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Operations of the Engineer Department, during the year ending Sept. 30, 1834.

I. FORTIFICATIONS. 1. Fort Independence, Boston Harbor:-Operations on Castle Island, the site of this fort, have been confined to the works referred to last year. The sea and whaif walls are nearly completed ; their total length is 1,052 feet, and 2,342 cubic yards of stone have been lised in their construction. All that part of the island exposed to abra-ion from the action of the waves is, with the exception of about 150 feet, non amply protected. A revised project for re-building Fort Independence, with certain improvements, was presented by the board of engineers, in March last; the question as to the adoption of this project not having been setiled, it was deemed proper to limit the arrangement for executing that work to the coi

lection and preparation of such materials only as will be alike required on the original and revised plan. The material and workmanship of the fort, in its prestat condition, are such as to render it probable that the whole work will have to be re-built. 2. Fort Warren, Boston Harbor.- The late period at which the appropriations were made, at the last session of Congress, rendered it proper to invit the operations of this work to preparatory measures for fficient prosecution of the fort during the next working season. The buildings necessary to accommodate the laborers, and oth r persons employed at the work, are in progress of construction, and will be finished in due time. A wharf, r quiring for its construction about two thousand cubi yards of stone in walls, and seventeen thousand yards of earth embankment, will soon be ready for the reception of materials. Every thing will be prepared to commence the masonry of the work early next spring. 3. Fort Adams, Narragansert roads, Rhode Island.-Operations at this work have been prosecuted in the usual satisfactory manner; the fort, as sar as constructed, is in good condition, and the funds appropriated for it have been applied to advantage. 4. Fort Hamilton, Narrows, New York. The slight defects in construction, always to be expected in a work of this magnitude, have been repaired, and the fort may, by the end of the present year, be considered as finished. 5. Fort Lafayette, Narrows, New York. --A portion of the unexpended balance remaining on account of this work, has been applied to the repairs of the seawali. 6. Fort Columbus and Castle William, Governor's Island, New York.-The report of the enginecr charged with the repairs of these works is highly favorable. In the former, the scarp walls, except the pointing and parapets, have been finished; the coun. terscarp revetments, and revetments of the glacis, are nearly completed. The tacing of the covered way revetnient, leading from Fort Columbus to Castle William, will be done this fall. The masonry of the magazines and barracks, as well as that of the communications connecting the former, is finished, as is also the facing of the redan.

All the masonry of the barracks on the south, west, and 'north fronts is n-arly finished, and the roofs are in readiness to receive the covering ; the masonry of those on the east front is in a state of for wardness. Measures have been taken to finish the repairs of Castle William as speedily as practicable. 7. Fort Schuyler, Throg's Neck, East River. New York.-The most ample preparations have been made to prosecute the work with efficiency during the next work. ing season. A permanent wharf will be in readiness by the time it is required ; the necessary boats and machinery, have been provided ; an ample quarry, of good quality of stone, prepared, and, indeed, every thing that may tend to expedite the work, when commenced, will be found in waiting. 8. Fort Delaware, Delaware River.-The annual report of the officer charged with this work has not yet been received. 9. Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, Virginia.-All the permanent parts of this work were completed last year. The ramparts of fronts five, six, and seven, together with the glacis and road in advance of these fronts, where, with the exception of a small portion of front five, formed and covered with earth. The rampart of covertway and place of arms, in advance of front five, was in a state of forwardness along its whole exteni, and fifteen thousand cubic yards of sand were deposited towards the construction of the redoubt; five hundred tons of stone were collected and put in place for the protection of the beach in front of casemated battery and the glacis of front six; condoit pipes for conducting the water from the roof of casemated battery laid ; the piazzas of curtains two and three completed; and all the materials for the draws to bridges and gates procured; the draws and gates to main entrance finished, and the timbers for the others partly prepared; the earth for the parapets on all the fronts except one, two, and three, was collected at the foot of the scarp wall; the ditches of all the fronts were excavated to their proper depth, and the glacis and road in advance formed, except those on front one; the case mated covertway on front four was completed, and the funds available with the force then organized amply sufficient for the completion of the fort, with the exception of putting para pets on the main and outworks, which was not deemed advisable for the present, when the operations of the Engineer De partment were arrested by general order No. 54. This order directed that the work, with its funds, be placed under the immediate orders of the officer commanding the troops on that station. The main work was, therefore, entirely completed except the gates, the raising of the half

