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Of the arts and science divisions reporting, 17 of the 22 show increases in total expenditures for maintenance ranging from 1 per cent to 113 per cent, with an average of 45 per cent and a median of 46 per cent. This does not mean that on the whole the increase for maintenance was greater than the increase in salaries, for 13 institutions showed more of an increase in salaries than in maintenance,

It is interesting in this connection to note that 24 of 34 institutions that furnished information reported that funds for arts and sciences are in proportion to corresponding funds for other major divisions. Ten were dissatisfied with the distribution of funds between arts and sciences and other divisions.

Chapter V.-Articulation with Secondary Schools

It is a far cry from the modern land-grant institution to the college

a of 50 or even 25 years ago. Many of the purposes of the Morrill Act of 1862 are now accomplished by the vocational high school; in many instances specific purposes that inspired the Morrill Act are no longer in harmony with the general standards of higher education in the United States. A good secondary school to-day probably carries its students in all but a few fields to levels of attainment that are superior to those of the college during the early development of the land-grant institutions. Colleges have taken on a whole series of prescriptions for admission, processes of administration, specializations of subject matter and of vocations, and have devised channels of progress and standards of accomplishment that are entirely foreign to the simple and informal situation that existed during the infancy of the land-grant institutions. Have these higher standards, these new lines of more highly specialized work, the more complicated machinery, the demands of technical divisions for special service removed the arts and science work so far from the industrial classes that the fundamental, democratic purpose of the Morrill Act to provide higher education for the common people is defeated ? Have the land-grant institutions become as remote from the interests and capacities of the ordinary citizen as the classical colleges were in 1862 ?

These questions can be answered only in terms of the entire public educational system of the United States. If public secondary education were as limited to-day as it was in the early days of the landgrant college there is no doubt that both these questions would have to be answered in the affirmative. But this obviously is not the case. The standards of secondary education have kept pace with and been raised at least as rapidly as those of higher education.

In 1870 there were in public high schools in the United States 80,277 students, 0.208 per cent of the total population. In 1928 there were enrolled in public high schools 3,911,279 students, 3.259 per cent of the population. While population increased 211 per cent, the percentage increase of enrollment in public high schools was 4,772. In other words, population in 1928 is a little more than three times that in 1870, but the enrollment in high schools in 1928 is more than forty times greater than in 1870.

High-school education has become general. The college that bases its admissions and its work upon what is being done in the public high schools may very properly be regarded as offering higher educational opportunity to the general public.

Whether this is actually the practice of land-grant institutions can be determined only with reference to their articulation with the secondary schools. Since the arts and science subjects are in these institutions grouped in ways very different from those of the independent college of arts and sciences, it is necessary to examine articulations between public secondary schools and arts and sciences in the land-grant colleges and universities largely in terms of institutional standards and regulations. With few exceptions these regulations apply to the arts and science divisions as well as to other schools and colleges in the land-grant institutions and are expressed most frequently with reference to arts and science subjects.

Do the land-grant institutions make easy transition from high school to college? In many States the law requires the publicly supported higher institutions to admit any graduate of a standard high school and to accept any mature person as a special student without reference to formal satisfaction of high-school graduation requirements.

Special provisions are made by some of the land-grant colleges and universities that go beyond the letter and spirit of such legal requirements. Thirteen of them accept students who are not highschool graduates but who have the necessary units of credit for admission, if they display qualities which indicate that they will profit from the college experience. Seven others leave the way open to admission in instances of this kind but decide each case upon its own merits. On the other hand, two institutions require such special students to take entrance examinations in English and mathematics and in two or three other subjects that may be chosen by the student. The University of Minnesota and Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College give psychological or placement tests for such applicants for admission, and if they pass with high scores, they are admitted. Eleven additional institutions that furnished information require regular entrance examinations in these cases.

Students who enter on condition or who, although high-school graduates, are deficient in one or more subjects, have the opportunity of making up such deficiencies through special noncredit courses in 17 institutions.

Arizona offers English and mathematics; Arkansas-mathematics; California-English; Indiana–English and mathematics; Hawaii-English; Louisiang-English; Maine French, German, Spanish, and Latin; Missouri-English ; Nevada—mathematics ; New Hampshire English ; North Dakota assigns students to its practice high school to take what is needed to fulfill their entrance requirements; Oklahoma-English and mathematics; Rhode Island


solid geometry; South Dakota-English ; Virginia—solid geometry; Washing. ton-English; West Virginia-algebra and English. Nine institutions do not offer such work.

