Slike strani
PDF
ePub

is so widespread, and so much is expected of the Mining Bureau and the State Mineralogist, that it is a matter of regret that his work has been impeded for want of needed assistance in this department.

CHEMICAL WORK.

Since Mr. Edward Booth, the very efficient chemist employed during the first year of the Mining Bureau, was discharged for want of funds, nearly all the chemical work has been done in the private laboratory of the State Mineralogist, maintained at his own expense. The work has been considerable, but not in proportion to the requirements of the office. Some of the results will appear elsewhere in this report.

LIBRARY.

Very few volumes have been added to the library. Since the administration of the Board of Trustees a few valuable works have been purchased and a few acquired by donation.

VISITORS.

The number of visitors to the museum has gradually increased. Since the removal to the new rooms the increase has been very noticeable.

PUBLICATIONS.

The reports of this office, although below my standard, are much in demand, showing the interest taken by the world in our affairs. These reports should be made fuller and better with each issue; but this cannot be done until the State Mineralogist is furnished with more assistance and money with which to visit the localities in the State where valuable minerals are found. No matter how industrious he may be in collecting and arranging matter for his publications, unless he has clerical assistance to carefully revise the work, annoying and discreditable errors will be found when it is too late to correct them in the too hastily prepared reports. For these reasons the publications are not without certain crudities. If the most valuable parts of each volume were carefully revised, provided with maps and engravings, reprinted in one, and published officially, a volume would be so produced which might be given a wide circulation, to the advantage of the State.

SACRAMENTO STATE COLLECTION OF MINERALS,

There is at the Capitol, in the State Library, in rooms wanted for books, a large and valuable collection of minerals, which was purchased many years ago by the State at an expenditure of a considerable sum of money. It is my opinion that this collection should be joined to the one now in the Pioneer Building in San Francisco, to which it would form a fine supplement. Repeated efforts have been made to effect this union, but always with opposition. Still it seems to be the proper thing to join them.

STATE MAPS.

Considerable work has been done and much data collected with a view to the publication of a preliminary geological map of the State, and a large map in sections, on a scale of one centimeter to the mile, on which it was intended to mark the exact locality of all valuable minerals found in the State. It is to be hoped that this work will be continued. An appropriation of several thousand dollars would not be too much for this alone.

CATALOGUE.

A portion of the third volume of the museum catalogue has been printed, which brings the numbers up to seven thousand. When the entries number nine thousand this volume will be put into book form by the State Printer.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME CALIFORNIA.

In preparing a history of the geological surveys and explorations of California, I frequently met with the statement that the name of our State was derived from a Spanish romance, published first in 1521. This was ignored or contradicted by other authors. I became very much interested in this subject, and wrote to the Librarian of the British Museum, asking him if there was such a work in his library. In due time a reply came from G. K. Fortescue, the Librarian, informing me that there was, and that in Chapter 157 the name California appears. Mr. Fortescue kindly offered to have the chapter copied for me, which I accepted, and received the chapter in Spanish, which follows this. I then applied to Mr. Camilo Martin, Consul for Spain, who made for me a literal translation, in which he aimed to reproduce in English the quaint idiom of the original.

In his first letter, Mr. Fortescue gave me certain references, which led to my finding in the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, April 30, 1863, a paper on this same subject, by Edward Everett Hale, in which he quotes a few lines from the romance.

As the commander of the expedition sent out by Cortez did not discover Lower California until 1534, and as the romance was so popular that it passed rapidly through a number of editions, it is reasonable to infer that the name California had its origin in the fertile brain of the author. Mr. Hale seems to have been the first to discover and publish these facts.

LAS SERGAS del muy esforzado Caballero Esplandian, hijo del excelente Rey Amadis de GAULA.—Madrid, 1521.

CAPITULO CLVII. Del espantoso y no pensado socorro con que la reina Calafia en favor de los turcos al puerto de

