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Lovell (1846) and Henry Fortescue verse which is almost poetry. His (1847). His plots, everything con- books have exotic and strange titles sidered, are fairly natural and his The West Indies (1809), which characters are well sustained. On dealt with the abolition of the slave the whole, without a spark of genius, trade; The World before the Flood he occupies a prominent place in (1812), a prehistoric epic; Green. the undistinguished theatrical record land (1819); and The Pelican Island of his time.

(1826). Montgomery's philanthropy LETITIA ELIZABETH LANDON, and liberalism brought him into hot better known as L. E. L. (1802- water, and, in his early manhood, 1838), wrote a great deal of gushing he was twice imprisoned for libel. and harmlessly Byronic poetry, He was a sound if not very original which, as the work of a romantic critic, and his lectures on poetry at and unfortunate lady, enjoyed a the Royal Institution (1830-1) were great and undeserved popularity, successful. In 1835 he received a She was the daughter of an army | pension of £150 from Peel. Perhaps agent, was born at Chelsea, and his chief claim to distinction resides married, in 1838, Mr. Maclean, in some of his beautiful hymns, governor of the Gold Coast in published in 1853. Of these one or West Africa. She went out with two, including For ever with the him to Cape Coast Castle, and Lord, are classic. He must be careaccidentally poisoned herself there fully distinguished from the untwo months after landing.

speakable ROBERT MONTGOMERY JOHN LEYDEN (1775-1811) was (1807-1855), whose trash in The the author of certain Poetical Re- Omnipresence of the Deity (1828) and mains, published in 1819, under the Satan (1830) gained a notorious imeditorship of the Rev. James Morton. mortality in the scathing criticism Sir Walter Scott was his friend and written by Macaulay for the Edin. spoke in high terms of his poetry. | burgh. Montgomery took Holy Leyden had written for The Edin. Orders, and was minister, during the burgh Magazine, and in 1798 became | last twelve years of his life, of a proa Presbyterian preacher ; but subse. prietary chapel in St. Pancras. quently he entered the East India WILLIAM MOTHERWELL (1797Company's service as a surgeon.

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1835) was a Scotsman who made man of great learning, he mastered some mark in journalism, wrote several Oriental languages while in some Scottish songs, and took an India. He accompanied Lord Minto interest in old legends and ballads. in the expedition against Java, and Unlike his contemporaries, Tannadied there in 1811.

hill and Thom, his work is not JAMES CLARENCE MANGAN wholly derivative from Burns; and (1803-1849) was an Irish poet whose the best part of it has a close kinlife was irregular and unhappy. His ship to Scott's work in the ballad poetry was eminently patriotic, and and popular tale. had besides a curiously mystic and JOHN O'KEEFFE (1747–1833)really religious flavour which has fascinated belongs, as a dramatist and writer of many critics-and especially Celtic songs, to theage of Sheridanand Cumcritics-of recent years. As to the berland. He was an Irishman, was noble and unusual lyric of Dark born at Dublin, and died at SouthRosaleen-a strange personification ampton. His whole life was prolific of Ireland-there cannot be two in farces and operettas, and he had opinions. Mangan had, however, a genuine, although rather coarse, very little control of metrical form, comic touch. Several of his songs, and, even at his best, could produce such as The Thorn, that very shallow distressingly bad lines.

and inane lyric, and the Bacchic JAMES MONTGOMERY(1771-1854), invocation, Flow thon regal purple the Moravian editor of the Sheffield stream, are distantly remembered by Iris, and in every way an excellent the compilers of song-books, but man, wrote during his lifetime a their position in such miscellanies is very large amount of melodious | merely perfunctory and traditional,

Robert POLLOK (1798-1827), a , of Judgment, where George III's native of North Moorhouse in Ren-ghost exclaimsfrewshire, a student of Glasgow, and

"What, what ! a minister of the United Secession Pye come again? No more, no more Church, wrote a somewhat bom. of that! bastic poem on Calvinistic lines, which he called The Course of Time contain a pregnant and immortal (1827), and, in prose, Tales of the criticism. Covenanters (1824-5). Admirers con- William STEWART ROSE (1775sider The Course of Time Miltonic, | 1843) was celebrated as a translator. and it certainly has some grandeur ; | His verse translation of the first but most readers will prefer Milton three books of Amadis de Gaul apundiluted by Pollok.

