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THE HOPI (OR MOQUI).
SOCIAL DANCE RELIGION. HOPI (contraction of Hópitu, "peaceful ones,” or Hopitushinumu,“peaceful all people”; their own name). A body of Indians, speaking a Shoshonean dialect, occupying six pueblos on a reservation of 2,472,320 acres in northeastern part of this State. The name “Moqui,” or “Moki,” by which they have been popularly known, means “dead” in their own language, but as a tribal name it is seemingly of alien origin and of undetermined signification-perhaps from the Keresan language, whence Espejo's “Mohace” and “Mohoce" (1583), and Oñate's “Mohoqui,'' 1598. Bandelier and Cushing believed the Hopi country, the later province of Tusayan, to be identical with the Totonteac of Fray Marcos de Niza.
History.—The Hopi first became known to white men in the summer of 1540, when Coronado, then at Cibola (Zuni), dispatched Pedro de Tobar and Fray Juan de Padilla to visit seven villages, constituting the province of Tusayan, toward the west or northwest. The Spaniards were not received with friendliness at first, but the opposition of the natives was
soon overcome and the party remained among the Hopi several days, learning from them of the existence of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, which Cardenas was later ordered to visit. The names of the Tusayan towns are not recorded by Coronado's chroniclers, so that with the exception of Oraibi, Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, Walpi, and Awatobi, it is not known with certainty what villages were inhabited when the Hopi first became known to the Spaniards. Omitting Awatobi, which was destroyed in 1700 with the possible exception of Oraibi, none of these towns now occupies its lóth century site.
Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado visited Zuni in 1581 and speaks of the Hopi country as Asay or Osay, but he did not visit it on account of the snow. Two years later, however, the province was visited by Antonio de Espejo, who journeyed 28 leagues from Zuni to the first of the Hopi pueblos in four days. The Mohoce, or Mohace, of this explorer consisted of five large villages, the population of one of which, Aguato (Ahuato, Zaguato-Awatobi) he estimated at 50,000, a figure perhaps twenty-five times too great. The names of the other towns are not given. The natives had evidently forgotten the horses of Tobar and Cardenas of forty-three years before, as they now became frightened at these strange animals. The Hopi presented Espejo with quantities of cotton “towels,” perhaps kilts, for which they were celebrated then as now.
The next Spaniard to visit the “Mohoqui,” was Juan de Oñate, governor and colonizer of New Mexico, who took possession of the coun
try and made the Indians swear obedience and vassalage to Spain on November 15th, 1598. Their spiritual welfare was assigned to Fray Juan de Claros, but no active missions were established among the Hopi until nearly a generation later. The five villages at this time, as far as it is possible to determine them, were Aguato or Aguatuybá (Awatobi), Gaspe (GualpeWalpi), Comupaví or Xumupamí (Shongopovi), Majananí (Mishongnovi), and Olalla or Naybf (Oraibi).
The first actual missionary work undertaken among the Hopi was in 1629, on August 20th of which year Francisco de Porras, Andres Gutierrez, Cristobal de la Concepcion, and Francisco de San Buenaventura, escorted by twelve soldiers, reached Awatobi, where the mission of San Bernardino was founded in honor of the day, followed by the establishment of missions also at Walpi, Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, and Oraibi. Porras was poisoned by the natives of Awatobi in 1633. All the Hopi missions seem to have led a precarious existence until 1680, when in the general Pueblo revolt of that year four resident missionaries were killed and the churches destroyed. Henceforward no attempt was made to re-establish any of the missions save that of Awatobi in 1700, which so incensed the other Hopi that they fell upon it in the night, killing many of its people and compelling its permanent abandonment. Before the rebellion Mishongnovi and Walpi had become reduced to visitas of the missions of Shongopovi and Oraibi respectively. At the time of the outbreak the population of Awatobi was given as