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POSTAGE. Rates of Postage, as established by act of Congress of 3d March, 1825,

and the amendatory act of 2d March, 1827. For single letlers, composed of one piece of paper

Miles. Cenis. Any distance not exceeding.....

.30 ........6 Over 30 and not exceeding.

....30........10 Over 80........do......................

150........12 Over 150......do....

..400........184 Over 400...

.25 Double letters, or those composed of two pieces of paper, are charged with double those rates.

Triple letters, or those composed of three pieces of paper, are charged with triple those rates.

Quadruple letters, or those composed of four pieces of paper, are charged with quadruple those rates.

One or more pieces of paper, mailed as a letter, weighing once ounce, are charged with quadruple postage, and at the same rate should the weight be greater; and quadruple postage is charged on all packets containing four pieces of paper.

The postage on Ship letters, if delivered at the office where the vessel arrives, is six cents-if conveyed by post, iwo cents in addition to the ordinary postage.

Nerospaper Postage. For each newspaper, not carried out of the State in which it is published, or if carried out of the State, but carried not over 100 miles......

.......1 ceni. Over 100 miles, and out of the State in which it is published....15 cents.

Magazines and Pamphlels.-If published periodically, distance not exceediog 100 miles..............

......14 cents per sheet. Ditto ..........do....... .......... over 100 miles..

...2........do...... If not published periodically, distance not exceeding 100 miles....

.........4.........do...... Ditto ..........do........ over 100 miles...... ..................do......

Small pamphlets printed on a half or quarter sheet of royal, or less size, are charged with half those rates. Eight pages quarto are rated as one sheet, and all other sizes in the same proportion.

The number of sheets which it contains, must be printed or written on one of the outer pages of every pamphlet or magazine to be sent by mail. Where the number of sheets is not truly stated, double postage is charged.

Every thing not coming under the denomination of newspapers or pamphlets, is charged with letter postage.

Letters to Canada are forwarded through the agents of the United Stales at Kingston, Upper Canada, and Montreal, Lower Canada.

Any person, other than the Postmaster General, or his authorized agents, who shall set up a foot or horse post, for the conveyance of letters and packets, upon any post roadt, which is, or may be established as such, by law, shall incur a penalty of not exceeding fifty dollars for every letter or packet so carried.

Privilege of Franking.

Letters and packets to and from the following officers of the government, are by law, received and conveyed by post, free of postage:

The President and Vice President of the United States; Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, and Navy; Attorney General; Postmaster General and Assistants Postmaster General; Coptrollers, Auditors, Register and Solicitor of the Treasury; Treasurer; Commissioner of General Land Office; Commissioners of Navy Board; Commissary General; Adjutant General; Inspectors General; Quartermaster General; Paymaster General; Superintendent of Patent Office; Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Speaker and Clerk of the House of Representatives, and Secretary of the Senate; and such individual who shall have been, or may hereafter be President of the United States; and each may receive newspapers by post, free of postage.

Each member of the Senate, and each member and delegate of the House of Representatives, may send and receive, free of postage, newspapers, letters, and packets, weighing not more than two ounces, (in case of ex ess of weight, excess alone to be paid for,) and all documents printed by order of either House, from the period of sixty days before he takes his seat in Congress, until the commencement of the next Congress.

Governors of the several States may transmit by mail, free of postage, all laws and reports, whether bound or unbound, and all records and documents of their respective States, which may be directed by the legislature of the several States to be transmitted to the Executives of other States.

Postmasters may send and receive free of postage, letters and packets not exceeding half an ounce in weight; and they may receive one daily newspaper, each, or what is equivalent thereto.

Printers of newspapers may send one paper to each and every other printer of a newspaper within the United States, free of postage, under such regulations as the Postmaster General may provide.

Violation of Franking Privilege.

