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smooth and fertile meadows which ex- are found at many similar spots. One of tend along the banks of the Mohawk, at these is two and a half feet in diameter, different levels, above and below the beginning at the top of a rock thirty feet falls.
above the present level of the river; One of the high hills on the southern and, being broken below, allows a visbank of the river, at this place, has a re- iter to see the sky above, through the markable cave; and the geological fea- whole length of the funnel. The canal tures of the region are worthy of atten- descends at this place by five locks, each tion. Beautiful crystals of quartz are of eight feet lift. found in the neighborhood, in consider- In 1789, several prisoners were taken able abundance, and are washed from by a party of Indians, at a mill; but the micaceous slate by every rain. Pas- two men escaped, by retreating under sengers in the rail-cars sometimes have the waterwheel, whence the savages an opportunity to purchase a few, of could not dislodge them. the children who take pains to collect RUME.—This village was named at a them.
time when unfounded expectations were The Marble Aqueduct, two hundred entertained of its rapid and extensive and fourteen feet long, and sixteen feet growth. Its population, in 1850, about wide, is one of the best-constructed and 8,000 It occupies a place of great imbeautiful works on the line of the canal, portance in the French and Revolutioncrossing the Mohawk on five large arch- ary wars, as it was one of the carryinges, to bring over a supply of water from places on the ancient Indian route bethe old canal on the northern bank. tween Lake Ontario and the Mohawk, The central arch is seventy feet span. by the way of Oneida lake and Wood
Few constructions can be found which creek. The Black-river canal (an impresent to the eye, in so forcible a con- portant work) passes the village, as well trast, the rude obstacles of nature with as the railroad and Erie canal. The symmetry and beauty of useful art. ground is the summit-level between
The first settler in this wild spot was Lake Ontario and the ocean, four huna Scotch gentleman, Alexander Ellis, dred and thirteen feet above the Hudwho, by the aid of Sir William Johnson, son at Albany, from which it is distant obtained a patent of the surrounding one hundred and twelve miles.
The The river makes a descent of United States arsenal, and barracks for forty-two feet, by two rapids, within the one thousand men, were built in 1813. distance of two thirds of a mile, with a Fort Stanwix (of which only some broad interval of smooth and deep wa- marks remain in the soil) was erected
Above these is a dam, divided by in 1758, and was at first merely a square an island, over which the water pours fort, with four bastions, a covered way in small cascades. The romantic pass and glacis, surrounded by a palisaded which opens through the ridge of mount- ditch. It cost £266,400," but, through ains, is about two miles in length, and neglect, was in ruins at the beginning of an average breadth of only five hun- of the Revolution. Having been hastily dred yards, while rough and woody repaired, and named Fort Schuyler, on heights, rises on each side nearly four the 3d of August, 1777, it was invested hundred feet. Everything here, and by Colonel St. Leger, with a large mixed above and below, indicates that a lahe force from Canada, comprising one thouonce covered the great German Flats; sand Indians. Colonel Ganzevoort, howand it is calculated that, if a dam were ever, resolutely refused to surrender ; now built here seventy feet high, that and, although in command of only seven rich and extensive alluvial tract would hundred and fifty men, sent out Colonel soon be overflown, and the new lake Willet to make a diversion in favor of would find an outlet through Wood General Herkimer, who was advancing creek into Oneida lake and Ontario. to his relief, and with such success that The rocks are deeply worn, often by the enemy were driven from their camp, large and deep circular drills, such as leaving their baggage and even papers.
Twenty wagon-loads of spoils were with neat yards and gardens; while the brought into the fort. The invaders, hotels are large, and the point where however, returned, and the siege was the canal and railroad pass the principal closely pressed; but Colonel Willet and street is one of great activity and busMajor Stockwell succeeded in passing tle. The view in every direction is over by stealth through the midst of the ene- an extent of level ground, and bounded my, and reached General Sullivan's by the hills enclosing the valley of the camp at Stillwater, who sent General Mohawk. Arnold with assistance. That sagacious CLINTON.- The pleasant village of officer (afterward a traitor) so terrified Clinton, situated nine miles from Utica, the invaders by exaggerated reports, is the seat of Hamilton college. This that they fled in a panic, and failed in institution owes its origin to the Rev. their enterprise as utterly as General Samuel Kirkland, a missionary to the Burgoyne, to co-operate with whom, they Oneida Indians. He was one of the had come from Canada.
pupils of the celebrated school of Mr. UTICA.—This city, situated on the Wheelock, and graduated at Princeton southern bank of the Mohawk, occupies in 1765. In the following year he reone of the important points where the moved to this place, and commenced a. line of the Erie canal and the railroad long, self-denying, and successful course coincide, and are crossed by several of missionary labors among the Oneidas, country roads. It has the additional over whom he obtained a strong and advantage of lying on a tract of fertile beneficial influence, of great importance land, the river alluvion in that country in the Revolutionary war. While the being broad and rich. It is ninety-six other nations of the savage confederacy miles west of Albany, and two hundred joined the English, the Oneidas remainand forty-one miles from New York. ed true to our cause.
