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PREFACE.

THIS work has been prepared with great care, for the purpose of supplying a want long felt by the reading public, and especially by Heads of Families. Every important event in the history of the United States, from the Aboriginal period to the present time, is presented in a concise, but perspicuous and comprehensive manner, without giving those minute and often tedious details, which are valuable to the student, but irksome to the common reader. The History of our Republic is herein popularized, and adapted to the use of those who may not find leisure to peruse more extensive works upon the subject. The materials have been drawn from the earlier, most elaborate, and most reliable historians and chroniclers of our continent. The work is constructed upon a new plan, which, it is believed, will be found to be the most acceptable yet offered to the public, for obtaining, with facility, and fixing in the memory, a knowledge of the great events of our truly wonderful history. And having visited a greater portion of the localities made memorable by important occurrences in our country, the writer claims, in that particular, an advantage over his predecessors in this special field, for he has been able to correct errors and give truthful impressions of things and events. An endeavor has also been made to show the cause of every important event, and thus, by developing the philosophy of our history, to make it more attractive and instructive than a bald record of facts. And wherever the text appeared to need further elucidation, additional facts have been given in foot-notes.

The arrangement of the work is new. It is in six Periods, each commencing where the history naturally divides into distinct epochs. The first Period exhibits a general view of the Aboriginal race who occupied the continent when the Europeans came. The second is a record of all the Discoveries and preparations for settlement, made by individuals and governments. The third delineates the progress of all the Settlements until colonial governments were formed. The fourth tells the story of these Colonies from their infancy to maturity, and illustrates the continual development of Democratic ideas and Republican tendencies which finally resulted in a political

confederation. The fifth has a full account of the important events of the War for Independence, and the sixth gives a concise history of the Republic, from its formation to the present time. The Supplement is composed of the most important State Papers connected with that formation, such as the Stamp Act, and papers put forth by the Stamp Act Congress; the papers presented to the consideration of the world by the First and Second Continental Congresses; the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; and the Federal Constitution, with the admirable Farewell Address of Washington. These documents, thus grouped and preserved, will be found valuable as embodying the principles of our government. The original draft, with the amendments, of the Declaration of Independence, is given; and, in foot-notes, every charge made against the king of Great Britain, in that manifesto, is proven from History. The Federal Constitution is also accompanied by important commentaries.

The system of concordance interwoven with the notes throughout the entire work, is of great importance to the reader. When a fact is named which bears a relation to another fact elsewhere recorded in the volume, a reference is made to the page where such fact is mentioned. A knowledge of this relationship of separate events is often essential to a clear view of the subject, and without this concordance, a great deal of time would be spent in searching for that relationship. With the concordance the matter may be found in a moment. Favorable examples of the utility of this new feature may be found on page 289. If strict attention shall be given to these references, the whole subject will be presented to the mind of the reader in a comprehensive aspect-of unity not to be obtained by any other method.

The engravings are introduced not for the sole purpose of embellishing the volume, but to enhance its utility as an instructor. Every picture is intended to illustrate a fact, not merely to beautify the page. Great care has been taken to secure accuracy in all the delineations of men and things, so that they may not convey false instruction. Geographical maps have been omitted, because they must necessarily be too small to be of essential service. History may be read for the purpose of obtaining general information on the subject, without maps, but it should never be studied without the aid of an accurate Atlas.

The author has endeavored to make this work essentially a FAMILY HISTORY, attractive and instructive; and the Publishers have generously co-worked with him in producing a volume that may justly claim to be excellent in every particular. With these few observations concerning the general plan and merits of the work, it is presented to the public, with an entire willingness to have its reputation rest upon its own merits.

1. FRONTISPIECE.

2. SIOUX INDIANS

3. PORTRAIT OF RED JACKET.

4. A WIGWAM

5. WAMPUM

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6. INDIAN HIEROGLYPHICS

7. INDIAN WEAPONS.

...