parapets on fronts one, two, and three, and ihe whole parapets on the other fronts-the earth required for these last being placed at the foot of the scarp: Four thousand three hundred and ten cubic yards of earth were required to complete the rampart of covertway on front five; twenty-one thousand three hundred and eighiy to finish the rampart of redoubt; twenty thousand two hundred and ninety-seven yards for the construction

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of the para pet on covertway, and eight thousand eight hundred and ninety for the parapet of the redoubt. 10. Fort Calhoun, Hampton Roads, Virginia.-Upwards of twenty-eight

thousand tons of stone have been added within the year to that previously received. of the whole quantiry received, 654.04 tons have been dressed for building, leaving 5,139.07 rons rough building, and 23,073 tons break water stone. All the stone required for building

is now accumulated, and the position that will be eventually occupied by the mole serving as the basis of this work, is covered and protected by breakwater stone. 1 hree thousand four hundred and sixty-five cubic yards of sand have been deposited within the interior of the fort towards elevating the terre plain. All the stone received this year, except eight hundred tons required for the extension of the molt to its proper limits, has been placed so as to act with a uniform pressure over the foundation of the walls of the work. It is estimated that the fort, when finished and garrisoned, will add to the permanent weight now acting on the foundation about sixty-three thousand tons: of this, there are accumulated along its whole extent, and operating in a similar manner, 61,866 tóns. It is proposed to add to this weight 25,000 tons of brcak water stone, the probable balance required for the

graduation of the mole, and to compensate for its subsidence, and to allow the whole to itmain untilan equilibrium is established between the pressure and resistence, when the work may be resumed. A careful examination has shown that although the weight added within

the present is double that of the previous year, yet the last annual subsidence of the centre of the work is less than one and a third of what it was in 1873, giving fair indication that the equilibrium will, ere long, be attained. Another favorable indication is, that those parts of the mole that formerly settled most, have this year gone down the least. On the whole, it may be inferred that all inegularity of seitling is rapidly disappearing, and that the substratum is approaching a state of uniform compressibility throughout. 11. Fort Macon, Beaufori, North Carolina.--- The fort is completed, and ready for inspection. The dyke and whait are, no doubt, done by this time, and the operations for the preservation of ihe beach have produced results of a very satisf ctory character. . 12. Fort Caswell, Oak Island, North Carolina. - This work is in readiness to receive a garrison. 13. Fortifications in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.-Operations under this department in Charles

ton Harbor have been dirtetud to incrtasing the mole commenced on the site of Fort Sumpter, and to the protection of the beach in the immediate vicinity of Fort Moultrie. They have, however, been but limited in consequence of the late period at which the funds for the present year were rendered available. Five thousand five hundred and twenty

four tons of stone were added to the foundation of Fort Sumpter in the fall of 1833, and the month of January, 1833, when the shipment from the norih were suspel ded for want of funds. Except the a teration produced by this addition, the mole remains in the same state as at the end of the last fiscal year. The heap, except at one place, is now raised to a level of two feet above low water, requiring about eleven thousand tons of rongh stone to com. plete it, besides ten thousand tons of split granite to form the foundations of the walls beiween high and low water. In this state it is proposed to leave the work till the question of jurisdiction over the spot shall be settled, and the necessary orders to that effect have been issued. In the month of September last, one hundred and twenty-seven tons of rough stone were deposit d in the breakwater at Fort Mou trie. In consequence of not being able to procure sufficient stone in time, a portion of this work was washed away during the last winter and spring; this injury has, however, been repaired, and the whole work ex:

tended about one hundred thirty feet; it is now upwards of one thousand three hundred feet long, presents a firm and substantial appearance, and has withstood several severe gales. "The sand is accumulating about it, and experience, thus far, affords flattering assurances that the interesting and very desirable object for which it was commenced will soon be realized. It is proposed to extend it about four hundred feet further. 14. Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Georgia.- This work has been prosecuted to the extent of the available means. The report from the local engineer presents it in a very satisfactory state. 15. Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Florida - Little or nothing has been done at this work. 16. Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor, Florida.- The work was to have been delivered over to a garris in, in excellent condition, as far as completed, on the 1st of Oct. 1834.

