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to include the different land-grant colleges themselves in the dissemination of public information of common interest throughout the country. An interchange of bulletins among these institutions would make possible better library facilities for the constituencies of each. Such cooperation would obviously make possible certain economies in publishing. Distribution of such information through the administration of extension divisions ought also to make such information available through a loan for those who desire it, obviously an improvement over the present unsatisfactory method of distributing land-grant college publications. In this connection it is important to note the need of closer cooperation of general extension divisions with various departments of the Federal Government, including the Office of Education. The great resources of these Federal departments, particularly in their stores of publications, could, through such a plan, be made available for the general use of the public if they were put at the disposal of the land-grant colleges for State distribution. By such procedure the Federal Government and the State institutions could profit mutually.
Informal extension services.—The wide range of the general extension work, in addition to correspondence and class teaching, is shown by the data on informal extension services.
Number of institutions giving different types of informal extension service
There is an increasing demand for informal public service on the part of the land-grant colleges. It is evident that intelligent people in general and college people in particular are desirous of continuing their education through lecture courses, radio lectures, community drama development, directed home reading, and correspondence courses of less meticulously academic character. What these people
want is not the discipline of former classroom study but rather a new discipline of refreshing inspiration and pleasurable study.
Teacher training.-General extension courses in teacher-training work appeal to students of greatly varying degrees of training. Classes are open to teacher-training students without previous college training in 16 institutions and to those with no teaching experience in 13. Teachers in service who are of undergraduate college rank are enrolled in extension classes of 23 land-grant colleges. Graduate work is also offered, for application on the master's degree requirements in 15 institutions, and on the doctor's degree requirement in 1. The number of enrollments in an extension teachertraining class is limited in 7 institutions while 15 impose no limit.
Chapter XIV.-Findings and Conclusions, General Extension
(1) One important problem of general extension education in the land-grant institutions is due to the division of these institutions into two classes-joint universities and separate land-grant colleges. It is evident that the joint universities with their greater resources in staff personnel and with their broader educational functions can successfully promote greater programs of extension service. In spite of this fact, some of the universities have not availed themselves of the opportunity to offer general extension work. The separate landgrant colleges have not sufficient appreciation of the importance of their resources and peculiar functions, in the development of State programs of general extension through cooperation with other insti. tutions. It is important that all of the land-grant colleges assume responsibility within the broadest limits of their institutional functions for the execution of a cooperative program planned for the achievement of the common objectives of all types of extension service.
(2) The land-grant institutions report quite generally that their general extension service is under the direction of one head, but there seems to be confusion as to the actual administration of the services offered. There are too many administrative controls in a number of institutions. Division with respect to authority and responsibility leads to confusion in the institution and to embarrassment in its relations to the public.
(3) The position of general extension in the institution is another matter of supreme importance in the organization of this service. It is necessary to recognize that extension and resident work are mutually interdependent. This interdependence has two distinct phases—the proper recognition of general extension in university organization, and recognition by the extension staff of the need of resident cooperation. Resident organizations have not accepted the extension organizations into full fellowship in university circles; neither have extension organizations utilized to a satisfactory degree the resources that ought to be available from resident faculties. The general result of these failures to appreciate mutual interdependence has been to accentuate the isolation of general extension,
(4) One of the most difficult problems related to the administration of university extension is the selection of a satisfactory staff. Extension work demands, in addition to a high quality of scholarship, important factors relating to personality. Successful extension instructors must deal with people of many different organizations and professions as well as of different ages and educational levels of attainment. They must, therefore, be able to adapt their work to the varying conditions under which it must be done. As extension work continues to develop it will become increasingly necessary to employ larger permanent staffs in order to develop techniques of procedure both in administration and in teaching that will meet the peculiar needs of this service.
(5) The land-grant colleges have not yet recognized that general extension is a major interest which the institutions should foster on the same basis that they'recognize in the case of other schools and colleges. Reliance for support on fees has resulted in the stimulation or undue emphasis on certain phases with neglect of others. Proper recognition of university extension in the allocation of landgrant college budgets will improve this situation.
(6) Institutions of higher learning, in spite of their many services to the public, occupy to a considerable extent a position of isolation in the State. This isolation has elements of strength and also of weakness. It has, however, left the institutions too far removed from the life of the people and especially those people who have no contact with the usual activities of academic character. General extension can effect this contact with the various agencies and with the different professions and occupations just as has Smith-Lever extension in the rather more limited fields of its service.
(7) Although general extension has recognized to a certain degree the importance of publicity, in making known its services to the State, it is surprising to learn how little these devices have been effectively employed. This failure to utilize to the fullest degree the many legitimate publicity methods by which university extension may be promoted is in no small measure responsible for the present position of this important service in the land-grant colleges.
(8) The most important consideration after all, with respect to general university extension is the extent and quality of the service which it has rendered. The survey indicates clearly that the landgrant colleges offer general extension services over a great range of subject matter and through many types of approach to the people. Although the range of offerings is great, the actual amount of service is not very considerable except in a limited number of institutions.
Chapter XV.- Problems Common to Smith-Lever
Extension and General Extension
Smith-Lever extension and general extension, in their broader mental objectives of both are vocational, humanistic, and social education. They are concerned with the education of people most neglected by other educational agencies. Facts already given in discussion of Smith-Lever extension and general extension show that they have relationships with each other and with the general problem of education. To a considerable extent they work through the same organizations. This means that from different points of view they touch different interests of the same people and even that their educational interests overlap. It is, therefore, a problem of concern to both forms of extension and to institutional administrations as well, whether they make approaches to these organizations and people independently and as separate agencies and whether their educational programs are also planned and executed without reference the one to the other. These problems of extension organization and program become especially significant to institutional adminis. trations and also to State legislative bodies when they are called upon to provide support for a double overhead and an overlapping of educational programs. The question is very properly raised as to whether support is balanced and most effectively used. Further, the solution of the problem of relationships of a single institution: extension activities does not solve the entire problem of effective expenditure of public funds. State authority may very properly inquire into the coordination of the institution's extension work with work of a similar type carried on by other publicly supported agencies. Legitimate interest of public authority is not confined to institutional aggrandizement and growth, but is concerned with the educational welfare of the entire State and may well insist that this welfare be served through the harmonious correlation of all ti means created and supported to do this work.
The major problems common to Smith-Lever extension and gen eral extension in the land-grant colleges are discussed in this report under the following heads-social and economic relationships, correlation of extension services within the institutions, financial support, and cooperation with other educational agencies.
Social and Economic Relationships One measure of whether the land-grant college services of SmithLever extension and general extension are adequately covering the