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serving as the seat of government, sub-were established in Philadelphia in her sequently to the capture of New York, colonial days, chiefly by the labors and was threatened by the enemy, in 1778. A example of Dr. Franklin, who for a long strong expedition having been sent from time exercised a great influence on the New York to the Delaware, succeeded country, and whose fame is universal. in maintaining itself in Pennsylvania for Massachusetts, however, lays a claim to a time: after several battles, Washington a considerable share of the honor of his retreating to Valley Forge. The ene- character and life, as he was a native cf my were, however, ere long, compelled Boston, and there received his apprento retreat, and evacuate the country on ticeship in the art which had so strong the west of the bay and river.
an influence in directing his practical The "whiskey rebellion,” which broke course in life. out in a part of the state, soon after Printing was introduced into the the restoration of peace, kept the coun- bounds of the present state of Pennsyltry for a time in a state of alarm; but, vania, in 1687, when the first sheet, an after its suppression, Pennsylvania soon almanac, was published by William began to share with other members of Bradford. The first newspaper issued, the Union, in the career of prosperity was “The American Weekly Mercury," which has so greatly distinguished our a half-sheet of "post-paper,” by Andrew country, and has been one of the most Bradford, dated Dec. 22, 1719. There remarkable of the states for the extent was at that time only one other in the and success of its manufactures. Her colonies, viz., at Boston. The second iron-mines and manufactories, with her was commenced in 1728, and passed, in coal-mines, are the grand sources of her a few months, into the hands of Benjawealth, although her commerce is con- min Franklin. It existed more than a siderable.
century. Several others were published COAL-Mines.- Among the natural in the middle and latter part of the last productions of the state of Pennsylvania, century; and the first German paper those of the coal-mines take the most appeared at Germantown, in 1739. important place. On both sides of the There were not fewer than six magaAlleganies lie extensive and apparently zines before the Revolution. “The inexhaustible beds of excellent coal, ma- American Daily Advertiser” was the first ny of which are on the immediate banks, daily paper in America, and commenced or near to the sources of streams, which its daily appearance in 1784. have been rendered navigable where the Pittsburgh Gazette," the first newspaper aid of art and science have been required; in the western part of the state, began and the immense and increasing sup- about 1786. “An imperfect list of the plies, annually transported, subserve the periodical journals” published in the convenience and comfort of millions of state, between the close of the Revolupeople, not in this territory alone, but tionary war and 1828, given in the Amerin half the states of the Union. Nu-ican Almanac for 1835, names thirty-six. merous steamboats and railroad-cars, as The number has since greatly increased, well as manufactories of different kinds, in every department. borrow their motive-power from these STATE-GOVERNMENT.—The governor mines; while almost entire towns and is chosen by the people for three years, cities derive from them their vast sup- but cannot hold the office over six years plies of fuel.
in nine. He must be thirty years of age, The coals of Pennsylvania are of two and have resided in the state for seven kinds; and it is remarkable that, while years. The senate consists of thirtythat on the eastern side of the Allega- three members, elected by the people nies is anthracite, that on the west is for three years, one third being chosen bituminous. The latter has rendered annually. A member must be twentyPittsburgh the Birmingham of America. five years of age, and have resided four
LITERARY INSTITUTIONS, &c.—Liter- years in the state, and the last year in ary publications and scientific institutions the district in which he is chosen. The
for five years.
house of representatives consists of one | abilities of the machinery employed in hundred members, elected annually by mining and transporting, that the prosthe people. A member must be twenty- pects of the business are almost too great one years of age, have resided in the to be mentioned. Professor Bakewell state three years next preceding his remarks, that the proximity of coalelection, and ihe last year in the district mines and beds of iron ore afford strong for which he is chosen.
evidence of the provision made by the All judicial officers are elecied by Almighty for the benefit of man. Pennthe people at the regular state election. sylvania, says the Merchants’ Magazine, The judges of the supreme court hold is the only state which has direct år ross, their offices for fifteen years; those of by water, at once to the ocean, the lakes, the court of common pleas hold theirs and the Mississippi : we perceive that for ten years; and the associate judges her position justifies high anticipations of the court of common pleas hold theirs of her future wealth and prosperity.