17. Fort on Foster's Bonk, Florida.- Ample preparations have been made for prosecuting this work with economy and despatch; wharves, with other fixtures, and quarters have been provided ; a large amount of materials has been collected, and a well organized force of mechanics and laborers engaged. The operations have been somewhat reiarded by the exposed position of the work, which rendered it proper to limit the excavations for the scarp wall during the month of September. The maximum estimate of 8125,000, submitted by the local engineer, contemplates the completion of the whole work by the end of 1835, which he considers altogether practicable, with the facilities, in the way of materials and workmanship, at his command. 18. Fort Morgan, Mobile Point, Alabama.–This work has been finished according to the original plan, and is garrisoned. 19. Fort Livingston, Grande Terre, Louisiana.–The negotiation for the purchase of the site of this work, peniling at the date of the last report, was, as anticipated, soon brought to a satisfactory termination. The purchase had been effected, and considerable preparation made for an efficient prosecution of the fort, when the works were suspended in consequence of a want of an officer of engineers to take the immediate direction of the operations. This occurred in July last.

II. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.-HARBORS AND RIVERS, 1. Chicago Harbor, Illinois. The operations for constructing an artificial harbor at this point, ou Lake Michigan, have progressed in a inost satisfactory manner. The great importance of this improveinent to the increasing commerce of the west is already feli-one hundred and eighty vessels baving, between the opening of navigation and the 30th of September last, arrived, and discharged their cargoes at this point, to be distributed along the shores of the Mississippi, through the valley of the Illinois. 2. La Plaisance Bay, M. Ter. Operations on this work was resumed late in the working season, bceause of the prevalence of cholera, and the consequent difficulty of collecting the requisite force; however, they have been brought to a ciose, and the pier completed in the manner contemplated.

3. Huron Harbor, Ohio.-The appropriation was made so late in the season, and the cholera Jappearing immediately after, (every where more or less upon the lake shore,) that the prosecution of the work was greatly retarded. Little has been done this year, except to procure materials. They are now in readiness to sink one pier, and, before the close of the season, hope to sink three more, extending the piers 120 feet further into the lake. The works remain in good condition. The depth of water the same as last year, eighi feet at its

shoalest place. 4. Black River Harbor.- About 860 cords of gravel and sand have been removed, and a further removal is expected to be made, so as to give nine feet of water at the close of th season. 5. Cleaveland Harbor, Ohio.- I'he pier's are extended into the iake the whole distance contemplated. The labor and materials now applied ar for strengthening the works, and keeping them in re pair. The depth of water remains as last year, from ten to eleven feet. 6. Grand River, 'Ohio. The progress, condition, and disbursements, as well as the several estimates, have not been reported. 7. Cunningham's Creek, Ohio.- No appropriation was made at the last session of Congress for extending or securing this work. 8. Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio.-The labor on the harbor this season has been applied principally in removing the rock and gravel which obstruct the channel. About thirteen thousand tons of stone and gravel have been removed this season. A depth of water is obtained from right to nine feet alongside the east pier: From a register kept since the 1st of May last, it appears that 531 vesse is have touched at this port this season ; a few years ago, the arrivals did not exceed half a dozen the whole season. 9. Conneaut

