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units of work are provided for those who can take only summer work. Student expenses are less than those of the regular session. Sometimes the summer session is a tryout for teachers who are under consideration for regular terms. A general survey of summer schools in the land-grant institutions is given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.- Summer schoolsStaff and enrollment year ended June 30, 1928


7,048 339

267 844 1, 435 186 187

1, 336 918
453 124
851 799
664 668

. 408 544 152 182 178 394

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New Hampshire...
New Jersey-
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota.
Porto Rico
South Carolina.
South Dakota
West Virgina


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96 116

290 2,975

247 1, 252

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Objectives While the objectives of the summer sessions are somewhat alike in the matter of training teachers, providing professional training for public school teachers and administrators who have time and inclination to study, offering graduate courses, and shortening the length of time that a student must put in for a degree, it is perhaps more enlightening to quote from the reports exactly what the different institutions claim as the objectives of their summer schools:

Alabama Polytechnio Institute.-(1) In part the same as for the regular session. (2) In part the training of teachers in service. (3) All work carries college credit except that done in demonstration schools for teachers.

University of California. The courses in the summer session are designed to meet the needs of the following persons:

(1) Teachers who wish to increase their professional skill, to revise and extend their knowledge of a chosen field, or to qualify in new subjects, preparing to meet the special demand for instruction in various fields. Teachers who desire to be prepared for service in vocational schools and classes maintained under the provisions of the State and Federal vocational education acts, and the State compulsory part-time education act. Courses designed primarily for this purpose are listed under the department of education in the bulletin.

(2) School suprintendents, supervisors, and other officers.

(3) Graduate students, to whom the advantage of smaller classes and more direct and intimate personal contact with the professors in charge of the courses offered are peculiarly possible during the summer session.

(4) Undergraduate students, and especially those registered in the fall or spring sessions of the university, who may use a portion of the vacation to take up studies which they are unable to include in their regular programs, or to make up deficiencies, or to shorten their courses.

(5) Properly recommended high-school graduates who are about to enter upon regular university courses and who desire to broaden their preparation for university work. To meet their needs, courses are offered in chemistry, French, German, Greek, home economics, Italian, mathematics, physics, and Spanish.

(6) Housewives, graduate nurses, social workers, Americanization workers, students of public health, and all adults who are qualified to pursue with profit any course given, whether or not they are engaged in teaching or study.

The courses in the intersession are designed primarily to meet the needs of students attending, or about to attend, the courses of the fall or spring sessions.

(1) Lower division students will find opportunity to enroll in a number of courses which may be offered in satisfaction of junior certificate requirements in the college of letters and science as well as in courses prerequisite to advanced study in several fields. (2) Upper division students in the larger departments will find opportunity to continue their work in smaller classes. (3) Graduate students will find opportunity to enroll in upper division major courses and in seminars.

In general, by combining the intersession and the summer session, it will be possible for students to obtain in a single summer credit for one semester's residence and for 8 to 12 units of work, thus reducing by six months the time required for completion of work for a degree.


Colorado Agricultural College.-(1) Training of teachers in vocational agri. culture. (2) Training of teachers in vocational home economics. (3) Training of teachers in trades and industries. (4) Training of teachers and principals and superintendents of consolidated schools. (5) Regular college courses for students who wish to complete their work in a shorter period than four years, who are irregular or who have failed in certain courses.

University of Delaware.-(1) To give prospective teachers an opportunity to meet certification requirements to teach in elementary school. (2) To give teachers in service an opportunity to raise the grade of certificates previously obtained. (3) To give elementary teachers and principals of elementary schools an opportunity to fulfill in part the requirements of a college degree.

University of Florida.—The work to be offered in the summer school of 1928 will be divided into five separate and distinct groups, each serving a specific purpose: (1) Review courses in all subjects required for teachers' certificates. (2) Professional courses meeting the requirements for the extension of teachers' certificates without examination. (3) Normal courses leading to the normal diploma. (4) College

leading to standard bachelor's degrees. (5) Graduate courses leading to advanced degrees.

Georgia State College of Agriculture.-(1) For teachers to complete undergraduate and graduate courses and professional work. (2) Agricultural and home economics agents preparation, (3) Adult education. (4) Undergraduate work to shorten time in college.

University of Hawaii.-Organized to meet the following needs: (1) Undergraduates who wish to take extra work or work not offered in the regular session. (2) Graduate students who are candidates for advanced degrees. (3) Teachers or school administrators who need advanced training or who are candidates for degrees. (4) Others who for various reasons wish to take advantage of special work.

University of Idaho.—(1) Graduate student working for master of science. (2) Undergraduate student working for bachelor of science. (3) Improvement of teachers in service. (4) Conferences with Idaho education.

University of Illinois.To duplicate so far as appropriations permit regular semester courses offered by the university and to offer additional courses in education on account of large registration. Two summer sessions equal in residence and amount of work accomplished one semester.

Iowa State College.-(A) To provide opportunities for undergraduate study to the following groups: (1) Regular students. (2) Teachers, principals, and supervisors. (3) Any mature individual who carry work offered. (B) To provide opportunities for advanced and graduate students; (1) Teachers and supervisors of agriculture, home economics, manual training, and industrial arts. (2) Superintendents, principals, and supervisors in the field

vocational education. (3) Science teachers. (4) Regular graduate students. (5) Teachers and investigators in technical school.

Kansas State Agricultural College.-(1) To train teachers in service. (2) To give regular students an opportunity to make up back work. (3) To give regular students an opportunity to complete work for B. S. degree in less than four years. (4) To give teachers and others an opportunity to take graduate work.

University of Kentucky.—The University of Kentucky summer session is planned to meet the needs of the following groups: Public and private school teachers, supervisors, and administrators; college teachers and administrators;



undergraduates who desire to shorten the period of their college work; persons desiring training for Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. and social-welfare work including playground directors; and high-school and college coaches.

Louisiana State University.—The purpose of the summer session is to enable teachers who are unable to attend the regular session to earn college credits during their vacation periods and to enable students of the regular session to earn additional credits so as to shorten the time necessary to earn a degree. Especial attention is given in the summer session to the needs of students working for advanced degrees in the graduate school.

Massachusetts Agricultural College.—To provide further training for: (1) School superintendents, principals, and teachers connected with high schools, normal schools, colleges, or universities who seek advanced instruction either with or without relation to an academic degree. (2) College students. (3) Teachers for special-course training. (4) Any serious student who finds courses suited to his preparation and needs.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.-(1) Supply advanced subjects and "esearch for graduate students. (2) Course for science teachers. (3) Additional summer training in some engineering courses. (4) Supply subjects for students who have been ill, also for students transferring from other colleges.

University of Minnesota.—(1) To carry on the regular work of the university through the summer session. (2) To furnish an opportunity for teachers and others to do graduate work during the summer. (3) For graduate and undergraduate students who wish to reduce their period of residence at the university by accumulating credits during the summer. (4) For superintendents, princi. pals, supervisors, teachers, and others of professional interests who desire further training in their professions. (5) For persons who seek an opportunity for intellectual pleasure. (6) For graduates of accredited high schools who do not meet the special subject-matter requirements to enter some of the colleges and professional schools. (7) For high-school graduates who wish to become acquainted with the methods of instruction and the policies and practices in collegiate work before registering in the regular session during the academic year.

University of Nebraska.-(1) To offer graduate and undergraduate work to those who are unable to attend regular sessions. (2) To furnish the opportunity to complete work for an A. B. degree in years instead of 4. (3) To give teachers the opportunity to meet additional certification requirements for the renewal of teachers' certificates.

University of Nevada.To assist rural teachers.

University of New Hampshire.-(1) To meet the needs of teachers, superintendents, administrators, and supervisors of secondary and elementary schools in method and conduct. (2) Normal-school graduates may secure master's degree. (3) Undergraduates may reduce period of college attendance by attending continuously.

Rutgers University.-In-service training for teachers. (1) Certificate credit. (2) Credit toward B. S. degree in education. (3) Credit toward advanced degrees.

Cornell University.The primary object of the summer session is to advance education by helping those engaged in it. The instruction is adapted to the needs of the following classes: (1) Professors and teachers in colleges and schools, superintendents, and supervisors of special branches of instruction. (2) College students in Cornell or other universities who wish to make some educational use of the long vacation, especially those whose college studies


may have been interrupted. (3) Students entering the university and wishing to obtain surplus credit at entrance, or to complete the entrance requirements. (4) All persons qualified to pursue with profit any course given, whether or not they are engaged in formal study or teaching.

North Carolina State College.-(1) To train teachers for the secondary schools of the State, especially in science and the technical fields. (2) To prepare industrial-arts teachers to extend the opportunity for students to do college work, and through short courses to extend the service of the college to groups of people who can come for only a week or 10 days.

North Dakota Agricultural College.To provide courses suitable for: (1) Recent high-school graduates. (2) Freshmen who enter late in the year. (3) College students in arrears. (4) Teachers and others employed during regular college year.

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College.—(1) Regular college work toward degrees in all schools. (2) Graduate work. (3) Special courses for vocational students. (4) Special courses for public-school teachers. Courses for high-schools students in training high school. (6) Courses for grade pupils in elementary demonstration school.

Oregon Agricultural College.-(1) To provide opportunity for teachers and others holding bachelor's degree to use the summer to carry on graduate work und proceed to a higher degree. (2) To allow teachers and others, graduates of normal schools (2-year), etc., not holding college degree to complete re quirements for degree. (3) To allow students in college to make up work or shorten their term of residence or enrich course. (4) A few courses for highschool students deficient in a unit or two of entrance requirements.

Pennsylvania State College.-(1) To advance teachers' standing in the matter of State certification. (2) To provide opportunity for teachers in service to obtain the bachelor's, master's, or doctor's degree. (3) To open possibilities for study in institutes and special departments either nonexistent or else not so extensively developed during the winter term (the institutes of English, French, music, and progressive education; administration; education and psychology; nature camps; art education; physical education; demonstration school; vocational education, etc.) (4) To offer summer training to regularly enrolled undergraduate and graduate students. (5) To promote the interests of general culture in combination with recreation and social pursuits. (6) To fill academic needs of those not able to take courses on the campus but desirous of pursuing work in the branch session.

Clem son Agricultural College.--(1) Vocational. (2) Teachers in rural and mill communities. (3) College students who have back work.

South Dakota State College.-The summer-session courses are especially adapted to meet the needs of the following groups: (1) Teachers desiring to increase their professional efficiency by broadening their general education, to secure special technical training and equipment, or to keep in touch with recent educational developments. A large number of teachers use the facilities of the summer school in pursuing their work toward a collegiate degree. (2) College and university students, regularly enrolled as undergraduates in some higher institution of learning, who wish to make up deficiencies, or secure work not offered during the academic year. (3) Those seeking general culture who wish to spend the summer to satisfy a special interest in some field of study. Several popular courses are open to those who may not wish to work formally for credit. (4) New teachers in the State who secured their academic training in colleges or normal schools of other States find the summer session of South Dakota State College a pleasant and profitable means of becoming thoroughly at home in their new environment. (5) Graduate students form a

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