The secietary of state The real estate of Pennsylvania, accordis appointed by the governor, and holds ing to the same work, was estimated, in office during his pleasure. The treas- 1846, on the best data, at one thousand urer is elected annually by the joint- four hundred millions of dollars, and ballot of boih houses of the legislature. the personal property at seven hundred The legislature meets aupually at Har- millions; making an aggregate of two risburgh on the first l'uesday in January. thousand one hundred millions, or more
The Merchants' Magazine, just quo- than three times that of New York. ted, well describes Pennsylvania in the Such an estimate must surprise almost following figurative language :-- every one; but, to sustain it, the writer
“She is, indeed, the keystone state. gives the following statements :"Each While one arm rests on the Atlantic, of the three vast beds of anthracite coal, she lays the other on the Ohio, and her in this state, are about five miles in liand plays with the waters of the lake. breadth, and sixty-five in length, with Within her hills is stowed the fuel of an area of 325 square miles, or 208,000 ages ; and iron, the world's civilizer, to acres; that is, in all, 975 square miles, hind the continent, and insure the sta- or 624,000 acres. If the supply of coal bility of this great government; Erie, from anthracite mines, for 1847, is estiher outlet on the lake, Pittsburgh, the mated at 2,800,000 tons, at four dollars head of the eastern branch of the mighty per ton, which is the average price at valley, and Philadelphia, not only the tide-water, we have an amount of eleven beautiful city of the plain, but destined millions two hundred thousand dollars. to be the leading city of the north, a city Most of the mines are owned by citiworthy so great a state. In her present zens; and the balance of trade with competition, her rivals are east. The other cities is constantly in favor of mass of productions of the forest, agri- Philadelphia.” culture, and the mines, are derived from It is amusing to record some of the Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and anecdotes related of the coal-trade in its the ascending tradle of the Mississippi early days. Mr. Charles Miner, of valley.”
Wilkesbarre, and Mr. Cist, sent off the The coal-mines of England, it has first ark-load of coal from Mauch Chunk, been remarked by the president of the on the 9th of August, 1814. The boat British Statistical society, have yielded soon ran against a rock, which broke a more profits than were ever derived from hole in it. The men prevented the leak the gold-mines of Peru ; but, without from sinking it, by taking off their coats the aid of steam, they would have been and stuffing them into the hola When comparatively worthless. The products ar leng h the carg reached Philadel of the Pennsylvania coal-mines are al- pl.ia, the expenses ainounted to fourteen ready so great that it would be difficult dollars a ton. The owners then found to estimate them; and such are the an- it necessary to call at houses, blacknual increase of the demand, and the smith-shops, &c., and urge the people
to try the coal in their grates and fur- These principal streets so far alluded to, naces, and even to hire journeymen to form fine, large squares, which are subgive it a fair trial, after publishing hand- divided by streets of a second class, and bills, in English and German, with a inferior breadth, of which those running minute description of the manner of east and west bear the names of shrubs kindling and treating it. In 1812, Col. and inferior plants. George Shockmaker took nine wagons, Philadelphia is distinguished by its loaded with coal, from the Schuylkill neatness, as well as uniformity, and conmines to Philadelphia, and succeeded in tains many institutions of science, learnselling two of them. It was with diffi- ing, and beneficence, as useful as they culty that he could persuade any per- are honorable to the inhabitants. sons to try the remainder, which he left Philadelphia is remarkable for a neat without selling
and pleasing style of building. HunThe amount of foreign coal imported dreds of houses, of the first class, have into the United States, in 1846, was basements and steps of white marble; 156,853 tons, worth $378,597; which is and the pavements, which are generally very small, compared with the above wide, are carefully washed and swept. estimate for the supply of anthracite Great cleanliness prevails through a from the mines of Pennsylvania.
large part of the city, although the surPhiladelPHIA.—This city was ori- face of the ground is so flat as to be ginally confined to a point on the west- rather unfavorable. Sewers have been ern bank of the Delaware, five miles constructed to a considerable extent, above its confluence with the Schuylkill, and the good habits of the people are and about one hundred from the ocean. the chief cause of this important feature The river is of sufficient depth for the in their city, which is favored by the free admission of vessels of the largest absence of great thoroughfares, the passize; but the navigation is subject to a sage of carriages being confined to no long interruption, by ice, during the particular streets. winter months. The city now extends Markets.—The principal markets are quite across the broad, level space to the concentrated in Market street, in which Schuylkill, a distance of about two miles, a long line of buildings, well planned, while the northern and southern dis- and built for the purpose, extends about tricts, and several adjacent villages, a mile, and is proverbial for convenience having received portions of the increas- and neatness, Abundant supplies of ing population, now contain, together, a the best articles of food are displayed, large, compact mass of houses, with a with neatness and in good order, while population inferior to no city in the Uni- sufficient room is allowed to buyers and ted States, except New York.
sellers. For good meat, butter, and Almost without a single exception, some other products of the fine agriculPhiladelphia is laid out on a plan of tural districts in the neighborhood, perfect regularity. The streets are per- Philadelphia has long been celebrated. fectly straight, and those running north South of the city lies an extensive tract and south are crossed at right-angles by of fertile meadow-land, where rich pasthose running east and west, at equal tures and fine gardens abound; the benintervals. The former are distinguished efits of which are enjoyed by the inhabby the cardinal numbers--First, Second, itants. Third, &c., beginning near the Delaware, The large draught-horses, reared with as far as Independence square, in the great care by the Dutch farmers, for use cei tre of the city; and between the in their heavy wagons, are seen in great western limits and that point, by the des- numbers. ignation of Schuylkill-First, Second, The Philadelphia Library is one of Third, &c. The principal cross-streets the earliest, most extensive, and valuaare nained after trees, as Walnut, Chest- ble, in the country, and was founded by nut, &c., except the central, which is the exertions of Benjamin Franklin, Market street, and one or two others. about the year 1727, when a little