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the entire organization of the institution is departmental; no major divisions exist. In the second there is a division of arts and a division of sciences, hence no unit that corresponds to the college of arts and sciences. In the third the departments appropriate to the arts and science college are scattered to several divisions; although this institution grants the A. B. degree, it is obviously not granted as a function of an integrated college of arts and sciences.

It is apparent that among the 39 land-grant institutions for which data are available, there are only 16 that are both organized and granting the degree appropriate to the general educational objective of the traditional isolated college of arts and sciences.

The tendency of technical divisions to develop under their own control and in their own organizations highly specialized social and scientific areas in the arts and science field is manifest even in the 16 land-grant universities that maintain arts and science divisions comparable to the independent college of arts and sciences. This is especially evident in the divisions of agriculture which have frequently developed departments of agricultural chemistry, economics, botany, and zoology in addition to the departments in the division of arts and sciences that represent these fields. In the same way the division of commerce develops its own department of economics, and the division of engineering its own mathematics and physics. Many other similar but less generally used specializations paralleling the departments that exist in the division of arts and sciences in the same institutions will be found in these and other technical schools and colleges.

It is even possible to discover in these State universities certain departments ordinarily found in the independent college of arts and sciences that have been taken over entirely by the technical divisions. Thus geology, psychology, physics, botany, economics, and chemistry departments in some instances exist only in the technical divisions although the institutions in which this is the case have otherwise well-rounded unified divisions of arts and sciences.

In the separate land-grant colleges the conception of the unified, isolated college of arts and sciences has been completely broken down and everywhere is found the tendency to scatter the arts and science departments. This tendency is manifested in the frequent creation of separate coordinate divisions of arts and of sciences and less frequently by general distribution of the departments among a number of technical divisions. In some instances both these methods of disintegration seem to be in use.

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The preceding chapter has indicated how the development of technical and professional schools has led to a degree of specialization in organization of arts and science subject matter that tends to break down the conception of the college of arts and sciences as a unit designed to provide general education as its main function. The same process of specialization within the arts and science fields is evident in the rapid division and subdivision of arts and science departments during the past 25 or 30 years. The department of biology has been split into the department of botany and the department of zoology. The department of history and political science has multiplied by division into departments of history, economics, sociology, politics, and business. The department of English language and literature has split into many separate departments, English, composition, dramatics, public speaking, rhetoric, speech, and journalism. Six of 10 institutions that indicated changes that they considered desirable in their organization of arts and science work mentioned increase in the number of departments either by the division of existing departments or by the addition of new

ones.

The process of specialization within the arts and science fields tends to transform departments that were nonexistent or relatively unimportant in the independent college of arts and sciences into separate schools or major divisions. Thus the department of chemistry in some of the land-grant institutions has already become a school of chemistry; the department of economics develops on the one hand into a school of business or commerce and on the other into a school of social service or a school of social sciences; the department of education becomes a school or college of education; the department of journalism grows into a school of journalism.

These processes are possible by reason of the demands of technical schools, the increase of subject matter developed by research, and because of improvements in methods of recording and disseminating information. But the incentive to such development is not abstract love of learning. These tendencies are made effective because in

these directions lie opportunities to prepare for profitable occupations. The following comment upon the effect of the scientific work of the land-grant institutions was made in 1877 by the first American cyclopædia of education and is applicable to the general development in all the fields of arts and science learning:“Such rapid strides have been made in some directions within the past few years that a chemist and a laboratory have become a necessary adjunct to many of the agricultural industries, notably to that of the manufacture of cheese, butter, and commercial fertilizers."

The tendency to high specialization is evidenced also in the multiplication of the courses offered in the arts and science fields. The 1903 and the 1928 catalogues of six land-grant institutions, three large universities, and three well-developed separate land-grant colleges were examined to determine to what extent course offerings in botany, chemistry, economics, and English had increased during the 25-year period.

In the six institutions the number of courses offered in botany increased 151 per cent, in chemistry 82 per cent, in economics 330 per cent, and in Eyglish 138 per cent. The number of courses in botany increased in both the universities and in the land-grant colleges at the same rate. Courses in chemistry increased in the universities by 82 per cent and in the colleges 134 per cent. Courses in economics increased in the Universities by 240 per cent and in the colleges 766 per cent. The number of English courses increased in the universities by 92 per cent and in the separate land-grant colleges by 266 per cent.

Although these figures are limited to a small number of institutions and a few fields, they probably represent with fair accuracy what happened generally in the land-grant institutions. Transfer of interest from general to specific aspects of single areas and service to technical divisions result in specialization that is reflected in the variety of courses offered.

This multiplication through high specialization of courses is especially significant from the standpoint of their suitability for a general curriculum in arts and sciences. Even though general and elementary courses may be given they are designed not to serve the purposes of cultural education in the humanities and sciences, but as introductions to specializations. Their content and method are determined by this purpose.

The offering of highly specialized courses by different major divisions, each concerned with its own applications, may lead to considerable duplication of content between courses under control of different interests. Thus several land-grant arts and science divisions point out duplications or tendencies to duplications in courses given by different schools in statistics, sociology, English, economics, hygiene, ornithology, bacteriology, physiological chemistry, nutrition, psychology, genetics, and heredity. Whether this duplication is wasteful or undesirable depends of course upon the importance of the real diversity of uses that it serves as compared with the educational obstacles to achievement that would arise if all similar elements were combined in a single service course.

1 ['niversities : California, Minnesota, and Kansas, and Iowa.

Cornell. Colleges : Pennsylvania State,

Departure from the general educational functions that are ascribed to the isolated college of arts and sciences is evident also in the training and interests of staff members in the arts and science departments. The land-grant institutions were asked to list the qualifications that were considered most important when teachers of the arts and science subjects are employed. First in order of frequency of mention was “specialized education.” Research ability and research experience were high upon the list. Practically all considered the doctor's degree essential or highly desirable for heads of departments and others of professorial rank.

The part that staff members from the technical and special schools and colleges play in the conduct of arts and science work is of importance in this connection. In one institution one-fourth of the staff in the division of agriculture were giving part of their time to the teaching of arts and science subjects. In another institution almost as large a proportion of the engineering staff gives part time to the college of arts and sciences. In still another a large proportion of the staff of the college of veterinary medicine was teaching in the division of arts and sciences. Such examples might be multiplied to show that staff members from many of the technical and professional schools in many land-grant institutions are doing a considerable proportion of the arts and science teaching in these colleges and universities. The proportion is not especially significant; the important thing is that interests and attitudes that are highly technical and specialized from vocational standpoints are not regarded and in fact are not out of place upon the present-day instructing staff of the arts and science division of the land-grant institutions.

The teaching function, moreover, for the heads and high ranking staff members of arts and science divisions does not constitute their major interest or their most effective means of securing advancement. This is especially evident when the academic rank of the teachers of freshmen is examined. Table 1 gives the facts in regard to the instruction of freshmen by the various ranks as reported by the arts and science divisions of 33 land-grant institutions.

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Only 22 per cent of the freshmen receive instruction from professors, 8 per cent from associate professors, 20 per cent from assistant professors, while 37 per cent are taught by instructors and 13 per cent by assistants or fellows. In other words, nearly four-fifths of the freshmen are instructed by staff members below the rank of professor.

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