Harbor, Ohio. The small sum that was left of last year's appropriation has been appiied in repairing the works and deepening the channel. This suin has not been suficient. 20. Presque Isle Harbor, Pennsylvania.- The depth of water at the entrance is the same as last year, twelve fett, and from thence to the borough piers nine and a half feet, at its shoalest place. 11. Dunkirk Harbor, New York.-The sione of the breakwater has settled, in 352 yards of it, to average about three feet through the whole length. 12. Buffalo Har. bor, New York. These works approximate nearer to completion than any other on the south shore of Lake Erie. Much commendation is due to the superintendent for the skill, industry, and perseverance, with which he has prosecuted this object. There is ten feet water in the channel, so that no vessel need ever be detained except for a very short tiine, when the water is lowered by the most severe gales from the east, which very rarely occur. 13. Black Rock Harbor:-A portion of expenditures that have been incurred this season has been to strengthen the works on Bird'Island, and the transverse piers, but mostly in the construction of a new pier, for which thr appropriation was principally designed, to protect the harbor against the influx of the sand along the lake shore, and at the same time to shield it agajast the reaction of the surf.

14. Gennessee River:--Twenty-six cribs, of thirty by twenty feet, have been constructed and sunk this year at Gennessee river, in from twelve to fifteen feet of water, and the work raised out of water; and will, before the close of the season, together with right other cribs, one forty fect, another thirty feet square, be carried up and leveiled at the usual point, five feet above the surface of the water, with timber, iron bolts, and stone, giving an ex-l tent of 2,876 feet on either side of the river, making a total of 5,752 feet of pier. This work has opened a crooked passage over sand bars, having seven feet of water upon them, to a free and straight line navigation of fifteen feet depth of water into Rochester harbor, where there are from eighteen to twenty feet of water; the work thus constructed is firm, and answers all the purposes expected frem it. 15. Big Sodus Bay. At this bay there have been constructed 5,378 feet in length of pier, distributed on both sides of its entrance, to which have been added, this year, twenty-four cribs, fourteen at the T. piers, sunk in from eleven to thirteen feet of water, and ten cribs deposited at the isthmus, to prevent the waves of the lake from breaking through into the bay. 16. Oswego, Lake Ontario, NewYork.-The funds appropriated for the works at this place became available at so late a period, that it was found iinpracticable to do more than to repair the injuries sustained by the storms of ice of the last winter, and to strengthern the mole by a deposite of about nine hundred cords of large stone

17. Monument on Steele's ledge, Penobscot Bay, Me.-The appropriation for this structure became available too late in the season to admit of much being done during the present year. The measures proper to carry the intention of Congress into effect have, however, been taken, and the work will progress with as little delay as practicable. 18. Piers at Kennebunk, Maine.-The damages sustained last winter by the pier on the western entrance into this river, and the Perch rock” pier, were repaired during the last summer. Preparations have been made to commence early next season the construction

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of the eastern pier, for which an appropriation was made at the last session of Congress, in a permanent manner.

19. Merrimack River, Massa husetts.-The breakwater at this place has been strengthened by the addition of three hundred and twenty-four tons of stone placed at the end and sides most exposed to the violent action of the sea. The pier leading from Badger's rock to Salisbury shore, commenced in August, is two-thirds finished, and hopes are entertained that it will be completed before winter sets in. 20. Deer Island. Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.-All the works projected for the preservation of this island have been completed. 21. Provincetown Harbor, Massachuset1s.-The season proper for prost cuting the works to preserve this important harbor having passed before the turds for this purpose becaine available, operations were, from necessity, postponed till the next spring, when it is hoped that at least two hundred acres will be planted in grass. Those parts of the beach here10fore worked on, are represented as doing well. 22. Plymouth Beach, Massachusetts.Five hundred feet of stone will have been constructed since the last report, on the west side of the break water at this place. Grass, to arrest the drifting sand, has been set out at various places on the beach, to the extent of about 50,000 feet, and 1,870 feet of brush fes.ce, having the same object, have been constructed. The general condition of the beach is

represented as good. 23. Hyannis Breakwater, Massachusetts.-Owing to the lateness of the season at which the appropriation for this work became available, but little progress culd be made towards its extension during the present year.

