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The growth of Louisville has been the Ionic style, and makes a conspicuvery rapid. In 1800 the inhabitants ous appearance. It is built entirely of amounted to only 1,357; in 1830 they marble, and contains balls for the chamwere 10,196, anà in 1850 about 44,000. bers of the legislature, the court of apMany kinds of manufactures are carried peals, and the federal court. The stairon here.
The canal, leadinį round the case has a fine effect, being placed under falls, is one of the earliest and most im- the dome. portant works of improvement under- A chain-bridge crosses the river near i taken in this part of the country. The the middle of the town, where the banks charter was granted in 1825, and the are four or five hundred feet high. canal was opened for use in 1829. The Among the public buildings are the stock was $600,000, of which congress courthouse, state-penitentiary, markettook $100,000. The canal is nearly house, bank, academy, theatre, and five three miles in length, and in that dis- churches. There are several manufactance overcomes a descent of twenty- tories of different kinds, and the poputwo and a half feet, by five locks. lation amounts to about two thousand.
The Medical Institute at Louisville is The Stateprison. The following exa very important institution, founded in tracts from a late re, ort of the officers 1837, with six professors, and about two will afford the reader correct ideas of hundred and fifty students. The lec- the condition and prospects of this imtures commence on the first Monday in portant institution : November.
“We have availed ourselves of
every The Kentucky Historical society has possible means in our power to carry a considerable library with numerous out the wishes of the legislature, and of manuscripts. The Merchants' library every true philanthropist, in regard to contains 8,500 volumes. The Agricul- the moral and religious instruction of tural and Horticultural society has been this unfortunate portion of our race; founded within a few years.
and we most heartily acknowledge that Communication is daily had by steam- it is a source of much gratification to boats with Cincinnati, Maysville, Guy- us, to see the manifest disposition on andotte (Virginia), Wheeling, and Pitts- the part of nearly all the prisoners to burg, up the Ohio; and with St. Louis, conform to law and good morals, subNew Orleans, and the intermediate places mitting to the laws of the prison with below. Stagecoaches go daily for Mays that character of submissiveness which ville via Frankfort and Lexington, for ought to be gratifying to every true lover Cincinnati, for St. Louis through New of man. Albany (Indiana), for Vincennes, for “We look forward with pleasure to Nashville, &c.
a day early in next season, when we FRANKFORT, the capital of the state, will be prepared with a suitable schoolis twenty-two miles west-northwest from room and chapel,, where we can carry Lexington, fifty-one east from Louisville, on the work of moral and religious inone hundred and two south-southwest struction more perfectly, and where from Cincinnati. It stands on the right those ministers of the different denomibank of Kentucky river, sixty miles from nations who have labored with us can the Ohio, on a level, elevated piece of be rendered more comfortable than we ground, nearly two hundred feet above have been able to make them heietothe neighboring surface. The river is fore, while they further aid us in the subject to great and sudden floods ; le most pleasant part of our duties; and ing comprised in a narrow channel, it although a fair proportion of our best sometimes swells in a short time to a energies have been constantly engaged height of sixty feet above its ordinary in endeavoring to promote the moral level. The river divides the town into and religious interests of the prisoners, two parts, one called Frankfort, and the yet, for want of suitable buildings and other South Frankfort.
other means, we have not been able to The Statehouse has a fine portico, in do what we would wish; but sufficient
provision having been made, we most fees, for safe-keeping of slaves, 195 00 ; confidently promise to present to your by barter (manufactured articles given in honorable body, at the meeting of your exchange), 6,022 03: total, $51,114 81. next session, their condition in a much The number of prisoners in confinemore favorable light. Ministers of the ment on the first day of December, 1845, different denominations of our town and I was 176; received into the prison from its vicinity, generally, have contributed 1st December, 1845, to 1st December, to aid us in advising the prisoner for 1846, 71: total, 247. his good, to whom we feel thankful. The number discharged during the
" The disbursements for the year past same time were : by expiration of senwere as follows: for hemp, iron, lum-tence, 32; by pardon of Governor (wsber, leather, &c., $29,375 02; victualing ley, 22; restoration to rights of citizenprisoners, 5,719 57; clothes and bed- ship by pardon of the governor, one day ding for prisoners, 1,281 63 ; wood and previous to expiration of sentence, 3; coal for engine, blacksmith shop, &c., | by death, 2; escaping, 1: total, 60. 2,473 74; wagons, hauling hemp, stone, Leaving in confinement, on 1st Delumber, wood, &c., 1,800 56; pay of of- cember, 1846, 187. Of this number, ficers, physicians, and guards, 4,387 35; there were 166 white male, and 21 colcash paid to prisoners ($5 each), as di-ored males. rected by law, 285 00; tools and imple
- The crimes for which they were conrents of trade for workshops, 966 41; victed were as follows: for manslaughbrick and lumber for new buildings, 388 ter, 13; burglary, 9 ; larceny, 72; horse24; cash paid town of Frankfort, water stealing, 32; intent to kill 4; assisting privilege for use of engine, and repairs slaves to run away, 8; felony, 12; pasof pipe, 68 70; travelling expenses to sing counterfeit money, 13; forgery, 3; various points, including trip east, on highway robbery, 4; arson, 3; counterbusiness of the institution, 221 55; cash feiting, 3; perjury, 3; bigamy, 2; rape, paid ferriage and turnpike for wagons, 2; mailrobbery, i; poisoning, 1; slavehauling stone, bemp, &c., 176 02; medi- stealing, 1; mayhem, 1. cines and medical instruments for use
6. The terms of their sentences were : of prison-hospital, 60 69; rewards and for 40 years, 3; 22 years, 1; 15 years, expenses incident to arrest and return 1; 12 years, 1.; 10 years, of escaped convicts, 83 45; lot pur- 2; 8 years, 7; 7 years, 10; 6) years, 1 ; chased for extension of prison-wall, as 6 years, 10; 51 years, 1 ; 5 years, 11; authorized by act of assembly, 2,400; 44 years, 2; 4 years, 38; 3. years, 1 cash paid stonemasons engaged in the 3 years 4 months, 1; 3 years, 33; 21 erection of prison-wall, 836 63; moral years, 2; 2 years, 25; 1 year 10 months, and religious instruction, 237 38; sta- 1; 1 year 6 months, 1; 1 year 1 day, tionery for use of office, 52 20; print- 1; 1 year, 19. ing office-blanks, advertisements, &c., 44 “ Education.—Superior, or those who 37; postage, letters sent and received have a classical or scientific education, on business of institution, 9 05; tobac- 3; good, or those who have received a co for use of prisoners, as directed by general English education, 20; common, law, 166 25; two yoke of oxen pur- or those who can read, write, and cipher, chased for use of prison, 75 00 : total, 49; poor, or those who can only spell $51,114 81.
