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(Charles F. Lummis, in “Some Strange Corners of Our Country.' 1892.)

“At points about the Moqui villages are altars and shrines, on or in which are idols made of wood or pottery, and at which the Moquis individually worship. Near Oraibi is a noted Phallic shrine. The Moqui worship or devotional acts are largely private. Their communal and public worship are generally by dancing or in games. Some of these shrines may be the remains of the old Catholic worship.”

CHAPTER IX.

THE HOPI (OR MOQUI) (Continued). CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES-RELIGION

LACK OF RELIGION—No SACRED FIRES

MoQui Gods. Mr. Donaldson, in the same publication quoted in the preceding chapter, also gives the following:

“The Moqui Pueblos of Arizona and Pueblos of New Mexico are citizens of the United States by virtue of the laws of the Mexican republic.

“So good an authority as Governor L. Bradford Prince, of New Mexico, ex-Chief Justice of the Territory, in his History of New Mexico, page 327, says:

"By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo all inhabitants of New Mexico, except those who chose formally to retain the character of Mexican citizens, became citizens of the United States, with the same rights and privileges as all other citizens.'

“The Moqui Pueblos were_then inhabitants of New Mexico as well as the Pueblos. Neither formally, after the treaty, announced their intention to remain citizens of Mexico, but, on the contrary, have aided the United States with soldiers in war and by remaining good citizens in peace. The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, in its inhibition of citizenship to Indians not taxed, does not apply to the Moqui Pueblo or Pueblo Indians (not taxed), because the same could not set aside the contracts as to their citizenship made between the United States and the republic of Mexico by the eighth and ninth articles of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Neither the Moqui Pueblos nor the Pueblos have exercised the right of suffrage to any extent since they became citizens of the United States. This fact should have no weight against their right of citizenship, especially in the case of the Pueblos of New Mexico. Suffrage is not a natural right; it is a privilege, and is conferred by the state. The citizen need not vote; there is no law to force him to vote; neither does he lose any rights or remedies for wrong by not voting. He can vote or not, as he likes. Thousands of American citizens do not vote, but they are citizens nevertheless."

RELIGION. “Of the religion and ceremonies of the Moquis in 1890, