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7. The orientation course is an attempt to provide the general viewpoint required to give specialization perspective and to provide the standards demanded by the fact that the specialist lives and works in a social situation.

8. The task undertaken by the orientation course can not be accomplished in the time usually given. Its chief contribution lies in the new selection and arrangement of the materials of knowledge which its purposes make necessary.

9. The lower division or junior college period designed to provide general education suitable to the uses of specialists gives an adequate amount of time for the purpose in view of the fact that the high school has taken over a large part of the task that was formerly required of the 4-year college of arts and sciences.

10. The junior college as a period of general training can not accomplish its purposes if it retains the introductory subject matter and methods of presentation now ordinarily used since the selection and methods are designed to prepare directly for specialization in the areas with which the individual courses deal.

11. If the junior college is to serve as a period of general preparation for specialization, it is highly desirable that it select its material and adopt the methods of presentation upon a basis similar to that used by the orientation course. In constructing the junior college curriculum the influence of strong schools of technology and of research specialists in arts and science fields should be limited in order that selection and methods of arrangement of subject matter may not be distorted by too highly specialized viewpoints.

12. Under present conditions whereby service courses are conducted by schools and divisions “foreign" to the technical schools in which students are enrolled, the social and humanistic subjects frequently fail to function as vital elements in technical education. It is claimed that they may be made to do so when subject matter and presentation are adapted to the interests of technological students and presented by members of the staff of the technical school itself. If this claim and the tendency to this practice is continued, self-contained technical units may be developed which will themselves provide their students with all the social, humanistic, scientific, and technical training that they obtain, so selected and related as to constitute a synthesis of general and technical education.

PART II.-COMMERCE AND BUSINESS

Chapter I.-Introduction

When the Morrill Act was passed, the Nation had scarcely begun to exploit its abundant supply of natural resources. The great need prior to 1880 was for higher technical training to perfect the processes of mining, of agriculture, of manufacturing, and of transportation. The demand for goods far exceeded the supply. The struggle was for increased production; marketing or distribution was of secondary importance. Producers had no difficulty in selling their output. During this period the land-grant institutions under the stimulus of the Morrill Act turned to the establishment of engineering and agricultural colleges. There was relatively little demand for training in marketing, finance, accounting, and the like. But about 1880 great economic changes began to manifest themselves. Supply of goods and commodities caught up with, and even began to exceed, the demand. There was need for increased markets in which to sell the excess, for reduced costs, for improved sales technique, for better means of finance, and for more efficient organization and management.

The land-grant institutions had entered vigorously into the fields of higher technical training during the period prior to 1880; after 1880 they did not enter with the same vigor into the fields of higher training for commerce and business. The land-grant colleges did not take advantage of the changed economic conditions by energetic development of courses in commerce and business. When they did take action, they tended to imitate nonland-grant institutions which had already entered this field of education. They set up their programs upon the basis of standards borrowed from their nonlandgrant compeers. In establishing divisions of commerce and business and in designing curricula for this purpose they were more interested in being respectable than original. Indeed, the reports of land-grant college presidents and the reports and annual programs of the Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities fail to show any significant recogition of the purposes of the Morrill Act with respect to higher business education.

Land-grant institutions, with reference to higher business education, may be divided into two classes: First, the separate colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, and, secondly, the State universities. The type of business training developed in the first differs materially from the type appropriate to the second. Until very recently the first group has emphasized technical training almost to the exclusion of commerce and business training. Here as elsewhere changes in the economic and business world which affect the success of the agriculturist and the engineer were to a large extent ignored.

Technical education requires instruction in the fundamental principles of business as well as in the technological aspects of engineering and agriculture. There are many types of engineers and many types of agricultural occupations. Scores of students graduating from colleges of engineering enter the field of business and develop into major executives. Many of these students enter as minor executives and even as routing and clerical workers. Frequently landgrant institutions have failed to provide proper instruction in commerce and business for these types of students.

The same is more or less true with regard to students in agriculture. Agriculture in the twentieth century has ceased to be a mere process of crop production and has become a complex form of modern business. It is not enough for the agriculturist to know the manner of growing and producing commodities, he must also know something of the markets in which he is to sell and of the means of largescale agricultural organization. Colleges of agriculture must prepare students to become agricultural executives as well as technical producers of food and other products. Instruction in commerce and business must become an integral part of the program of agricultural education. Some land-grant colleges and universities understand these conditions and have made some provision for instruction of students preparing for the pursuits of agriculture. They have devoted attention to the business aspects of modern agriculture as well as to the technical aspects. In addition, provisions must be made for the business training of students in colleges of engineering and agriculture who start on lower levels as clerical workers and minor executives and after successful experiences there move up to higher levels.

In the second group of land-grant institutions, the needs and objectives are different from those of the first group. They must not only furnish courses in commerce and business for the students on all levels in agriculture, engineering, and home economics, but must also meet the needs for higher business education in other fields of business and commercial endeavor. Leadership in America to-day Kas passed from the statesman to the business man. Industrial concentration is one of the most significant movements of the times. Those in charge of business enterprises are occupying positions of increased responsibility. The business leaders of the future must be men broadly trained, socially and culturally as well as technically. Land-grant institutions must accept their responsibilities for meeting the needs of the new economic and social order.

That the land-grant institutions have seen little connection between the mission given to publicly supported higher education by the Morrill Act in commerce and business is shown by the answers of the land-grant institutions to questions concerning the factors that have influenced them in establishing and developing offerings in commerce and business.

Eight institutions indicated that they recognized as of most importance in the establishment of their work in business the obligation of the land-grant institutions to serve business or to provide business education to "the industrial classes.” Ten checked this factor as important. The other 24 land-grani institutions that replied seem to have found no connection between the functions of land-grant institutions to serve business as specified by the Morrill Act and the provision of courses in commerce and business.

Table 1 summarizes the statements of 42 institutions concerning the factors that have led to the establishment and increase of their offerings in commerce and business. Table 1.-Extent to which the following factors have influenced, respectively,

the establishment or increase in the offerings in commerce and business in land-grant institutions

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Recognition of function of the land-grant colleges to

serve business. Legislative enactment. Favorable attitude of division of economics toward

organization of business courses.. Inadequate offerings in commerce and business of

other State-supported institutions... Inadequate offerings in commerce and business of

higher institutions in neighboring States.. Inadequate offerings in commerce and business of

privately controlled institutions in your State. Well-qualified instructors available in the university

for the introduction of business courses.. Cooperation with commercial and industrial organiza

tions. Demand for business courses in your institution as revealed by: Contacts of representatives of the institution with

business men and prospective students.. Studies of vocational choices of the students. Surveys of the need in commercial and industrial

firms for personnel with collegiate education for

business. Biographical studies of drop-outs engaged in bus

iness occupations... Biographical studies of graduates engaged in bus

iness occupations. Location of your institution with reference to

centers of commercial and industrial activity

in your State. Agreements with other State-supported institu

tions. Desirability of rounding out offerings of the

institution. Need as service courses for other subject-matter

divisions..

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Study of this table gives the impression that offerings in commerce and business have developed without any preconceived and carefully worked out plans. Too often well-qualified instructors have started the courses because of their particular interests or the institutions have seen other universities and colleges offering such courses and have organized their offerings merely to keep up with their competitors or their neighbors.

Since higher business education is a function of land-grant institutions, the purpose of this survey is to discover how effectively these institutions, as a part of their distinctive task in American education, have interpreted and performed this function. Expressed more specifically, the intent of the survey is to determine in a fourfold manner the extent to which (1) the institutions have discovered the needs of higher business education, (2) analyzed the students or raw materials with which they have had to work, (3) devised efficient administration organizations or mechanisms with which to perform their tasks, and (4) set up offerings actually providing “ liberal and practical education of the industrial classes."

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