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of power.” See Zoltman v. San Francisco, 20 Cal. 96, and Herzo v. San Francisco, supra.

SECTION 38. In all elections by the legislature the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal.

SECTION 39. In order that no inconvenience may result to the public service from the taking effect of the amendments proposed to article IV by the legislature of eighteen hundred and sixty-one, no officer shall be suspended or superseded thereby until the election and qualification of the several officers provided for in said amendments. (New section ratified Sept. 3. 1862.)

ARTICLE V.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

SECTION 1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the state of California.

SECTION 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and places of voting for members of the assembly, and shall hold his office for four years, from and after the first Monday in December subsequent to his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified. (Amendment ratified Sept. 3, 1862.)

(ORIGINAL SECTION.] SECTION 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and places of voting for members of assembly, and shall hold his office two years from the time of his installation, and until his successor sball be qualified.

SECTION 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor (except at the first election) who has not been a citizen of the United States and a resident of this state two years next preceding the election and attained the age of twentyfive years at the time of said election.

SECTION 4. The returus of every election for governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, di. rected to the speaker of the assembly, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the legislature. The person having the

highest number of votes shall be governor; but in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the legislature shall, by joint vote of both houses, choose one of said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for governor.

SECTION 5. The governor shall be commander in chief of the militia, the army, and navy of this state.

SECTION 6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

SECTION 7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

SECTION 8. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no mode is provided by the constitution and law for filling such vacancy, the governor shall have power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the legislature, or at the next election by the people.

There is no vacancy to which the governor can appoint, so long as there is a person in possession of the office who is authorized by the statute or constitution to discharge its duties until an election or appointment can be regularly had. People v. Tilton, 37 Cal. 614. For discussion of the section, see also People v. Parker, Id. 639. This section only applies to those cases of vacancies, for filling which no other provision has been made by the "constitution and Jaws," and has no application to cases provided for by the law of 1851. (Stats. 1851, p. 415.) Wetherbee v. Cazneau, 20 Cal. 504.

Power to fill an office and power to fill a vacancy are distinct and substantial. People v. Langdon, & Cal. 1. It was the intention of this section to limit the patronage of the governor. People v. Mizner, 7 Cal. 519, where previous decisions under this section are reviewed.

The word vacancy must be taken in the sense in which it is used by the framers of our constitution,

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and cannot receive a definition from the legislature different from its known signification. The legislature may say how a vacancy may be filled, but cannot determine what shall constitute one. Temporary absence of a judge from the state does not create a vacancy. People v. Wells, 2 Cal. 199, and see People v. Whitman, 10 Cal. 48.

The section has in view vacancies in office where the governor and senate or legislature have the power of appointment, or where they are elective by the people, and provides accordingly; but such power of the governor is limited by the period when the people or the legislature can elect or appoint, on the arrival of which his power ceases, and the right of appointment returns to the proper appointing power. The right of the legislature to elect and control the state printer cannot be defeated by any inference in favor of the appointing power of the governor. People v. Fitch, i Cal. 520.

SECTION 9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the legislature by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for which they shall have been convened.

SECTION 10. He shall communicate by message to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient.

SECTION 11. In case of a disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the governor shall have power to adjourn the legislature to such time as he may think proper; provided, it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next legislature.

SECTION 12. No person shall, while holding any office under the United States, or this state, exercise the office of governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided.

SECTION 13. The governor shall have the power to grant reprieves and pardons after coa viction for all offenses except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions and with such restrictions and limitations as he may thiuk proper,

subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he shall have the power to suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the legislature at its next meeting, when the legislature shall either pardon, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the legislature, at the beginning of every session, every case of reprieve or pardon granted, stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of the pardon or reprieve.

SECTION 14. There shall be a seal of this state, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially and shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of California."

SECTION 15. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the state of California, sealed with the great seal of the state, signed by the governor, and countersigned by the secretary of state.

SECTION 16. A lieutenant governor shall be elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner as the governor; and his term of office and his qualifications of eligibility shall also be the same. He shall be president of the senate but shall only have a casting vote therein. If, during a vacancy of the office of governor, the lieutenant governor shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or be absent from the state, the president of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy be filled or the disability shall cease.

SECTION 17. In case of the impeachment of the governor, or his removal from office, death, inability to discharge the pow ers and duties of said office, resignation or absence from the state, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the lieutenant governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability shall cease But when the governor shall, with, the consent of the legislature, be out of the state in time of war, at the head of any military force thereof, he shall continue commander in chief of all the military forces of the state.

SECTION 18. A secretary of state, a controller, a treasurer, an attorney general and a surveyor general shall be elected at the same time and places and in the same manner as the governor and lieutenant governor, and whose term of office shall be the same as the governor. [Amendment ratified September 3, 1862.]

[ORIGINAL SECTION.] SECTION 18. A secretary of state, a controller, a treasurer, an attorney general and surveyor general shall be hosen in the manner provided in this constitution; and the term of office and eligibility of each shall be the same as are prescribed for the governor and lieutenant governor.

SECTION 19. The secretary of state shall keep a fair record of the official acts of the legislative and executive departments of the government, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the legislature, and shall perform such other duties as may be assigned him by law; and in order that no inconvenience may result to the public service from the taking effect of the amendments proposed to said article V by the legislature of eighteen hundred and sixty-one, no officer shall be superseded or suspended thereby, until the election and qualification of the several officers provided for in said amendments. (Amendment ratified Sept. 3, 1862.]

[ORIGINAL SECTION.] SECTION 19. The secretary of state shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. He shall keep a fair record of the official acts of the legislative and executive departments of the government, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the legislature, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law.

SECTION 20. The controller, treasurer, attorney general, and surveyor general shall be chosen by joint vote of the two houses of the legislature at their first session under this con. stitution, and thereafter shall be elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner, as the governor and lieutenant governor.

The obvious policy of the constitution is, that all the elective officers connected with the executive department of the state should be chosen at the same time. An appointment by the governor, of a con

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