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and other geological features, with the land, furrowed by valleys lying north plants, insects, reptiles, fish, birds, and and south, once probably outlets of an beasts, inhabiting the land and water. 'inland ocean. The descent westward The descriptions partake of the popu- is sudden, to Lake Erie; while ten or lar style, to a considerable extent, in or- twelve small lakes in the middle are der that the common reader may not be drained by the Genesee river, and visitdebarred from the perusal, by language ed by salmon from Lake Ontario. The +00 strictly technical. The last volumes great lakes have much influence on the dre soon to appear. The following climate. Here are found the northern general views of the regions, climates, lynx, with the deer-mouse and porcuand animals of the state, we abridge pine.
Streams flow from this district from those reports.
to the Mississippi, and to the SusqueNew York lies within the temperate hannah and Delaware. zone, in an irregular triangle, with its 2. The Northern District has mountapex on the Atlantic, and its sides on ains, some five thousand feet in height. the western border of New England, with Lake Champlain, one hundred and the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario, forty miles long; and is inhabited by and the northern boundaries of Penn- several fur-bearing animals : the sable sylvania and New Jersey. Long island and beaver, and also by the mouse and forms a sandy spur, extending from the the wolverine. It is the southern limit harbor of New York, eastward, about of migration of many of the arctic birds, une hundred and fifty miles. Including as the Canada jay, spruce-grouse, swan, Long island, the state extends through raven, and arctic woodpecker. eight degrees of longitude, and from 3. The Hudson Valley District lies in forty degrees and three minutes, to for- the form of an inverted L; and, though ty-five degrees, of north latitude, with small, it is highly interesting, as it conmore than forty-six thousand square tains many of the animals of the adjamiles. It covers a surface greater than cent New England states, while on the Poland, Scotland, or Naples and Sicily; west it has the Catskill mountains, some three times larger than Switzerland, of which rise four thousand feet, and and almost equal to England. It is are still the habitation of wolves, deer, nearly in the latitude of Italy, the south panthers, and bears. The Erie canal of France, and the north of Spain; and has brought into the Hudson the softresembles them in the heats of summer; shelled turtle and the rock bass from the but yet the winters are as severe as lakes; as the yellow perch and the musthose of the northern countries of Eu- kalonge have found their way from Lake rope. The mean length of the winter Erie to the Mississippi through the Ohio in ten years was one hundred and sixty- canal. The southern part of this disfive days, or about five months; and the trict teems with inhabitants of the ocean. mountains, although none of them ex. It is remarkable that some species of ceed the height of five thousand feet, animals find the Hudson their natural have a much colder climate than corres- eastern boundary, as the opossum, chainponding elevations in Europe. Within snakes, brown swift, buzzard, and sevthe boundaries, are animals, which are' eral other birds, come to its western found, in the old world, only at great, borders, but never cross it. At the distances from each other; as the Cer- same time, there are some species which vidæ and Mustelidæ of the south of Eu- abound in the counties on the eastern rope, and the Muridæ and Vespertilion- side, but are never seen on the western. idæ of the north.
4. The Atlantic District, or Long IsThere are four districts, distinguished land, runs about one hundred and fifty by geographical peculiarities, and not miles northeasterly, with a mean breadth less by zoological.
of ten miles, having low sand hills in 1. The Western District, bounded on the northern part, only in one place the east by the Mohawk valley, and is' three hundred feet high. The bear, chiefly elevated on the Allegany table. wolf, and otter, have been exterminated :
expected, the influence of Christianity remain long in peace. In 1646, a bat. is strongly exhibited, as the grand civil- tle was fought at a place called Strickizing agent, and lessons of an impor- land's plain ; and the savages were detant character are given, well calculated feated with great slaughter. The coloto guide philanthropists in their future vies of New Haven and Connecticut undertakings in favor of the much-neg- were at this time disputing with the lected, abused, and belied race of red- Dutch ; but, in 1650, a treaty was made
at Hartford, by which the Dutch gave The reader must be referred for in- up their claim to the territory belongformation on the history of this state in ing to those colonies, except the part all its different periods and epochs, to which they then occupied. the following authors among many oth- Five years after this the Swedes, who ers : Colden, Smith, Clinton, Campbell, I had settled on the west side of the DelYates, Moulton, &c. Barber's volume aware river, were attacked and subdued is well adapted to the common reader, by the Dutch governor, Stuyvesant, with abounding in local descriptions and an- a fleet of seven ships. But ere long, ecdotes, illustrated with many engra- the Dutch were met again by their old vings. We have here merely room to enemies the English. In 1664, in conallude to the chief events in the early sequence of the grant which Charles II. history of the colony.
had given to his brother, the duke of Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the York and Albany, and which secured to service of the Dutch East India compa- him all the lands owned by the Dutch, ny, discovered the Hudson river in 1609, a squadron appeared in the harbor of and ascended it about one hundred and New York, which was commanded by sixty miles. It was in consequence of Colonel Nichols. A surrender was imthis discovery, that the Dutch laid claim mediately demanded by the English, to the territory on both sides of the riv- who promised to secure the rights of er, and called it New Netherlands. life and property to the inhabitants. The position now known as Albany, The governor wished to make resistwas, in 1613, named by the few Dutch ance, but the inhabitants
prevailed upon who discovered it and built a fort there, him to submit. The English thus took Fort Orange; and in the next year, sev- possession, and called it New York, in eral trading-houses were erected upon honor of the duke of York; and not Manhattan island (now New York), to long after Fort Orange was also taken, which they gave the name of New Am- and named Albany. sterdam.
Nichols now became governor; and The English were not well pleased his administration was mild and successby what they considered the intrusions ful. of the Dutch. They claimed that this We have not room to notice the sucpart of the territory properly belonged cessive governors of the colony, nor the to Virginia; and, in the same year, various events which distinguished the Captain Argal came with a fleet of three successive periods, through the contests ships, and demanded the surrender of between England and other powers, the fort. They submitted without re- which had more or less influence on this sistance, because their numbers were side of the Atlantic. We can only revery few. But a new governor arrived fer, in their places, to some leading from Holland, and the Dutch would al- events in the French and the Revolulow the authority of the English no tionary wars, and in that with England longer, and they retained possession of 1812. until 1664. They built: Fort Good ALBANY.-This city presents several Hope on the Connecticut, at Hartford, superior claims to our attention. In and another on the Delaware, and then point of history it is the oldest settleclaimed a right to all the extensive re- ment by Europeans on the Hudson for, gions between these two rivers.
unusual as it is in founding colonies, the But the Indians did not let the Dutch mouth of the stream was not occupied