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800, Shongopovi 500, and Walpi 1,200. Oraibi, it is said, had 14,000 gentiles before their conversion, but they were consumed by pestilence. This number is doubtless greatly exaggerated.

The pueblos of Walpi, Mishongnovi, and Shongopovi, situated in the foothills, were probably abandoned about the time of the Pueblo rebellion, and new villages built on the adjacent mesas for the purpose of defense against the Spaniards, whose vengeance was needlessly feared. The reconquest of the New Mexican pueblos led many of their inhabitants to seek protection among the Hopi toward the close of the 17th century. Some of these built the pueblo of Payupki, on the Middle mesa, but were taken back and settled in Sandia about the middle of the 18th century. About the year 1700 Hano was established on the East mesa, near Walpi, by Tewa from near Abiquiu, New Mexico, who came on the invitation of the Walpians. Here they have lived uninterruptedly, and although they have intermarried extensively with the Hopi, they retain their native speech and many of their distinctive tribal rites and customs. Two other pueblos, Sichomovi on the First mesa, built by Asa clans from the Rio Grande, and Shipaulovi, founded by a colony from Shongopovi on the Second or Middle mesa, are both of comparatively modern origin, having been established about the middle of the 18th century, or about the time the Payupki people returned to their old home. Thus the pueblos of the ancient province of Tusayan now consist of the following: Walpi, Sichomovi, and Hano, on the First or East Mesa; population in 1900, 205, 119 and 160, respectively, exclusive of about twenty who have established homes in the plain; total 504. Mishongnovi, Shongopovi, and Shupaulovi, on the Second or Middle mesa; estimated population 244, 225, and 126; total 595. Oraibi, on the Third or West mesa; population in 1890, 905. Total Hopi population in 1904 given as 1,878.

Social organization.—The Hopi people are divided into several phraties, consisting of numerous clans, each of which preserves its distinct legends, ceremonies, and ceremonial paraphernalia. Out of these clan organizations have sprung religious fraternities, the head men of which are still members of the dominant clan in each phraty. The relative importance of the clans varies in different pueblos; many that are extinct in some villages, are powerful in others.

Bancroft, in Volume 3 of his “Native Races, gives the following:

"Most of the Pueblo tribes call themselves the descendants of Montezuma; the Moquis, however, have a quite different story of their origin. They believe in a great Father living where the sun rises; and in a great Mother, whose home is where the sun goes down. The Father is the father of evil, war, pestilence, and famine; but from the Mother are all joys, peace, plenty, and health. In the beginning of time the Mother produced from her western home nine races of men in the following primary forms: First, the Deer race; second, the Sand race; third, the Water race; fourth, the Bear race; fifth, the Hare race; sixth, the Prairie-wolf race; seventh, the Rattlesnake race; eighth, the Tobacco-plant

race; and ninth, the Reed-grass race. All these the Mother placed respectively on the spots where their villages now stand, and transformed them into the men who built the present Pueblos. These race-distinctions are still sharply kept up; for they are believed to be realities, not only of the past and present, but also of the future; every man when he dies shall be resolved into his primeval form; shall wave in the grass, or drift in the sand, or prowl on the prairie as in the beginning.”

The following legend concerning the building of the Moqui villages upon impregnable bluffs, is related by William E. Curtis in his “Children of the Sun," 1883:

“The Moquis, who live in Arizona, seventy miles northwest of Zuni, have a legend that the earth was once a small island, inhabited by one man, whose father was the sun, and whose mother was the moon; that the gods sent a wife to him to cheer his loneliness, and that the earth grew as their family multiplied. The children became dissatisfied and restless after years, began to wander, and built up towns. Visits between them became infrequent, and finally ceased, until in generations their common ancestry was forgotten. Centuries ago a broke out between the Pueblo, or permanent Indians, and the wandering tribes, and the former were driven to the rocks and caves, where they built nests like wrens and swallows, erected fortifications and watch towers, dug reservoirs in the rocks to catch the rainfall, and held their enemies at bay. The besiegers were beaten back, but the hollows in the rocks were filled


with blood, and it poured in torrents through the canyons. It was such a victory that they dare not try again, and when the fight was over they wandered to the southward, and in the deserts of Arizona, on isolated, impregnable bluffs, they built new towns, and their descendants, the Moquis, live in them to this day.”

From the same authority is taken the following:

"The Moquis are an isolated relic of a once great nation. Their home, like Acoma, is upon a high, rocky island, separated from the rest of the world by an ocean of sand. It is a natural fortification, and can be approached only by climbing a long, narrow serpentine path in the crevices of the rocks. In Coronado's time, Moquis was known as the Province of Tusayan, and consisted of seven towns with a population of about twenty thousand. All the villages stand to-day, but the people are reduced to a mere handful. The villages occupy the entire width of a broad mesa or tableland, and, standing immediately in front of the houses, one may look down a precipice five hundred feet. On the rim of this rocky wall the children play and the goats feed. The houses are the same as those of Zuni, except that they built them of stone instead of adobe, and the customs of the two places are similar.

“Like the inhabitants of all other pueblos, the Moquis are rapidly dwindling away, and in thirty years during which civilization has known something of them their numbers have decreased from six thousand, according to the census of 1850, to one thousand six hundred and four."

The Catholics, as before stated, failed to impress the Moquis, and next to attempt it were the Mormons who, according to the “JournalMiner” of September 13th, 1869, fitted out an expedition to strengthen the “Moqui Mission which lies about eight days travel southeast of St. George, by sending W. B. Markeville, Ira Hatch, Thales Haskelf, and about twenty other brethren, armed and fitted out, to that point, to protect the Moquis from the Navahos." This mission, like many others at the time, proved a failure, and it was several years later before the Mormons established settlements in Arizona.

Continuing Mr. Curtis says:

“The Moquis tradition is that their fathers used to live far in the North, and that long years ago barbarous tribes of Indians drove them from their houses into the mountains, where they now reside, and where they fortified and defended themselves. The Moquis houses are of the same order of architecture as the ruins of Colorado; their general form is identical, and the same material is used. The present villages are upon high, impregnable cliffs, while the ruins are all in the valleys. When the emigration took place cannot be determined, but it must have been centuries ago, as the houses of the present pueblos were old when the Spaniards found them in 1540, and were even then crumbling in decay. One evidence of the age of the present villages is that across the space between them, paths have been worn in the solid rock to a depth of several inches, and remembering that the shoes of the people are soft-soled moccasins, the

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