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Thus high specialization in the arts and sciences subjects becomes of major interest both to the “pure" scientists in the college of arts and sciences and the “ practical ” scientists in the schools of application. It is impossible to distinguish "pure” from “applied ” science. Hence, the college of arts and sciences tends to emphasize training for research and other forms of creative work which offer occupational opportunities in a whole series of new professions. Obviously these extreme specializations within the college of arts and sciences itself are as incompatible with the purposes of general cultural education as are similar specializations demanded by the technical schools and colleges. This development is well illustrated by the agricultural college. Agricultural education concerned itself in its early period with problems immediately related to farming, use of fertilizers, killing or controlling insect pests, tillage methods, and so on. But these problems soon led into and demanded for solution scientific and social investigation as remote apparently as study of colloidal substances and international relations. The development of these specializations in the college of arts and sciences is inconsistent with the purposes of general appreciation of the world of thought in which we live ; but they are entirely consistent with the conception of arts and sciences as the training school for research specialists.

The land-grant institutions share in the current complexity of the arts and sciences situation. The preceding analysis is intended to serve as an introduction to descriptive presentation of arts and sciences in the land-grant colleges. The description that follows is based upon reports from 39 land-grant institutions. The following chapters will present the facts in regard to various aspects of the arts and science situation in these institutions. These facts serve to

. relate specific problems of arts and science organization and objectives in the land-grant institutions to the various general tendencies and problems that have been described by the preceding paragraphs.

Chapter II.-Arts and Sciences Organization

Administrative organization does not afford an entirely satisfactory basis for estimating the present status of arts and science work in the land-grant institutions but the facts are indicative of tendencies of more significance than administrative convenience. The following detailed record of the major divisions and departmental distributions of arts and science subjects reported by landgrant institutions for the year 1927–28 emphasizes the confusion that now exists with reference to the organization and objectives of arts and science work in the land-grant colleges and universities. The list includes only those institutions that made reports sufficiently detailed to justify the assumption that the actual situation is presented. For the sake of making clear the differing status of arts and sciences in the land-grant institutions of the various types named in the preceding chapter, the record is divided into three sections, first, land-grant universities; second, separate land-grant colleges; and third, land-grant institutions in States that do not maintain State universities.

Universities

1. The University of Arizona has a major division of letters, arts, and sciences which contains a department of chemistry, but agricultural chemistry is in the division of agriculture.

2. The University of Florida has a division of arts and sciences, in which are included departments of chemistry and economics, but in the division of agriculture are also departments of agricultural chemistry and agricultural economics and a third department of chemistry is maintained in the division of pharmacy. In the division of arts and sciences is a department of biology and geology and a department of botany and bacteriology is found both in the division of agriculture and in the division of pharmacy.

3. Hawaii does not distinguish between the faculties of the division of applied science and of the division of arts and sciences. Apparently there is no separation of departments between these two divisions.

4. Idaho has a major division of letters and science in which is a department of chemistry, but the division of agriculture has a department of agricultural chemistry. The department of geology is in the division of mines and psychology in the division of education, not in the division of letters and science.

5. The University of Illinois has a division of liberal arts and sciences, but the department of physics is in the division of engineering.

6. The University of Kentucky has a division of arts and sciences in which are all of its arts and science departments.

7. Louisiana State University has a division of arts and sciences which includes among others departments of botany, economics, English, geology, mathematics, physics and astronomy, and zoology. However, in addition in the division of agriculture are found departments of botany and bacteriology and of zoology and entomology ; in the division of commerce, departments of economics, business English, and agricultural economics ; in the division of engineering, departments of mathematics, geology, and physics.

8. The University of Maryland has a division of arts and sciences with a department of economics and sociology, but no department of botany. The department of botany is in the division of agriculture, as is also a department of agricultural economics and farm management.