8. CALUMETS.... 9. INDIAN BURIAL-PLACE. 10. INDIAN TOTUM.. 11. PROFILE OF BLACK HAWK. 12. UNCAS'S MONUMENT. 13. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL KIRKLAND. 14. SOUTHERN INDIANS.

15. COLUMBUS BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF SALAMANCA

16. PORTRAIT OF AMERIGO VESPUCCI.

17. NORTHMAN..

18. NORMAN SHIP...

19. OLD TOWER AT NEWPORT.

20. PORTRAIT OF COLUMBUS.

21. PORTRAIT OF ISABELLA.

22. THE FLEET OF COLUMBUS.
23. BANNER OF THE EXPEDITION.
24. BALBOA..........

25. PORTRAIT OF DE SOтo.....

26. PORTRAIT OF SEBASTIAN CABOT

27. PORTRAIT OF VERAGAZZI.

28. CARTIER'S SHIP.

29. ARMS OF FRANCE..

30. FRENCH NOBLEMAN, 1540

31. RALEIGH'S EXPEDITION AT ROANOKE.. 32. PORTRAIT OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 33. RALEIGH'S SHIPS....

34. ENGLISH GENTLEMAN, 1580..

35. PORTRAIT OF HENRY HUDSON

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ILLUSTRATIONS.

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36. THE HALF-MOON.

37. BUILDING JAMESTOWN......

38. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITHI.

39. PORTRAIT OF POCAHONTAS

40. SEAL OF NEW NETHERLAND.

41. A PURITAN..

42. THE MAYFLOWER.

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43. GOVERNOR CARVER'S CHAIR.

44. PORTRAIT OF CECIL, LORD BALTIMORE
45. HOOKER'S EMIGRATION TO CONNECTICUT.

46. FIRST MEETING-HOUSE IN CONNECTICUT....
47. PORTRAIT OF ROGER WILLIAMS.

48. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PENN.

49. THE ASSEMBLY HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA

50. OGLETHORPE ON THE SITE OF SAVANNAH.

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51. EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS...

52. PORTRAIT OF JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE.

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53. CHURCH TOWER AT JAMESTOWN....

117

54. FIRST COLONY SEAL, MASSACHUSETTS. 55. PORTRAIT OF JOHN WINTHROP.

117

...

56. FIRST MONEY COINED IN THE UNITED STATES.. 122
57. PORTRAIT OF KING PHILIP.
58. PALLISADED BUILDING..

59. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN CHURCHI
60. PORTRAit of Cotton Mather.
61. WILLIAMS'S HOUSE, DEERFIELD.
62. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF LOUISBURG
63. PORTRAIT OF PETER STUYVESANT.
64. CITY OF NEW YORK IN 1664..
65. STUYVESANT SURRENDERING FORT AMSTERDAM
TO THE ENGLISH.
66. THE CHARTER OAK...

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79. BLOCK HOUSE..

80. MAP OF LAKE GEORGE and VICINITY
81. PORTRAIT OF LORD AMHERST.

82. PLAN OF TICONDEROGA.

83. RUINS OF TICONDEROGA..
84. PORTRAIT OF LORD HOWE,
85. PLAN OF CROWN POINT.

86. PLAN OF FORT NIAGARA.

87. GENERAL WOLFE..

88. MILITARY OPERATIONS AT QUEBEC.

40 89. MONUMENT TO WOFLE AND MONTCALM.

42

67. PENN'S HOUSE..

68. PLAN OF CHARLESTON IN 1680.

69. EARLY NEW ENGLAND HOUSE.

70. DUTCHMAN, 1660.

71. PLAN OF FORT DU QUESNE.

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72. PORTRAIT OF BRADDOCK.

73. BURIAL OF BRADDOCK.....

74. PLAN OF FORT EDWard...

75. PORTRAIT OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON

76. PLAN OF FORT WILLIAM HENRY....

77. Portrait of GeneRAL ABERCROMBIE.

78. PLANS OF FORTS AT OSWEGO..

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145 156

66 104. CARPENTER'S HALL..

95 113. UNION FLAG...