Constantinopla llegó. Quiero agora que sepais una cosa la mas extraña que nunca por escriptura ni por memoria de gente en ningun caso hallar se pudo, por donde el dia siguiente fué la ciudad en punto de ser perdita, y cómo de alli donde le vino el peligro le vino la salud. Sabed que á la diestra mano de las Indias hubo una isla, llamada California, muy llegada a la parte del Paraiso Terrenal, la cual fué poblada de mujeres negras, sin que algun varon entre ellas hubiese, que casi como las amazonas era su estilo de vivir. Estras eran de valientes cuerpos y esforzados y ardientes corazones y de grandes fuerzas; la insula en si la mas fuerte de riscos y bravas peñas que en el mundo se hallaba; las sus armas eran todas de oro, y tambien las guarniciones de las bestias fieras, en que, después de las haber amansado, cabalgaban; que en toda la isla no habia otro metal alguno. Moraban en cuevas muy bien labradas; tenian navios muchos, en que salian á otras partes á hacer sus cabalgadas, y los hombres que prendian llevábanlos consigo, dándoles las muertes que adelante oiréis. Y algunas veces que teinan paces con sus contrarios, mezclábanse can toda seguranza unas con otros, y habian ayuntamientos carnales, de donde se seguia quedar muchas dellas preñadas, y si parian varon, luego era muerto. La causa dello, según se sabia, era porque en sus pensamientos tenien firme de apocar los varones en tan pequeño número, que sin trabajo los pudiesen señorear, con todas sus tierras, y guardar aquellos que entendiesen que cumplia para que la generacion no pereciese.

En esta isla, California llamada, habia muchos grifos, por la grande aspereza de la tierra y por las infinitas salvajinas que en ella habitaban, los cuales en ninguna parte del mundo eran hallados; y en et tiempo que tenian hijos, iban estas mujeres con artificios para los tomar, cubiertas todas de muy gruesos cueros, y traianlos à sus cuevas, y alli los criaban. Y siendo ya igualados, cebábanlos en aquellos hombres y en los niños que parian, tantas veces y con tales 'artes, que muy bien conocian à ellas, y no les hacían ningun mal. Cualquiera varon que en la isla entrase, luego por ellos era muerto y comido; y aunque hartos estuviesen, no dejaban por eso de los tomar y alzarlos arriba, volando por el aire, y cuando se enojaban de los traer, dejábanlos caer donde luego eran muertos. Pues al tiempo que aquellos grandes hombres de los paganos partieron con aquellas tan grandes flotas como la historia vos ha ya contado, reinaba en aquella isla California una reina muy grande de cuerpo, muy hermosa para entre ellas, en floreciente edad, deseosa en su pensamiento de acabar grandes cosas, valiente en esfuerzo y ardid de su bravo corazon, mas que otra ninguna de las que antes della aquel señorio mandaron. Yoyendo decir cómo toda la mayor parte del mundo se movia en aquel viaje contra los cristianos, no sabiendo ella que cosa era cristianos, ni teniendo noticia de otras tierras, sino aquellas que sus vecinas estaban, deseando ver el mundo y sus diversas generaciones, pensando que con la gran fortaleza suya y de las suyas, que de todo le que se ganase habria por fuerza ó por grado la mayor parte, habló con todas aquellas que en guerra diestras estaban, que seria bueno que, entrando en sus muy grandes flotas, siguiesen aquel viaje que aquellos grandes principes y altos hombres seguian; animándolas y esforzándolas, poniendoles delante las muy grandes. honras y provechos que de tal camino seguirseles podrian, sobre todo con muy grande fama que por toda el mundo dellas seria sonada, que estando así en aquella isla, haciendo no otra cosa sino la que sus antecesores hicieron, no era sino estar como sepultadas en vida, como muertas viviendo, pasando sus dias sin fama, sin gloria, como los animales brutos hacien.

Tantas cosas les dijo aquella muy esforzada reina Calafia, que no solamente miovió á sus gentes á consentir en el tal camino, mas ellas, con mayor deseo que sus famas por muchas partes divulgadas fuesen, le daban priesa que entrase en la mar luego, porque se hallesan en las afrentas, juntas con aquellos tan grandes hombres. La Reina, que la voluntad de las suyas vido, sin mas dilatar, mandó bastecer su grande flota de viandas y de armas todas de oro, y de todo lo demás necesario, y mandó reparar la mayor fusta de las suyas, hecha a manera de una red de gruesa madera, y hizo en ella meter hasta quinientos grifos, que, como ya se vos dijo, desde pequeños mandó criar y cebar en los hombres; y haciendo allí meter las bestias en que cabalgaban, que de diversas maneras eran, y todas las mas escogidas mujeres y mejor armadas que tenia en la flota, dejando tal recaudo en la isla con que segura quedase, metióse ella las otras en la mar; dióse tanta priesa, que llegó á las fotas de los paganos aquella noche que se os dijo del combate; con que todos ellos hubieron muy gran placer, y luego fué visitada de aquellos grandes señores, haciendole muy grande acatamiento. Ella quiso saber en qué estado estaba hecho, rogándoles mucho que por extenso se lo contasen, y oida la relacion dello, dijo: “Vosotros habies combatido esta ciudad con vuestras grandes gentes, y no la pudístes tomar; pues yo con las mias, si á vosotros pluguiere, quiero el dia siguiente probar mis fuerzas á que bastarán, si quisieredes estar á mi consejo." Todos aquellos grandes señores le dijeron que como por ella fuese señalado, que asi lo mandarian cumplir.