9. Minnesota has a division of science, literature, and the arts and also a school of chemistry which is under the dean of engineering. In the division of engineering and ‘architecture there is a department of mathematics and mechanics in addition to a department of mathematics in the division of science, literature, and the arts. In the division of agriculture is a department of agricultural economics and farm management, and no department of economics is listed in the division of science, literature, and the arts. In agriculture also is a department of rhetoric, although departments of English and speech are found in the division of science, literature, and the arts.

10. The University of Missouri has a division of arts and sciences which contains departments of chemistry, economics, and sociology. Agricultural chemistry, agricultural economics, and rural sociology are given in the division of agriculture.

11. The University of Nebraska has a division of arts and sciences which contains departments of botany and chemistry, but departments of agricultural botany and agriculture chemistry are found in the division of agriculture. Arts and sciences contains no department of economics, but a department of economics is found in the division of business administration and a department of rural economics in the division of agriculture.

12. The University of New Hampshire has a division of liberal arts which in addition to the social and humanistic subjects includes a department of zoology. Botany is in the division of agriculture and chemistry, mathematics and physics in the division of technology, although the division of agriculture also contains a department of agricultural and biological chemistry.

13. In Cornell University the division of arts and sciences contains no department of botany. This is found in the division of agriculture. Departments of zoology are maintained in both the division of arts and sciences and the division of agriculture.

14. Ohio State University has a college of liberal arts. The only science departments included are those of astronomy and geology. The departments of botany and zoology are in the division of agriculture; chemistry, mathematics, and physics are in the division of engineering, although agriculture has a department of agricultural chemistry. The departments of economics and sociology are included in the division of commerce and administration rather than in the division of liberal arts.

15. The University of Tennessee has a division of liberal arts which contains the liberal, social, and scientific departments, including one of economics and sociology. The division of agriculture has a department of agricultural economics.

16. The University of Vermont includes a division of arts and sciences which has a department of mathematics. A second department of mathematics is found in the division of engineering. Departments of botany, chemistry, and zoology are in the division of arts and sciences, but departments of zoology and botany and a department of agricultural chemistry are also found in the division of agriculture.

17. The University of Wisconsin has a division of letters and sciences in which are located departments of chemistry and economics. The division of agriculture has departments of agricultural chemistry and agricultural economics.

18. The University of Wyoming includes a division of liberal arts which includes the departments of the liberal, social, and scientific subjects. Departments of zoology are found in both the division of liberal arts and in the division of agriculture.

Separate Land-Grant Colleges 1. Alabama Polytechnic Institute has a major division of arts and sciences, but chemistry is placed in another coordinate division of chemistry and phar. macy, botany is placed in the division of agriculture, and zoology is grouped with entomology as a department in agriculture also. Although the department of economics is in the division of arts and sciences, the department of agricultural economics is in the division of agriculture.

2. Colorado Agricultural College has a major division of science, but mathe. matics and physics are included in the division of engineering.

3. Purdue has a division of science in which are located all the liberal and scientific departments of the institution ordinarily placed in a division of arts and sciences.

4. Iowa State College has a division of industrial science in which are located all the liberal and scientific departments of the institution that are usually placed in a division of arts and sciences.

5. Kansas State Agricultural College has a division of general science which contains all its departments that may be classed as arts and science. Among them is a department of economics and sociology, but a department of agricul. tural economics is found in the division of agriculture.

6. Michigan State College has a division of applied science and a division of liberal arts. The department of mathematics is in the division of liberal arts.

7. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College apparently has a division of science and also a division known as academic. Departmental distribution was not reported.

8. Montana State College has a division of applied sciences which includes a department of physics. Engineering physics is also found in the division of engineering. The division of applied sciences contains none of the social or humanistic subjects. These are independent service departments.

9. North Carolina State College has a division of science and business, but the departments of botany and zoology are in the division of agriculture.

10. North Dakota Agricultural College has a division of science and literature and also a division of chemistry. The former contains a department of social and economic sciences, but agricultural economics is in the division of agriculture. The department of physics is in the division of mechanic arts.

11. Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College has a division of science and literature. It contains no department of economics. Agricultural economics is in the division of agriculture.

