« PrejšnjaNaprej »
again, and then in the same manner go the honor of the inestimch! improveto the eating-room. The tables that are ments which have been made, although used here are very narrow, to prevent he was accused of occasional practices any intercourse. În about half an hour of unnecessary severity, in the punishthey are ordered, by the ringing of the ment of offenders or suspected persons bell, to return to the workshops, and among the prisoners under his charge. here work until twelve o'clock, when Not a word is allowed to be spoken again they go and take their dinner in by the convicts while at work; and each the same way.
As evening comes on, small party of laborers is attended by a the prisoners go to the place where they sentinel, at whatever employment, and left their tubs in the morning; and when every infringement of the rule of strict the word of command is given, each silence which he can observe is instanttakes his own up and 'proceeds to the ly reported and punished. Their cells mess or dining-room, where each one are solitary, although arranged side by takes his can of water and his pan of side in long rows, and separated only by food, and then all walk in the same single walls; and sentinels are so posted, close step to their cells. . As they enter, at night, that no communication can be they pull the door to after them, and carried on between any of the prisoners. are then locked in by the turnkey, who in the largest prisons, where a thousand has two keys entirely different from any or more persons are confined, a dead others in the prison. The prisoners are silence reigns from the ho'ir of retiredivided into companies; and each com- ment till that of breakfast. A few men pany occupies a separate gallery. The are sufficient to guard a zreat number, turnkeys go around through the differ- thus isolated in mind, and yet made to ent galleries in stocking-feet, to see if move and act in compact bodies. A the convicts are in bed.
plot is impossible : one man can not The stateprison at Auburn is impor- even form an acquaintance with anothtant in an historical point of view, be- er. Whenever they move, they are recause it is that in which a new system quired to march at a regular step, in of prison-discipline was commenced, single file, and close together; a difficult which has since been extensively adopt- march, which requires strict attention. ed in the large stateprisons of this coun- They often receive their food on retry, and, with various modifications, in turning from work, without stopping; France and elsewhere. It was invented for being marched through the kitchen, and first practised by Mr. Lynds, after- j each takes his can from a table, and carward superintendent of the Sing-Sing ries it to his cell. prison. The grand object of it is to Religious services are often held in prevent all conversation and interchange chapels connected with the prisons, and of thoughts between the convicts. In chaplains usually find many of the conall prisons previously in use, where con- victs accessible to their private instrucsiderable numbers of persons were con- tions. Each cell has a Bible, and sabfined, unless for offences of peculiar bath-schools are often kept hy benevokinds, or under oppressive systems of lent people of the neighborhood. In government, numbers of prisoners were, some cases, also, as in New York city, from time immemorial, placed in com- societies provide temporary lodgings mon halls, often in a very crowded man- and work for discharged convicts, and ner; and not only immoral conversation, otherwise interest themselves in their but the basest crimes, might be indulged welfare. in. So great were the evils of that sys- The Prison-Discipline Society, which tem, that many innocent persons have was formed in Boston about twenty-five been ruined by their contact with felons years ago, early recommended the prinof the worst character, while awaiting ciples on which the Auburn prison was trial. The expense of keeping and conducted, and greatly contributed to guarding men in such circumstances was their general adoption in the United very great; and to Mr. Lynds belongs States and foreign countries.
GENEVA.- This place is conspicuous The Geneva College was one of the among the lake villages for the beauty earliest institutions which adopted a of its appearance from the water. It plan of studies adapted to young men stands at the outlet of thu lake of the preparing for other professions than same name, upon the western bank; those usually termed “ learned ;” and, and the houses of some of the more like several others since established in wealthy inhabitants occupy the summit different places, affords instruction in of the higher ground, which rises one practical brariches to such students as hundred and twenty feet, just behind the prefer to pursue them. The buildings busiest streets, and descends with a hasty occupy a remarkably fine, agreeable, but graceful slope to the water, adorned and commanding situation, on the ele by the gardens, green with useful plants, vated shore of the lake, near the southand gay with blooming flowers. The ern extremity of Main street. surrounding country presents that gen- This college, incorporated in 1825, tly-varied surface peculiar to this part has professors of mathematics, natural of New York, where, for many miles, philosophy, Latin and Greek, statistics the ground has the appearance of hav- and civil engineering, modern languages, ing been channelled from north to south. history and belles-lettres, chymistry and The lowest depressions are cccupied by mineralogy. There is also a medical several of the small lakes, while the department, commonly called heights of the intermediate ridges com- The Medical College of Geneva.--The mand exte.sive and pleasing views over building belongs to the medical departthe gently-undulated country between. ment of the college, which is under the
The settlement of Geneva was begun direction of four professors. The inin the year 1794, by Mr. Austin and Mr. habitants of this beautiful town have Barton; and the act of incorporation distinguished themselves by their liberwas passed in 1812. The number of ality in providing and supporting instidwellings is about five hundred; and tutions of the most valuable character; there are nine churches, a bank, &c. and few places of equal size can be found