“Pues enviad luego a todos los otros capitanes que por ninguna manera salgan mañana ellos ni los sujos de sus estancias, hasta que por mi les sea mandado, y veréis un combate el mas extraño que hasta hoy nunca vistes, ni de que jamás pistes hablar.” Esto fué luego hecho saber al gran soldan de Liquia y al soldan de Halapa, que tenia cargo de todas las huestes que estaban en la tierra; los cuales así lo mandaron å todas sur gentes, maravillándose mucho á que podria acudir el pensamiento y obra de aquella reina.

TRANSLATION.

The Exploits of the very valiant Knight Esplandian, son of the excellent King Amadis of Gaul.-[Madrid, 1521.7

CHAPTER CLVII. The marvelous and not thought of succor with which the Queen Catafia came to the Port of Con

stantinople in fuvor of the Turks. I wish you now to know a thing the most strange which ever either in writing or in people's memory could be found, by which the city was the following day on the point of being lost, and how from there where the danger came, salvation came to it. Know then that to the right hand of the Indies, there was an island called California, very near the part of the terrestrial Paradise, and which was inhabited by black women, without there being among them even one man, that their style of living was almost like that of the Amazons. They were of robust bodies and valiant and ardent hearts and of great strength; the island itself was the strongest that could be found in the world through its steep and wild rocks; their arms were all of gold and also the harness of the wild beasts on which they rode after taming them, as there was no other metal in the whole island; they dwelled in well-finished caves; they had many ships in which they went to other parts to obtain booty, and the men whom they made prisoners they took along, killing them in the way you shall hear further on. And sometimes, when they were at peace with their adversaries, they used to mingle with them with entire confidence; if any of them gave birth to a son, he was put to death at once. The reason for it, as it was known, was because in their thoughts they were resolved to lessen the men to so small a number that they would be able to master them without much trouble, with all their lands, and preserve those who would understand that it was convenient to do so that the race might not perish.

In this island, called California, there were a great many griffins, the like, on account of the ruggedness of the land and the very many wild beasts therein contained, were not found in any other part of the world : and when they had little ones, these women would go covered with thick skins to catch them by tricks, and they would bring them to their caves and there rear them; and when they were accustomed to them, they would feed them with those men and with the male children they bore, so often and with such cunning that they very well learned to know them, and never did them any harm. Any man who landed on the island was at once killed and eaten by them; and though they might be glutted, they would not the less take them and lift them up, flying through the air, and when tired of carrying them, they would let them fall, where they would be killed at once. Well, at the time when those great men of the pagans departed with those large fleets, as history has already told you, there reigned in said Island California a Queen very tall of stature, very handsome for one of them, of blooming age, desiring in her thoughts to do great deeds, valiant in spirit, and in cunning of her fearless heart, more so than any of the others that before her reigned in that seigniory. And having heard how the greatest part of the world was moving in that expedition against the Christians, she, not knowing what beings were the Christians, nor having any knowledge of other countries except those which were next to hers, wishing to see the world and its different races, thinking that with her great valor and that of her adherents all that would be gained she would have, by force or by cunning, the largest share of, she spoke with all those that were skillful in war, telling them that it would be well that, going in their great fleets, they should follow the same road that those great princes and eminent men were taking, inciting and encouraging them by laying before them the very great honor and gain that might result to them from that undertaking; above all, the great fame that would resound in the whole world about them; that remaining in the island as they were, doing nothing but what their ancestors had done, would be only to be buried in life, like living dead, passing their days without fame and without glory, like wild animals.