Any person who shall frank any letter or letters, other than those written by himself, or by his order, in the business of his office, shall, on conviction thereof, pay a fine of ten dollars; and it is made the especial duty of Postmasters to prosecute for such offence. The law provides, however, that the Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, and Navy, and Postmaster General, may frank letters or packets on official business, prepared in any other public office in the absence of the principal thereof.

If any person, having the right to receive letters free of postage, shall receive, enclosed to him, any letter or packet addressed to a person not having that right, it is his duty to return the same to the Post Office, marking thereon the place from whence it came, that it may be charged with postage.

Any person who shall counterfeit the hand writing or frank of any person, or cause the same to be done, in order to avoid the payment of} postage, shall, for each offence, pay five hundred dollars.

No Postmaster, assistant Postmaster, or clerk employed in any Post Office, can be a contractor, or concerned in any contract for carrying the mail.

THE JUDICIARY.

The Judiciary power of the United States is vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Congress, from time to time estab lish. The present judicial establishment of the United States consists of a Supreme ourt of thirty one District Courts, and seven Circuit Courts, which are thus organized the Supreme Court is composed of one Chief Justice and six Associate Justices, who hold a court in the City of Washington, annually; besides which each of these Justices attends a certain circuit, comprising two or more districts, appropriated to each and togeth er with the Judge of the district, compose a Circuit Court, which is holden in each district of the circuit. The District Courts are held respectively. by the district Judge alone. Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Court, and from the Circuit to the Supreme Court; and in some cases, where the inconvenience of attending a court by a Justice of the Supreme Court is very great, the District Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. Each State is one district, for the purpose of holding District and Ci cuit Courts therein, with the exception of NewYork, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Alabama, each of which is divided into two districts. There are, besides, Territorial cou ts, which are temporary, and loose that character whenever a Territory becomes a State. In addition to the District Court for the District of Columbia, there is a Circuit Court for that District, which exercises, under the authority of Congress, similar cominon law and equity jurisdiction as the county courts of Maryland and Virginia. Each court has a clerk, a public attorney or prosecutor, and a marshal, all of whom are appointed by the Executive of the United States, with the cxception of the clerks, who are appointed by the courts. The compensation of the judges are fixed by law; that of the clerks, attorneys, and marshals, consists of fees, and in a few instances, as it regards attorneys and marshals, of a yearly salary of about $200.

By an act of Congress of the 15th of May, 1820, district attorneys are to be appointed for four years only, removeable at pleasure. Marshals have always held their offices for four years, removable at pleasure, in pursuance of the 27th section of the act of the 24th of September, 1789. The Judges hold their offices during good behaviour, and can only be removed on impeachment. The appointments are made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.

The Supreme Court of the United States has exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of a civil nature, where a State is a party, except between a State and its citizens; and except, also, between a State and citizens of other States, or aliens, in which latter case it has original, but not exclusive jurisdiction—and has exclusively all such jurisdiction of suits or proceedings against ambassadors, or other public ministers, or their domestics, or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exercise consistently with the law of nations—and original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by ambassadors, or other public ministers, or in which a consul or vice consul shall be a party. The Supreme Court has also appellate jurisdiction from the Circuit Courts and Courts of the several States, in certain cases; and has power to issue writs of prohibi

frion to the District Courts, when proceeding as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and writs of mandamus, in cases wania nied by the principles and usages of law, tu any courts appointed, or per sons holding office, under the authority of the United States.

A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a State, in which a decision in the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under the United States, aud the decision is against their validity-or where is drawu in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any State, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of such iheir validity-or where is drawn in question the construction of any clause of the constitu ion, or of a treaty or statuie ot, or commission held under th· United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or claim. cd by either party, under such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute, or commission, may be re-examined, and reversed or affirmed, in the Supreme Court of the United States, upon a writ of error, the citation being signed by the chief justice, or judge, or chancellor, of the court rendering or passing the judgment or decree con plained of, or by a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the same maover, and under the same regulations, and the writ has the same effect, as if the judg. ment or decree complained of, had been rendered or passed in a Circuit Court, and the proreeding upon the revisal is also the same, except tbau the Sup.eme Court, instead of remanding the cause for a final decision, may, al their discretion, if the cause shall have been once remanded before, proreed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no other error can be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal in any such case, than such as appears on the face of the record and immediately respects the beforementioned questious of validity or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions or authorities in dispute.