12. Oregon Agricultural College has a division of basic arts and sciences, but geology is in the division of mines; economics and sociology and political science in the division of commerce; psychology in the division of vocational education.

13. Clemson Agricultural College has a division of arts and sciences and also a division of chemistry. Departmental distribution was not reported.

14. South Dakota State College has a division of general science which includes the liberal and social as well as the science departments, but zoology, economics, and sociology do not appear in this division. Departments of zoology, farm economics, and rural sociology are in the division of agriculture.

15. The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas has a division of arts and sciences which has a department of economics. The division of agriculture includes a department of agricultural economics. No department of sociology is found in the division of arts and sciences, but a department of rural sociology is included in the division of agriculture. Chemistry is in the department of chemistry and chemical engineering in the division of engineering rather than in the division of arts and sciences.

16. Utah Agricultural College has a division of arts and sciences, but the department of botany is in the division of agriculture and the department of psychology is in the division of education.

17. Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College has a division of science which includes the humanistic and social subjects departments and the departments of science, except botany and zoology, which are in the division of agriculture. In agriculture also are departments of agricultural chemistry and of agricultural economics, although departments of chemistry and of economics are found in the division of science.

18. The State College of Washington has a division of science and arts. However, the departments of mathematics and of physics are in the division of mechanic arts and engineering; psychology is in the division of education ; geology in the division of mines and geology; and the department of speech in the division of music and fine arts.

Land-Grant Institutions, No State Universities Existing in Same State

1. Connecticut Agricultural College is not organized upon the basis of major divisions. Departments of resident instruction are all coordinate. However, in addition to the department of mathematics, the college has a department of agricultural mathematics.

2. Massachusetts Agricultural College contains a division or the physical and biological sciences and a division of social sciences. The arts and science

departments appropriate to these titles are distributed between the two divisions, mathematics going to the division of sicences while language and literature are found in the division of social sciences.

3. Pennsylvania State College has a division of liberal arts and a division of chemistry and physics. The departments of botany and zoology are in the division of agriculture ; psychology is joined with education in the division of education; mathematics is in the division of liberal arts; geology is joined with mineralogy in the division of mines and metallurgy. Although the department of economics sociology is in the division of liberal arts, the division of agriculture has a department of agricultural economics. In addition to the department of chemistry in the division of chemistry and physics, the division of agriculture has a department of agricultural and biological chemistry.

It is apparent from these data that the general tendencies in arts and science education described by Chapter I are operative in the land-grant institutions. Of the 18 land-grant State universities only 16 have single major divisions, in which are included practically all the liberal, social, and scientific subjects appropriate to the college of arts and sciences which has as its function the provision of a general education. In other words, in only 16 instances do the land-grant universities have arts and sciences colleges as such which may have objectives similar to those of the old classical college dissociated from vocational purposes. Ohio State University and the University of New Hampshire have no unit comparable to the isolated arts and science college.

Of the 18 separate land-grant colleges only 3-Purdue University, Iowa State College, and Kansas State Agricultural College—have so concentrated arts and science departments in a single division as to make it possible that the divisions exercise the general educational functions of the traditional arts and science college. However, none of these institutions grant the degree of bachelor of arts which is characteristic of the general cultural purposes of the college of arts and sciences. In every other case either separate divisions exist for the arts and for the science departments or departments essential to the conception of the unified college of arts and sciences are scattered in technical divisions.

The fact that the arts and science departments are not concentrated in a single major college but are administered in a number of different

a major units, does not mean, of course, that a curriculum may not be constructed from the offerings of several schools or colleges which will have for its purpose the general education ascribed to the arts and science college. It does mean, however, that the arts and science college does not exist as a unit which has this function for its major objective. It is significant that only 2 of the 18 separate land-grant colleges grant the A. B. degree. In some instances they utilize the curricular device for that purpose, in other instances this degree is granted for work entirely inappropriate to its traditional meaning.

Only three land-grant institutions in States that have no State universities are represented by the data available. In one of these cases

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