and read, 53; none, or those who are ** The receipts were as follows: By entirely destitute of education, 62. Craig and Henry, advanced for institu- Ages.-From 15 to 20 years, 20; 20 tion, $2,311 20; cash received for the' to 30, 87; 30 to 40, 44; 40 to 50, 19; sale of bagging and baled hemp, and for 50 to 60, 14; 60 to 70, 2; 70 to 80, 1. the manufacture of bagging, 30,299 11; " Previous Habits.- Habitually incash received for the sale of articles at temperate, 62 ; occasionally intemperprison, 6,287 47; cash loaned by the ate, 95; temperate, 30. state, per act approved February 23, "Married, 75; single, 96; widowers, 1946, 6,000; cash received for lock-up | 11; separated, 5. Total, 187.
south, are only the declivity of the broad ties offered to navigation, afford opportable-land there broken down. The tunities to many parts of it to communisouth slope before spoken of, properly cate with markets. belongs only to the valleys of the The soil of Ohio is in general very streams flowing in that direction into fertile; and the productions are afforded the Ohio. These streams are generally in immense quantities. These are wheat, free from falls, except the Muskingum rye, oats, Indian corn, live stock, and and a few others; but those which flow salted meat. Indian corn ripens in all into Lake Erie, passing down a ridge parts, and apples and peaches flourish about eight liundred feet high, are too well, as do nectarines, cherries, plums, much broken for navigation. Some of grapes, and berries of all kinds. Flint them make that descent within five says Ohio “is the appropriate empire miles. This ridge is visible to a person of Pomona.” sailing up the coast, and is seen gradu- The principal tributaries of the Ohio ally receding inland until it disappears flowing in this state are Muskingum, in the distance near Sandusky.
Hockhocking, Scioto, and Great and The course of the Ohio forms nearly Little Miami. Their head streams ina perfect semicircle along the outline of terluck with those running into Lake the state.
If one point of the dividers Erie : the Ashtabula, Grand, Cuyahoga, be placed on the map at Worthington, Huron, Sandusky, and Maumee. Nunine miles north of Columbus, and the merous smaller streams are omitted in other at the mouth of Big Sandy river, this enumeration. it will sweep round on or very near The Ohio canal extends from Clevethe course of the great river. Like its land, on Lake Erie, up the valley of the tributaries, it flows through a deep chan- Cuyahoga south, about thirty miles, crosnel, cut down below the original plain. ses Portage summit to the Muskingum The breadth of this valley varies, above or Tuscarawas river, whose valley it Louisville, from one to two miles, and follows to Dresden, within fourteen its temperature is so much warmer than miles of Zanesville, and then, in a souththat of the neighboring high land, that western direction, crosses the ridge to vegetation is about six weeks earlier in the Scioto, twelve miles south of Columthe spring; but the cold is greater in bus, then south down the valley to Cirwinter.
cleville, Chillicothe, Piketon, and PortsOn account of its rapid increase in mouth, where it enters the Ohio, being population, and the general extension three hundred and six miles long. of the improvements of civilization, as The Miami canal extends from Cinwell as the intelligence, industry, and cinnati north through the Great Miami thrift, of its inhabitants, the state of valley, through Hamilton, Middletown, Ohio is inferior to no other country of Franklin, and Miamisburg, to Dayton, equal extent. Indeed, it may be safely a distance of sixty-seven miles. asserted, that none has been equally The population, in 1800, was 45,365; listinguished in all the points we have in 1810, 230,760 ; in 1820, 581,434; enumerated.
in 1830, 935, 884; in 1840, 1,519,467; In consequence of a singular and pe- and in 1850, 1,977,031. culiarly favorable concurrence of events The original constitution of Ohio was and circumstances, the energy of our formed at Chillicothe, in 1802, and connation here found an opportunity to dis- tinued in operation until 1851, when a play itselt, while in its early youth ; and new constitution was framed at Columthe results show something of the ten- bus, by a convention, March 101h, and dencies and power of the principles and adopted by the people, June 17th, 1851. habits implanted by our ancestors, when By this constitution, the senaters and left at liberty to develop themselves. representatives are elected biennially,
The surface, soil, and climate of Ohio and meet at Columbus on the first Monare all highly favorable to agriculture; day of January following.
and her situation, with the natural facili- The senate consists of thirty-five memL