24. Hudson River, New York.- 1 he Jaw making the appropriation towards the improvement of this river from a point a little below Albany to Waterford, designates the plan upon which the improvement is to be made. But on examination there is a serious apprehension that the plan is impracticable, and totally inadequate to produce the desirable results for which the appropriation was intended. This improvement is one of the most important that has ever bet n committed to the Engineer Deparunent, and its difficulty is commensurate with the vast interests to be affected by it. Under thest circumstances, an officer of engineers, in whose ability the department has the utnost confidence, was despatched to the Hudson, and is at present actively engaged in his duties. It is probable that the proper plan for prosecuting this improvement may differ widry from thai aliuded to in the law; in which event, some further legislative action on the subject will become necessary before the funds now availabie can be expended.

25. Harbors of New Castle, Marcus Hook, Chuster, and Port Penn, Delaware river.No report in reference to these improvements has as yet reached the department.

26. Ocracock Inlet, North Carolina. -The operations, with the aid of a regular and efficient organization, have progressed withuut interruption since the above date, and the machinery unremittingly and perseveringly applied upon the obstructions, without other im. pediment than that occasioned by rough weather; and the quantity of earth excavated since the date of last report, has amounted to 35,300 cubic yards. he boats have been principally occupied in cutting a channel through that part of the obstructions called the Eight-foot Shoal, and in widening and further improving the Flounder Slue. A cut has been made through the former, in length 950 yards, from nine fetton each side, and about 33 yards wide, and from nine and a half to eleven fet detp, rendering this part of the channel practicable for nine feet to the entrance at the Flounder Slue, the latter having a depth of a w inches over eight et. 27. Cape Fe River, North Carolina.--One thousand six hundred and eighty-five and one-half tons of stone have been deposited around the jetly near Old Town; and on those parts of it where the stone has been thrown, it has not only resisted the action of the current, and preserved the jetty, but it also secured it against the

effects of the storm which occured here on the 4th and 5th of September last. I hose parts of the jetty which were not protected, were much injured, as were all the jetties on the river, excepting the two on the western side, near the bulkhend or upper shoal. The dredging machine has been at work on the middle shual, and on the bulkhead, during the season. Vess ls are constanıly going, drawing eleven and a half feet over the lower shoal, and over the middle and bulkhead shoa), twelve feet can be carried; eleven feet can be carried to and from Wilmington.

28. Savannah River, Georgia.-The requisite surveys to ascertain the extent of the obstructions to be removed for the improvement of this river have been completed. The dredge and tow boats, and mud Ants, with machinery, are in a forward state of preparation; and it is anticipated that the operations for clearing the channel will be commenced at an early day with much force and vigor.

29. Inland Pass between the St. John's and the St. Mary's, Florida.--Nothing has been done as yet at this piace: 30. Ochlochney River, Florida. The expenditures on this river have been directed to the removal of the rafts and tret's which obstructed its navigation. The river is now open for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles from its mouth. 31. Appalachicola River, Florida.-The improvement of the Appalachicola harbor to the opening of the straight channel,” has been attended with great success. Vessels of the largest class, trading in that quarter, now pass up to the wharves of the town. 32. $t. Mark's River and Harbor, Florida.-The want of funds during the last year, and the high waters of the present, have retarded very considerably the operations for the improvement of the river. The works on the river are, for the present, suspended. Similar causes, joined to the prevalence of disease, have operated to the prejudice of the harbor improve ments. All unnecessary delay will be avoided, to bring these works to a close. 33. Escam

bia River, Florida.-Soon after the appropriation was made for the improvement of this

river, the work was put under contract, but the contractors have failed to fulfil their en. gagements. Up to the middle of December last they had but partially cleared a small portion of the river of its obstructions, when their operations were arrested by high water, which continued from that time to the close of August. The further prosecution of the work has been, from necessity, transferred to the Quartermaster's Department.

34. Mobile Harbor, Alabama.-The operations at this place were, early in the present year, brought to a satisfactory termination. The channel through this pass is 100 feet wide, and io deep. The width of the channel was, however, soon discovered to be insufficient to admit the free passage of vessels with adverse winds; and, avoid this difficulty, a contract for an enlargement to 300 feet was made, but has recently been abandoned by the contractor. 35. Pascagoula Rider, Mississippi.-The difficulties with the contractor, referred to, last year, still continue, to a certain extent, to exist, and to retard the operations of the improvement at the mouth of this river. The work is progressing, yet so slowly, and so little to the satisfaction of the general superintendent, that he proposed, should no improvement in this respect, have taken place by the first of this month, to resort to legal measures to abrogate the contract.