So many things said to them by that very, valiant Queen Calafia, that she not only moved her people to consent to the undertaking, but they, with their great desire that their fame should be published in many parts, hurried her to put to sea at once, so as to happen to be in the danger jointly with those great men. The Queen, who saw the determination of her people, ordered her great fleet to be supplied with provisions, and with arms all of gold and with all other necessaries; and she ordered the repairing of her largest vessel, made like a grate of thick timbers, and she had put into her up to five hundred griffins, which, as you have been told, she had raised from tender age and fed with the flesh of men, and having therein also put the animals on which they rode, and which were of different kinds; also, the best chosen and best armed women which were in the fleet, and, leaving such garrison in the island as to be secure, she put to sea with the others, and she hurried so much that she joined the fleets of the pagans the night of the combat, of which you have been told, which caused them all very great pleasure, and then she was visited by those great lords, who showed her great reverence. She wanted to know in what state was their enterprise, begging them to relate it to her minutely; and having heard the report from them, she said: You have fought this city with your many people and could not take it; well, I with mine, if it is agreeable to you, will, on the following day, try the reach of my power, if you will accept my advice." All those great lords answered her, that whatever was by her indicated, they would order it executed. “Then notify at once all the other commanders that to-morrow, on no account, they nor theirs leave their quarters, until it is so ordered by me, and you shall see a fight the most strange never seen before this day, and of which you never have heard spoken.” This was then made known to the great Sultan of Liquia and the Sultan of Halapa, who had charge of armies which were on land, and who thus ordered their people, wondering much what could be the thought and deed of that Queen.

GENERAL CONDITION OF MINING IN CALIFORNIA.

California is just emerging from a condition of things that will be remembered for many years to come with regret and astonishment, and which will pass to history as one of those periodic manias which come over mankind like a calamity, and shake the very foundations of society.

If the majority of the people of the Pacific Coast should be informed that instead of having been engaged in mining, they have simply been gambling, and have in the most foolish manner possible, given up their money to a comparatively few unscrupulous and dishonest sharpers, they would be slow to admit the fact, yet perhaps in the annals of history, there has never been such a wholesale transfer of money from a multitude of pockets to a few, without consideration, under the deceptive but fascinating name of mining.

Stock gambling is in no sense mining. It is a favorite excuse by those who have lost their savings in this way, to say sadly, “I invested all my money in mines and lost it,” which most of them did not, but bought worthless stocks instead. To recount the most successful deceptions that have been practiced to induce those who had money to invest it in stocks, would fill many pages and leave much more to be said. Still honest gold and silver mining presents the best field for the investment of capital of any business in California, for the following reasons:

Gold is becoming scarce, and consequently its purchasing power is greater than it has been for many years. The market for gold is in no way dependent on the population of the Pacific Coast; while a large population is essential to render manufacturing successful. We can produce gold with perfect confidence that the market of the world will gladly take all we are willing to spare, and in return will manufacture for us cheaper than we can hope or desire to do for ourselves.

Mines can now be worked in California at a much less cost than during the delirium of the first gold excitement, for the reason that transportation, provisions, labor, and fuel are cheaper; and every ounce of gold obtained is practically of double value. These facts are well known to intelligent miners in the State, and our mines are being better worked than ever before. New quartz veins are being taken up wherever they can be found; and there are indications of a new era in mining, which, it is to be hoped, will cause renewed prosperity in the State, even if we cannot utilize our vast deposits of placer gold.

MINING ECONOMIES.

Within a few years railroad lines have been extended and settlements advanced. Ores that could only be worked if they would yield from twenty-five to fifty dollars per ton are now found to be rich, as they can be mined and milled at a very reduced expense. Dump piles, formerly considered worthless, are now valued at many thousands of dollars. Tailings, allowed to go to waste in former years, are now being prospected and assayed. The concentration of these tailings will furnish employment for many men in the near future.

When on a large scale gold quartz has been crushed in quartz mills, a sandy powder passes through the screens and over the amalgamating copper plates. Theoretically the gold contained in the quartz remains attached to the mercury; what flows away (which is nearly all that passes the screens) is known among miners as tailings. If the operation of milling was as perfect in practice as in theory, the tailings would be worthless, but this is not the case; not only does a considerable quantity of gold escape, but mercury also. The sulphurets, which are nearly always auriferous, are not decomposed in the operation, and carry their precious contents with them to the beds of the streams below the mills, or to the reservoirs, which the most prudent of superintendents or managers provide for the reception of the tailings. The ordinary quartz mill saves only free gold, and even a portion of that escapes, owing to defective milling, and the sometimes peculiar condition of the gold, which has been before referred to in these reports. Mercury is used in the batteries, and on the plates, but notwithstanding the skill acquired by the amalgamators, and the experience of many years in California, a considerable portion escapes, taking gold with it that had already become amalgamated. To prevent this well known loss many ingenious inventors have spent years of their lives and much money in the construction of machines and in the planning of processes, many of which have been patented, until the art of concentration has reached a point approaching perfection. But there is still

« PrejšnjaNaprej »