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98. PORTRAIT OF Join DICKENSON

99. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL ADAMS

100. PORTRAIT OF LORD NORTII.

101. FANEUIL HALL............

102. SNAKE DEVICE.

103. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES THOMSON.

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93. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RITTENHOUSE

94. PORTRAIT OF PATRICK HENRY

95. A STAMP..

96. PORTRAIT OF CADWALLADER COLDEN

97. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PITT.

.....................

90, PATRICK HENRY BEFORE THE VIRGINIA ASSEM

BLY

91. PORTRAIT OF JAMES OTIS.

92. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN WEST.

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73 105. JOHN HANCOCK.

75 106. PLAN OF BUNKER HILL BATTLE
77 107. BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.
79 108. PORTRAit of JosepH WARREN
81 109. PORTRAIT OF PHILIP SCHUYLER

83

110. PLAN OF THE WALLS OF QUEBEC.
86 111. PORTRAIT OF GENEral MontgOMERY,
90 112. CULPEPPER FLAG.

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116. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MOULTRIE.

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124
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128 124. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT TRENTON
133 125. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT MORRIS..
135 126. PORTRAIT OF SILAS DEANE.......
137 127. Portrait of BenJAMIN FRANKLIN
142 128. PLAN OF THE BATtle at PrINCETON,
129. PORTRAIT OF LA FAYETTE.

144

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PAGE

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166

176

176

186

186

187

190

97 114. BILL OF Credit or CONTINENTAL MONEY............. 245

248

101 115. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LEE..
104

249

104 117. STATE HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA

250

112

251

118. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN RUSHI.
119. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PUTNAM.

253

120. PLAN OF THE BATTLE ON LONG ISLAND..

254

121. PLAN OF FORT WASHINGTON

256

.........

122. RETREAT OF THE AMERICANS FROM LONG ISLAND 257 123. THE JERSEY PRISON-SHIP

259

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273

130. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT THE BRANDYWINE.. 278 131. CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE 274 132. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GERMANTOWN...... 275

211

214

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230

235

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242 243 245

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139. PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT BEMIS'S HEIGHTS.. 140. PORTRAIT OF FRANCIS HOPKINSON. 141. PLAN OF ENCAMPMENT AT VALLEY FORGE 142. PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY CLINTON 143. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT MONMOUTII. 144. PORTRAIT OF COUNT D'ESTAING........ 145. PORTRAIT OF BARON STEUBEN.

146. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LINCOLN. 147. PLAN OF STONY POINT...

148. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL WAYNE 149. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL BOONE..

150. PORTRAit of George ROGERS CLARKE. 151. CLARKE'S EXPEDITION ACROSS THE "DROWNED

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LANDS."

152. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SULLIVAN
153. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF SAVANNAH.
154. PORTRAIT OF COUNT PULASKI,
155. PORTRAIT OF JOHN PAUL JONES
156. A GUN-Boat at BOSTON...
157. PORTRAIT OF ADMIRAL HOPKINS.
158. CIPHER ALPHABET..........
159. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR RUTLEDGE.
160. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE WHIPPLE.
161. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON
162. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RAMSAY

163. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GATES.
164. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SUMTER
165. PLAN Of Battle at Sanders'S CREEK
166. PORTRAIT OF BARON DE KALB..
167. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL TARLETON.
168. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MARION.
169. PORTRAIT OF LORD CORNWALLIS.
170. MARION'S ENCAMPMENT ON THE Pedel.
171. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR TRUMBULL.
172. PORTRAIT OF BENEDICT ARNOLD..
173. THE CAPTORS' MEDAL..

174. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GREENE
175. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MORGAN.
176. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL WASHINGTON.
177. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL HENRY LEE.
178. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GUILFORD.
179. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT HOBKIRK'S HILL..
180. PORTRAIT OF REBECCA MOTTE..
181. PLAN OF FORT NINETY-SIX..
182. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PICKENS.

183. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE ROCHAMBEAU.
184. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE GRASSE..

185. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF YORKTOWN.

186. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT

RUMFORD)..