36. Ohio and Mississippi River's.-Since the last inspection of the works for the improvement of the navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi, the superintendent has steadily pursued the plan of operations previously adopted on those rivers, and with the same success. In the months of October, November, and December, 1833, and January and February, 1834, the steam snag boats, and the machine boats worked by bind, removed from the bed of the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers, 2,922 sags, and in the same time, the crews of those boats cut froin the dry bars of the Arkansas, and felled from the bluff banks of

the Mississippi, 5,993 trees. One thousand three hundred and eighty-five of the snags removed were taken from the bed of the Mississippi, and 1,621 trees were felied frin its bluff banks. One thousand five hundred and thirty-seven of the snags were taken out of the bed of the Arkansas river, and 3,372 of the trers were cut from its dry bars. The work done in the Arkansas river has produced a very ben-ficial effect, but has not been completed, to the full extent, as far up as Little Rock, the highest point to which the work was carried, owing to the stage of water being too high during part of the time the boats were aperating in that river. The full amount of the appropriation for that river has been expended. The number of snags removed exceeds the amount reported by Lieutenant Brown, in bis examination, to have been in that part of the river. The work done on the Mississippi during the year has been of much advantage to the improvement of its navigation. The loss of boats during the last year by snags, in that river has been less than in former years.

But three steainboats were lost in that tiine. 37. Red River, Louisiana.- Operations on this river were suspended iast fall for want of funds. The appropriation for their further prosecution was inarle at so late a period as to render it impracticable to do any thing during the last sunner. The agent charged with the improvement has, however, made all the necessary preparations to prosecute the work with despatch, to the extent of the available means, and is, no doubt, at the great raft ere this. 38. Arkansas River, drkansas

Territory. The operations for the improvement of this river were prosecuted last winter til the funds were exhausted. They extended from the mouth of the river to Little Rock, a distance of 250 miles. Within these limits, 1,557 snags were taken from the channel, and 3,370 snags and logs cut from the sand bars, and under the banks within the bed of the river. 39. Cumberland River.- The operations for improving the navigation of this river have been directed to strengthening the wing dams at Flax Patch bar, the head and foot of Harpeth island, and to quarrying and removing the rock from the channel way of Harpeth shoals, the bottom of which is stated to be reduced to an even surface, and to have more water over it than the sand bars below. A number of the most dangerous snags have been removed from the bed of the stream between the shoal and Line island. A conglomerate of gr.vel and iron ore, torming a ledge in the channel of the Devil's chute, at a place where it is but 27 feet wide, has been, in part, taken out, and the whole will most likely be removed this fall. After this the force will be concentrated at Line island, to raise the steamer President, wrecked last June in the channel at that place.

III. LIGHT HOUSES AND BEACON LIGHTS. The appropriations for the lights at Huron, Grand river, Cunningham creek, Ashtabula creek, Conneaut creek, in the State of Ohio; Genesee river, Big Sodus bay, and Oswego, in New York; and Goat island, Rhode Island, were referred for application to this departmeit. Measures have been taken to apply th- funds for the first five named, but ihose for the latter not being sufficient to accomplish any thing of a permanent and substantial character, it was deemed proper to wait the further action of Congress in the matter.

IV. ROADS. 1. Roads from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, Saganaw, mouth of Grand River, and Chicago, in the Territory of Michigan.-No appropriations having been made at the last session of Congress for the continuation of these roads, operations on them wert, of course, limited to the funds remaining

to be applied froin the appropriations of the previous year. 2. Road from La Plaisance Bay to the road leading from Detroit to Chicago, Michigan.-Circumstances have conspired to render the last season one of the most unpropitious for the progress of this road. The continued rains of last fall and spring, and the prevalence of dis

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