The teachers of these noncredit courses are generally selected on a basis of efficiency, personality, and experience. As a rule, the best instructors are chosen—teachers who are earnest and patient. Nonproficiency of entering freshmen in certain courses is ascertained at once in a few institutions.

California, New Hampshire, and Washington give subject matter tests at entrance; Hawaii, Louisiana, and Oklahoma give placement examinations; Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri, and West Virginia give tests and two weeks' trial in college subjects. In the main, however, freshmen are assigned to college work and later when found to be unable to continue classes because of certain deficiencies may in the institutions named be given noncredit coaching courses.

Minnesota and Cornell do not admit students with deficiencies that can not be made up by work done in regular college courses. Most institutions which have no formal noncredit courses for deficient students advise them to take coaching instruction; recommend tutors for them; advise them to take work in the local high school; assign older students “in loco parentis”; aid them by a wise selection of courses; repeat courses in the second term or semester; or allow extra freshman subjects to be taken to satisfy entrance conditions.

It is interesting to note certain recent changes in entrance requirements that are in harmony with the trend of the past 20 years in the land-grant institutions to set aside or reduce emphasis upon subjects for admission that characterized the old classical college and carried over into the college of arts and sciences that had general education for its purpose. Foreign language and mathematics were the dominant subjects for admission to the older type of institutions. It was thought that they had the highest degree of " disciplinary" value and in addition they provided actual preparation for work that was central in the college itself. It is significant, therefore, that the University of Arkansas and South Dakota Agricultural Colleges have recently dropped the language requirement for admission, that Rutgers University has reduced it. Upon the mathematics entrance units also, less stress is being placed in certain institutions. The universities of Florida and Hawaii have reduced the required units in algebra from two to one in recent years. In no land-grant institution is Latin or Greek required and mathematics has already been so reduced as to raise the question whether certain of the technical specializations would not profit from once more placing greater emphasis upon this subject as preparation. There seems to be a very definite tendency to emphasize English admission requirements to a greater extent than has been the case in many of the technical land-grant institutions.


On the other hand, there is a decided tendency to set up qualitative requirements for admission that are in addition to the formal ones of high-school graduation or presentation of the required number of entrance units.

The University of Arkansas, for instance, does not admit students from the lowest group of the high-school class and asks for recommendations by the principal. Connecticut Agricultural College selects from the upper portion of the graduating class, uses intelligence tests, and secures recommendations from the high-school principal. The University of Delaware asks for the principal's recommendation. The University of New Hampshire requires students to be above the fourth quartile of the norms set by high-school seniors of the State. Rutgers University does not admit by certificate students from the lowest quarter in the high-school class. Cornell limits the freshman class to 500 new students and admits upon selective basis. Washington State College admits students from the lowest quarter of the high-school class on recommendation of the high-school principal, but only on probation. Selective tests in addition to a transcript of the student's high-school record are used to admit students who are otherwise fully qualified in 13 institutions; 25 institutions do not use these tests. However, only 11 institutions require any special scholarship attainments of secondary school graduates. Connecticut admits the upper 50 per cent on certificate and others on test. Nevada requires that students must present twothirds of their work as of better than passing grade. New Hampshire and Rutgers Universities require students to be in the upper three-quarters of their high-school classes. Pennsylvania requires students to be from the upper twofifths of the class, but may take students from the next fifth.

In determining the priority of acceptance of candidates for admission to the arts and science college, a few institutions set up certain requirements. Seven are guided by priority of application. Twelve use high-school standing as a means of selection; seven use standing in entrance examination; six standing in intelligence tests; six quality as determined by personal interview; three consider sons and daughters of alumni first.

Just how much recognition should be given to a student's previous high-school work in subjects that are offered in college is a matter that demands attention. Frequently a good student comes to college with an excellent background and high-school training in English, mathematics, or science and in college covers the same ground by taking elementary English, mathematics, or science courses. The majority of land-grant institutions reporting make no adjustment of college work to a student's high-school work; without doubt many students attending these institutions are duplicating courses for at least the first semester if not beyond.

Several institutions offer two college courses in certain subjects, one introductory and the other more advanced; the student is assigned to one or the other upon the basis of his high-school work in these subjects. For instance, double courses in chemistry are given in Connecticut, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Tennessee; two such physics courses are offered in Oklahoma and Wisconsin; similar mathematics courses are given in Connecticut, Hawaii, Missouri, and Wisconsin; and two English courses are offered in Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Utah,

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