After the peace Fort Schuyler, an earth work, thrown had been restored, he received a grant up here in the old French war, was the of land in this place and neighborhood, first point ever occupied here by white called Kirkland's patent, and again took
but, as Whitestown, for some up his residence here in 1792. years after its settlement, was the prin- The remarkable chief Skenandoa, cipal place of resort in this region, as with many of his people, became intellate as 1793, there were but three dwel- ligent Christians under the instructions lings in Utica. Rome was afterward of their devoted pastor. In 1793, he obmarked out, as the site of a future city; tained a charter for a seminary of learnbut, although the Western Inland Nav- ing, designed for Indians as well as igation company, chartered in 1792, whites, under the title of the Hamilton opened a canal from the bend of the Oneida academy, which has since been Hudson here to Oneida lake, and ex- raised to the rank of a college. pectations were entertained of a great TRENTON FALLS.--The West Canada trade taking that direction, in 1800, the creek, in flowing through a long, deep, Seneca turnpike was opened through and narrow ravine, presents a succession Utica, which gave the latter place the of wild and romantic scenes, so striking advantage. It has continued to increase and so interesting, that this region has ever since. The population in 1830 was been for some years a favorite point of 8,323, and in 1850, 17,240. It was observation to travellers of taste in the made a village in 1798, when it receiv- western tour. It is common for parties ed the name of Utica, and it was incor- to stop at Utica, and devote a day to an porated as a city in 1832. It contains excursion to Trenton Falls. The stream fourteen churches, three banks, numer- makes successive falls, four of which are ous stores, and a number of handsome the most considerable, but all varying private houses, with much refined and in form and appearance. The largest intelligent society. The streets of is two miles northwest from Trenton vilUtica are generally pleasant, many of lage, where, within a short distance, it them being planted with trees and lined is precipitated down three perpendicu44 oris, rushing over the intermediate phate of lime, 2 pounds, 4 ounces; mu$p4 es by steep and rough channess, in viate of lime, 1 pound, 12 ounces; and a turii us and turbulent manner. The probably some muriate of magnesia and first of the falls is forty-seven feet in vulphate of soda. height, the second cluven, and the third The water is raised from the spring forty-eight; and such is the variety in by a forcing-pump; and distributed the directions of the shacts of water and through pipes and troughs to numerous the surrounding objects in that wild and manufactories, large and small, of differsecluded dell, which is shut in on both ent kinds, in the villages of Salina and sides by perpendicular banks of dark Sy.apuse, and a considerable tract of limestone, from one hundred to one hun- land lying between them. In some dred and thirty feet in height, that the places are seen large buildings, in which impressions made on the mind of a the water is evaporated by artificial spectator are at once awful and pleas- heat ; but the greater part is exposed, ing.
in shallow wouden vats, to the heat of SYRACUSE.—This is a large and flour- the sun, being covered by sliding roofs ishing village on the Erie canal, one when threatened by rain. A branch of hundred and thirty-three miles west of the Erie canal affords the means of easy Albany, at the junction of the Oswego transportation, and immense quantities canal. Population, 1850 22,235. of salt are annually transported to all
The great Salt-Spring, at Salina, is parts of the country. the most valuable in the Union, as it is The vats are about sixteen by seven abundant in water, very highly charged, feet, and four inches deep, and are supand the supply is taken to numerous plied with water sent from pump-houses manufactories, where the salt is extract- through hollow logs. Between the rows ed and purified by the most approved of vats, sufficient space is left for carts processes.
to pass, in which the salt is removed. The spring rises on the marshes of The salt made in this manner is coarse; Salina lake, a salt pond, six miles long that formed by artificial heat is fine. and two in breadth, whose waters are From fifteen to twenty-five boilers are impregnated to such a degree that its used, usually placed in rows, which are shores are lined with plants usually found supplied with salt water much in the only on the borders of the sea. The same manner as the vats; and heat is lake is surrounded by limestone bills, applied below, where fires are kindled containing petrifactions ; and gypsum in furnaces. In some manufactories, abounds in the neighborhood. The spot steam-pipes are used for heating, and is a portion of that extensive region pass through the water. The new spring which reaches from the Atlantic to the at Salina yields water more strongly imPacific, between the latitudes of thirty- pregnated with salt than the old spring; one and forty-five degroes north, whose that is, in the proportion of fifty to sevcourse is here and there betrayed by enty. Fresh water being reckoned at 0, brine springs.