peared in 1803, the year of Southey's BRYAN WALLER PROCTER, better prose version of the same romance, known as BARRY CORNWALL (1787- and from 1823 to 1831 he published 1874), was a very amiable and soci- his well-known translation of the able man, a member of the “Cockney Orlando Furioso. school," and a fluent verse writer. JAMES SMITH (1775-1839), known He was the friend of Leigh Hunt best in connection with his brother and Lamb; he was the recipient of HORACE SMITH (1779-1849). wrote a tribute from Thackeray in the clever parodies and criticisms in The dedication of Vanity Fair, and lived Picnic, The London Review, and The to win the affection of Mr. Swin. Monthly Mirror. In the last apburne. Otherwise he was a London peared those joint imitations of solicitor, and for many years a Com. Horace by the brothers which were missioner in Lunacy. His education published in 1813 as Horace in Lon. was received at Harrow, and in his don. In 1812, at the opening of the edition (1838) of Ben Jonson-the new Drury Lane Theatre, they pubonly edition which for many years lished their volume of Rejected Adcommanded a popular price-he dresses-one of the best collections approved himself a scholar.

His of parodies that has ever appeared. Dramatic Scenes (1819) and The James wrote the imitations of WordsFlood in Thessaly (1823) were not worth, Cobbett, Southey, Coleridge, very brilliant, but his English Songs and Crabbe; Horace, those of Byron, (1832) won him some fame. These, Scott, Moore, “Monk" Lewis, Fitzhowever, have a very distant cousin- gerald, and Dr. Johnson. James ship to poetry; and The Sea ! the did little more in the way of literaSca! the open Sea !-written by a ture beyond an occasional piece in notoriously bad sailor--as a typical some of the monthlies. Lady Bles. specimen, bears out this assertion. sington said that "if James Smith It must be owned that the regard of had not been a wealthy man he his brother-poets and men of letters would have been a great man." for the sincere and upright Procter Horace wrote far more voluminously as a man tinged their criticism of his than his brother, attempting novels

and verses. Brambletye House (1826) It seems illiberal to leave the name was in imitation of Scott; and, beside of HENRY JAMES PYE (1745-1813), this, he wrote The Tor Hill (1826). Poet Laureate for twenty-three years, Walter Colyton (1830), The Moneyed without some mention. However, Man (1841), and several others. if any writer of verse could be more Some parts of his poem, An Address colourless than Hayley and more to the Mummy, show excellent poetic imbecile than Robert Merry, the taste. notorious Della Crusca," it was WILLIAM SOTHEBY (1757-1833). this hopeless poetaster.

The list or born in London and educated at laureates provokes some amusement Harrow, was for some time in the in the most reverent breast; but, army, but retired in 1780 and devoted compared with Pye, Tate, Eusden, himself to literature. He was a man and even Whitehead, rise to Olympic of great learning and translated with heights. Byron's lines in The Vision much elegance and skill. His chief

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works were: a Poetical Description production, Tennant may be reof Wales (1790), a Translation of garded as the literary grandparent Virgil's Georgics (1800), Constance of Beppo and Don Juan. de Castille (1810), written after the William THOM (1798 ?-1848) bestyle of Scott's romantic poems, trans- longed to this generation of Scotch lations of the Iliad (1831) and the songsters, and was the author of Odyssey (1832). He also published a some charming lyrics. Like Tannacreditable translation of Wieland's hill, he was a weaver by trade. Oberon (1798).

MARY TIGHE (1772-1810), born SIR THOMAS Noon TALFOURD in the county of Wicklow, wrote a (1795-1854) was born at Reading, poem called Psyche (1805), which rose to distinction at the bar, and was founded on the famous story was made a judge in 1849. He died of Cupid and Psyche in Apuleius. on the bench while addressing the Mrs. Tighe showed some imaginaGrand Jury at Stafford in 1854. He tion and graceful fancy. : wrote the tragedies of lon (1836), SIR AUBREY HUNT DE VERE The Athenian Captive (1838), Glen- |(1788-1846) was an Irish country coe (1840), and The Castilian (1853) : gentleman of county Limerick, who while in prose his works include the changed his name from Hunt to Memorials (1837-48) of his friend De Vere in 1832. He became a Charles Lamb, Vacation Rambles friend and correspondent of Words(1845), and an Essay on the Greek worth, who generously called his Drama. He is best known by the Sonnets “the most perfect of our tragedy of lon, a very striking closet- age.". His dramatic poem Julian drama; and it will be remembered the Apostate (1822), and his regular that it was to him that Dickens in. drama, Mary Tudor (1847), are also scribed Pickwick and Browning dedi- to be had in remembrance. He is cated Pippa Passes.