The following is the mode of suing out a writ of error : In cases of writs of error to a federal court, the writ should be allowed, citation signed, anıt bond approvell, by a circuit judge; where the writ is to a State rourt, the same must be done either by a justice of the Supreme Court or by the presiding judge of the court whose judgment is complained of. With the transcript of the record for the Supreme Court, should be returned the writ, citation with service, and a copy of the bond, filing in the office below the bond and copies of the writ and citation.

JUDGES AND OFFICERS OF THE SUPREME COURT, John Marshall.......... .....chief justice (Richmond...... Va.$5000 00 Gabriel Duval............associate justice. Marietta ......Md 4500 00 Joseph Story..............associate justice. Salem........Mass 4500 00 Smith Thompson..... ...associate justice New York....N. Y. 4500 00) John McLean............ associate justice. Cincinnati...... 0. 4500 00

Henry Baldwin............ associate justice. Pittsburg....... Pa 4500 00 James M. Wagne ........ associate justice. Savannah......Ga. 4500 00 Benj. Franklin Butler.... attorney general. Washington..D. C. 4000 00 Williain T. Carroll..................clerk. Washington..D. C Fees, &c Alexander Huoter..... ...marshal Washington .D. C. Fees, &c.

DISTRICT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

The District Courts of the United States, have, exclusively of the courts of the several States, cognizance of all crimes and offences that are cognizable under the authority of the Uuited States, committed within their respective districts, or upon the high seas, where no other punishment than whipping, not exceeding thirty stripes, a fiue not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment not exceeding six months, is to be inflicted; and also have exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under laws of impost, navigation, or trade of the United States, where the seizures are made on waters which are navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons burthen, within their respective districts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common law remedy, where the common law is competent to give it; and also have exclusive original cognizance of all seizures on laud or other waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties, and forfeitures incurred, under the laws of the United States. And they also have cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several States, or the Circuit Court, as the case may be, of all causes where an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States. And also have cognizance, concurrent, as last mentioned, of all suits at common law, where the United States sue, and the matter in dispute amounts, exclusive of costs, to the sum or value of one hundred dollars. And also have jurisdiction, exclusively of the courts of the several States, of all suits against consuls, or vice consuls, except for offences above the description aforesaid, The trial of issues in fact, in the District Courts, in all causes except civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, are by jury.

The act of 18th December, 1812, requires the district and territorial judges of the United States to reside within the districts and territories respectively, for which they are appointed; and makes it unlawful for any judge appointed under the authority of the United States, to exercise the profession or employment of counsel or attorney, or to be engaged in the practice of the law. And any person offending against the injunction or prohibition of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.

An act of April 5, 1832, provides, that in any cause of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, or other cause of seizure, depending in any court of the United States, any judge of the said court, in vacation, shall have the same power and authority to order any vessel, or cargo, or other property, to be delivered to the claimants, upon bail or bond, under the statute, as the case may be, or to be sold, when necessary, as such court has in term time, and to appoint appraisers, and exercise every other incidental power necessary to the complete execution of the authority granted by the act.

JUDGES, &c. OF THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS.
New Hampshire.

Maine

Ashur Ware, Judge, Portl'd, $1800 M.Harvey, Judge, Hopkinton, $1000
$1800 M.Ha
John Anderson, Attorney, Portland. John P. Hale, Attorney, Dover.
Albert Smith, Marshal, Damariscota P Cogswell, Marshal, Gilmanton.
John Mussey, Clerk, Portland.. W. Cutler, Clerk, Portsmouth.

VOL. XIII.

11

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