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by the Dutch until they had first estab- interior for the various stores brought: lished themselves at this place, one hun- from our own and foreign coasts. The dred and fifty miles and more from the railroads come in with their share of

This was the scene of many im- valuable freights; and Albany presents, portant councils ană treaties with the on every hand, abundant and gratifying Indians, especially the Five Nations; proofs of the sagacity of those enlightand in the grounds of the old capitol ened councils, which opened the grand were interred numerous savage memo- channels of commerce, for the wide and rials of peace and amity. During the lasting benefit of the state and the coun. French wars, Albany was often the try. grand point of rendezvous for the troops The Albany Female Institute.—This required of New England and New seminary was founded by private subYork, in military expeditions against scription, and has been a flourishing Canada. Burgoyne's expedition, in and useful institution, conferring a high 1777, had the capture of this city as its and solid education on thousands of the first object, after gaining possession of youths of this city and other places near Ticonderoga, and it was saved only by and distant. The plan, in some importhe battles of Saratoga. Albany has tant respects, was new: it being the been the capital of this state ever since design to afford, at the cheapest possible its formation; and here is the point at rate, a superior education on females of which concentrate the principal canals all ranks in society; and so successful and railroads of New York—the uniting has it proved, that several other institulink in the chains connecting the com- tions have been formed in imitation of merce of the lakes with that of the it, which have in like manner been highgreat norinern ports, Boston and New ly useful, particularly the Rutgers InstiYork.

tute in the city of New York. Albany is well situated to make a The Albany Female Seminary.This striking appearance to a person ap- is another institution occupying a comproaching by the river, or viewing it manding situation on the top of Capifrom the opposite, elevated shores of tol hill, near the statehouse and several Greenbush. A crowded mass of houses other public buildings. It is founded on a seems to cover the entire declivity, which pan which does great credit to the rises suddenly from the level of the state of New York, which has so honshore to the summit, which is crowned orably distinguished itself by its liberal by the statehouse with its dome. The provision for the diffusion of education. bioadest and perhaps the principal street

The central Normal School is also es(State street), well built, with many tablished in Albany, and is doing imporlarge edifices, hotels, stores, and private tant good by preparing teachers for the residences, leads from the base of the common schools. hill to the gates of the statehouse, start- The City-Hall was built in 1832, of ing from the chief avenue of business, white marble from Sing-Sing, quarried Market street, which extends, with sev- and hewn by the prisoners, with a baseeral parallel streets, far up and down ment, and a facade with six Ionic cul the city, north and south.

umns and a dome covered with gilding, The canal-basin occupies the front of the only specimen of the kind in the the town for about one half its length, United States. The circular hall or robeing shut in from the river by the pier, tunda contains a statue of Hamilton, which commences at the north, and ter- copied from one by Greenough, which minates opposite the foot of State was destroyed in the New York exllere are

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seen mingling the change by the great fire. There are alboats of Lake Champlain, Erie, and the so portraits of Clinton and Walter Ohio canal, with thz steamboats sent Scott in relief, surrounded by emblems. from New York to tow them to the The State-Hall. This edifice stands mouth of the river, where many of them near the city-hall, and is one hundred exchange the abundant products of the and thirty-eight by eighty-eight feet,

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and sixty-five feet in height. It is of ed this spot was one of the companio:ns brick and stone, faced with marble, and of Hudson, Hardwicke Chrystance, who contains the offices of the comptroller, was sent from his vessel on an exploring treasurer, attorney-general, surveyor- party, in September, 1610. Tradition general, &c.

says he landed somewhere near the The Capitol is constructed of stone, present North Market street.

The traand cost one hundred and twenty thou- ding-house and fort was built that year sand dollars. It contains the chambers or the next on the northern extremity of the senate and the representatives, in of Boyd's island, a little south of the which are found full-length portraits of present ferry. It was, however, overWashington and the governors of New thrown and carried away by the flood, York.

in the next season.

A higher station There are six banks, and twenty-five was then chosen, on a hill two miles churches of different denominations. distant, at a place called "Kidderhoogh

The Rensselaer Mansion is a venera- ten,by the Dutch, and by the Indians, ble edifice a mile north of the city, the Ta-wass-a-gun-shee,or Lookout Hill. residence of the Patroons of that name, Another position was preferred ere long, proprietors of one of the great entailed and there Fort Orange was finally erectestates in this state, which have been ed. The spot is near South Market retained in several old Dutch families street, and near that now occupied by from past generations. The estate em- the Fort Orange hotel. Eight large braces vast tracts of land in different cannon were mounted for defence, of counties, large portions of which occu- the sort then known to the Hollanders pied by tenants, at various rents, usual- by the name, stien gestuckten," or ly small, and often trifling. Within a stone-pieces, because, as is said, they few years great dissatisfaction has been were capable of throwing large stones excited among the people, and, in 1845, instead of iron shot. bands of men, on this and other manors, But, for about twenty years after this armed and disguised, set the laws at de- occupation of the spot, the Dutch spent fiance, and committed some acts of vio- only the trading seasons at Fort Orange, lence, even murder. The militia were returning annually to their own country, called out, arrests made, and trials and with the products of their trade. In imprisonments at length suppressed the 1625, the Dutch West India company anti-rent riots."

offered large tracts of land to any perThe Indians knew Albany, by the sons who would colonize the country, ! name of Scagh-negh-ta-da, which is said and great numbers came over between to express, in their language, The End that time and the year 1635, from some of the Pine Woods ;' and this term has of whom many of the principal families since been applied to Schenectady, the of the present day have derived their town at the western extremity of the names. elevated pine-barren tract which was Wood was used in Albany in all buildthus alluded to, there fifteen miles across, ings except the fort until 1647. The and still almost uninhabited. The Dutch town was surrounded by a palisade for called the place Beaverwyck, on ac- about a century, and the strict laws recount of the principal article of the trade specting trade with the Indians, induced which they here carried on with the na- numbers of persons to remove to the tives; and afterward Willemstadt. The Schenectady "Flats, where they could name Urania, or Fort Orange, was nev- trade with the natives with greater freeer extended to the town, it is affirmed, dom. The first church-building erected but confined to the small fort which was was at the corner of State, Market, and erected by the Dutch on their first oc- Court streets, and, after being enlarged cupying this point. The present name several times was taken down in 1806, was conferred by the English, as has and the stone used in building the presbefore been remarked. It is supposed ent South Dutch church. The houses that the first white man who ever visit- of Albany were built in the style of

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