that there novelists ; in short, we pass to a was nothing more to be said.

wider and deeper humanity. That As a mere quarrel, the controversy Bentley's criticismis Phalaris, itself was purely ephemeral and acting as they did upon the very hopelessly one-sided. Its place in centres of English education, were English literary history is, however, in a great measure responsible for very important. No controversy this change, it would be impossible over a disputed authorship would, to deny. in our own time, occupy the public So far as the actual combatants attention so thoroughly. Then, how- were concerned, their later energy ever, opinion on such matters was manifested itself in other directions. very different, and a discussion in Sir William Temple did not live to which men of birth and distinction, see Bentley against Boyle, but died like Charles Boyle and Sir William with his belief in the authenticity of Temple, took part, was sure to Phalaris and the superiority of the enlisi the sympathies of educated ancients unshaken. Atterbury intropeople, and to command an interest duced confusion into Christ Church, outside the field of mere scholarship. and Smalridge had to soothe things The question of politics and good down afterwards. Bentley himself, manners was more important than as Master of Trinity, was for fortylearning. We must not suppose two years the cause and centre of a that Bentley's victory was immediate: humiliating controversy between himhis theories won their way little by self and the fellows of the college, little. But, in the end, his profound which at times assumed the form of knowledge of his subject completely open war. his, however, belongs turned the scales of public feeling to the history of Cambridge, and not on this point. It represented the to English literature. His further triumph of accurate scholarship over contributions to scholarship were a polite smatterers ; it effected a revo- Horace (1711), a Terence (1726), and lution in the learning of the next an edition of Paradise Lost (1732). century, and, consequently, altered These have been superseded in the the whole tone of its literature. course of time ; but the dissertations The scholarship of the seventeenth on Phalaris have a more lasting century and the age of Anne, with interest. “The book," said Monk all its classical veneer, was a very in his Life of Bentley,

“ will long poor affair. The writers of history, continue to be in the hands of all for instance, went about their work educated persons, as long as litera. with no critical discrimination ; they ture maintains its hold in society."

mere compilers, and, with It is to be feared that, of late years, little sense of taste or style, were in spite of the contributions of Dr. dull and vague. Their histories and Jebb and others to the literature of antiquarian dissertations are now Bentley, educated people have rather obsolete. With Bentley came lost sight of his chief work ; but that general renaissance, evident, pri- does not alter its importance or marily, in the Universities, and value, or excuse its neglect,

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