In this state, such and water saturated with salt at 100, springs exist in the counties of Onon- a cubic foot of water from the new daga, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, Niaga- spring yields fourteen pounds of salt. ra, Genesee, Tompkins, Wayne, and Two mills on every bushel here are Oneida; but that of Salina is by far the to be paid to the state for pumping most valuable and productive. Accord- the water, and six cents a bushel on all ing to published statements, a bushel of the salt made. About three millions of salt may be obtained from forty-five gal. bushels are manufactured annually; and lons of water; and analysis gives the the business, in all its branches, occufollowing results for forty gallons :- pies about three thousand men, in the
Weight, 355 pounds; saline matter of four villages of Syracuse, Salina, Gedall kinds, 56 pounds. Of this, muriate desburgh, and Liverpool. of soda is 51 pounds; carbonate of lime, A French colony for the Onondaga colored by oxyde of iron, 61 ounces; sul-| country was planned in the year 1655,
by the Jesuit Dablon, who procured at base, four feet thick. On the southern Quebec fifty soldiers, under the com- side there is a small creek, from which, mand of Lieutenant Lawson, and set by means of a wheel and shaft, power out with them the next year, to under- enough is obtained to work all the matake one of their missions at this place. chinery inside of the walls. The prison Under so powerful a guard, with the consists of two wings, and the main approbation of the Jesuit superior-gen- body of the house, which forms three eral, Francis Le Mercier, the expedition sides of a square ; the wings being two sailed
the river; but it was attacked hundred and forty feet long, and twentyby four hundred Mohawks, before they five feet deep, and the house two hunreached Montreal, who were jealous of dred and eighty feet long. It was begun the Onondagas, by whom the enterprise in the year 1816, and the cost was five was encouraged. The Indians being hundred thousand dollars.
The exrepulsed, the party proceeded; and, af- penses of the prison, in the year 1839, ter some delays and dangers, arrived at were $51,671.21, and the money that the appointed place of settlement. This was earned in the same year was $60,is supposed to have been on the borders 161.46. The prisoners number, in the of Salina lake, as mention is made of a course of a year, from six to seven hunsalt-spring. They were for a time very dred. Every sabbath they are instructkindly treated by the Onondagas, who ed in the great truths of the Bible, inhabited this region. Scarcely two and the younger portion are taught readyears, however, had elapsed, before ing, writing, and arithmetic. strong symptoms of hostility were ex- this prison was first built, there were hibited; several murders were commit- five hundred and fifty cells ; but lately ted, and a large army of the Six Nations a few more have been added. These was assembled.
cells are arranged in four stories, and The colonists became alarmed, and are seven feet high, seven feet long, and resolved on flight. By practising the three and a half feet wide. They are greatest caution and secresy, they suc- very well warmed, lighted, and ventilaceeded. Canoes were made with all ted, and everything fixed for the comfort haste in the house of the Jesuit, and a of the prisoners. The space between young Frenchman, who had been adopt- the cells and the outside wall is ten feet ed by the Indians, and enjoyed their full wide, and is open from the roof to the confidence, persuaded them to make a ground. The passages to the cells are great feast ; at the close of which they three feet wide, extending out from the betook themselves to sleep; and when wall in front of each cell. They being they awoke the next day, their intended constructed in this manner, perfect sivictims were not to be found. Having lence can be preserved through the launched their canoes in the night, and night, as the slightest noise or whisper taken their young countryman with is heard by the watchman on guard bethem, the colonists got such a start of low. This precaution is taken in order their enemies, that they arrived in safety to prevent any conversation during the at Montreal.
night. The same care is taken in the AUBURN.--This beautiful village, sit- daytime, for they are made to work uated on Owasco lake, is worthy of the without speaking. The prison-bell rings pleasing associations connected with its soon after daybreak, which is a signal name, which Goldsmith's favorite poem for the prisoners to rise, and soon after has celebrated. Population, 9,548. the keeper unlocks the doors. The
The stateprison, located here, is quite prisoners then come out of their cells, a handsome building. It stands back each one taking his pan that is used for about eighty feet from the road, and his food, his kettle for water, and his covers, including the grounds, about tub. They then put these different twenty-five thousand square feet. The things in their respective places, and in wall that surrounds it is two thousand lockstep walk to the workshops, where feet long, thirty feet high, and, at the they work until the prison-bell rings