not, of course, to be confused with ROBERT TANNAHILL (1774-1810) his son and namesake, the author of is one of the Scottish bards who the Legends of St. Patrick. inherited something of Burns' genius An exaggerated fame used to be in song-writing. He was a weaver, attached to the poems of HENRY had a somewhat unhappy life, and KIRKE WHITE (1785-1806), the drowned himself at Paisley. Of his son of a Nottingham butcher, who lyrics, the one beginning "Keen showed some precocity in verseblaws the wind ower the braes of making and attracted Southey's atGleniffer," is a good specimen. tention. He was deeply moved by

The literary society of Norwich, in the Evangelical revival in the Church many ways the most intellectually of England, and, making the ac. remarkable of our provincial towns, quaintance of Charles Simeon, the is represented by WILLIAM TAYLOR famous fellow of King's, gained, (1765-1836), who translated some of through his influence, a sizarship at ihe works of Goethe, Schiller, and St. John's College, Cambridge. He Lessing, and gave a great impulse intended to take Holy Orders, and to the study of German literature in showed great promise ; buton England.

October 19, 1806, he died in his WILLIAM TENNANT (1784-1848) college rooms. Southey published was a Fifeshire schoolmaster who his Remains (1807) with a memoir. became a professor at St. Andrews. His pathetic history added to the In 1812 he published a clever mock- supposed merit of his poetry, and heroic poem in ottava rima, called even Byron, in English Bards and Anster (i.e. Anstruther) Fair, which Scotch Reviewers, made him a favouris curious, not merely on account of able exception from the general its humour, but as offering an ex- blame. This was probably due to a ample of a style and manner antici- tenderness for him as a Nottingpating, if not suggesting, those of hamshire

White's longest the more celebrated Whistlecrafts poem was the descriptive piece called (see above, in connection with John Clifton Grove (1803). The character H. Frere). If it really suggested this l of his verse, if smooth and melo

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dious, is fatally mawkish ; and, as his one claim to celebrity is the fine a rule, his lines have a frigid, man. Burial of Sir John Moore (1817). neristic turn which reminds one of FRANCIS WRANGHAM(1769-1842). the utterly uninspired poetry of the Archdeacon of Cleveland and afterBrontës.

wards of the East Riding, was the CHARLES WOLFE (1791-1823), an author of some translations from the Irishman and a clergyman, was a classical poets and of other writings man of one poem. His Remains were in verse and prose which are often collected and published in 1825, but quoted by writers of his own day.

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE RISE OF THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY NOVEL

1780-1850.

$ 1. Sudden interval in the history of the novel. Distinction between

romance and the novel proper. § 2. The lady novelists : FRANCES BURNEY. $ 3. MARIA EDGEWORTH. $ 4. JANE AUSTEN and the revival of the novel. § 5. Scottish novelists : SUSAN FERRIER and JOHN GALT. § 6. MARY RUSSELL MITFORD, HARRIET MARTINEAU. $ 7. The Radical novelists: WILLIAM Godwin, Robert BAGE, and THOMAS HOLCROFT. $ 8. THOMAS LOVE PEACOCK. $ 9. Military and naval novelists: CAPTAIN MARRYAT, CHARLES LEVER, and MICHAEL SCOTT. § 10. LORD LYTTON. § u. BENJAMIN DISRAELI. $ 12. CHARLES DICKENS. $ 13. General characteristics of Dickens' novels. $ 14. WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY. $ 15. Thackeray's humour and miscellaneous work.

The

$ 1. The great literary phenomenon of the nineteenth century is the evolution of a distinct type of English novel. The novelists of the eighteenth century were a class apart, and for many years after the publication of

interval Humphrey Clinker English fiction walked in twi- in fiction : light. The tale of terror, to which we already have Scott and referred, cannot be sincerely regarded as literature ; it had certainly none of the legitimate characteristics of fiction which are obvious in the work of Fielding. It held up the looking-glass to no actual state of society, but preferred to mirror phantoms and chimeras. Again, the immense popularity of Scott, while it roused the public to the appreciation of true fiction, diverted their attention for the time being from one evident duty of the novel—the accurate delineation of contemporary manners. It is true that Scott was an admirer, and at first a follower of Fielding, and we must not forget that in The Antiquary and St. Ronan's Well, to mention only two of his novels, he achieved genre paintings worthy of the greatest of English novelists. But the machinery of his novels was always romantic; in his hands contemporary society received a medieval colour, and lost, as a whole, a great part of its reality. If, in The Antiquary, Jonathan Oldbuck and Edie Ochiltree are real types drawn with surprising accuracy, nothing, on the other hand, could be more removed from

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