187. PORTRAIT OF JAMES JACKSON.

188. PORTRAIT of GeoRGE CLINTON. 189. PORTRAIT OF JOIN MARSHALL... 190. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MIFFLIN 191. Order OF THE CINCINNATI... 192. PORTRAIT OF BISHOP CARROLL. 193. FRANKLIN BEFORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL CON

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VENTION

194. PORTRAIT OF OLIVER ELLSWORTH.

195. PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON

196. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS PUTNAM. 197. INAUGURATION OF WASHINGTON. 198. PORTRAIT OF GOUVERNEUR Morris. 199. PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON...

200. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON 201. PORTRAIT OF TENCH COXE. 202. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL KNOX. 203. WAYNE'S DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS. 204. PORTRAIT OF JOHN JAY 205. PORTRAIT OF FISHer Ames. 206. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS... 207. PORTRAIT OF C. C. PINCKNEY

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301

228. PLAN OF FORT SANDUSKY.
229. Major CrogHAN..........

304

305

230. PERRY ON LAKE ERIE..

305 231. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PERRY. 307 232. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PIKE.. 307 233. FORT NIAGARA IN 1813..

308

309

234. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE.
235. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PORTER.
236. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL BROWN..
237. MAP OF THE NIAGARA FRONTIER.

310
310

311 238. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE MACDONOUGH.
312 239. PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
314 240. PORTRAIT OF W. C. C. CLAIBORNE.
315 241. JACKSON AT NEW ORLEANS.

315
316

242. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MONROE.
243. CAPTURE OF PENSACOLA.......

316

244. PORTRAIT OF EDWARD LIVINGSTON 317 245. PORTRAIT OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.. 318 246. PORTRAIT OF DEWITT CLINTON. 321 247. PORTRAIT OF JOHN C. CALHOUN 248. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL JACKSON 249. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT Y. HAYNE. 250. PORTRAIT OF OSCEOLA..

323

325

327

331

251. MAP OF THE SEAT OF THE SEMINOLE WAR 331 252. PORTRAIT OF MARTIN VAN BUREN..

332

253. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM H. HARRISON

333

254. PORTRAIT OF JOIN TYLER.

••••

333

255. PORTRAIT OF JAMES K. POLK.

479

256. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SCOTT.

485

334 335

257. MAP OF THE REGION OF TAYLOR'S OPERATIONS 486 336 258. PORTRAIT OF JOHN C. FREMONT.

488 489

336

259. PLAN OF INTRENCHMENTS AT VERA CRUZ..

339
340

260. MAP OF THE ROUTE OF SCOTT'S ARMY IN MEXICO 490
261. BOMBARDMENT OF VERA Cruz..
262. OPERATIONS NEAR MEXICO...

341

491 493 263. GENERAL SCOTT ENTERING THE CITY OF MEXICO 495 346 264. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL TAYLOR. 347 265. PORTRAIT OF HENRY CLAY..

498

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350 266. PORTRAIT OF MILLARD FILLMORE
351 267. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL WEBSTER.
352 263. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH SMITH..
352 269. MORMON EMIGRATION...
354 270. PORTRAIT OF PROFESSOR MORSE
271. PORTRAIT OF DR. Kane.

357 272. PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN PIERCE.
360 273. PORTRAIT OF SANTA ANNA....
361 274. AN OCEAN STEAMSHIP....
362 275. CRYSTAL PALACE IN NEW YORK.
364 276. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN INGRAHAM
364 277. PORTRAIT OF JAMES BUCHANAN
365 278. FOUNDING NEW STATES.

366

369

370

375

279. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. 280. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS. 281. PORTRAIT OF DR. FRANKLIN.... 282. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON 379 283. PORTRAIT OF ROGER SHERMAN. 380 284. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES CARRoll. 383 285. PORTRAIT OF JUDGE STORY. 384

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HISTORY

THE UNITED STATES.

RED JACKET.

OF

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EVERY cultivated nation had its heroic age—a period when its first physical and moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign, in the western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and

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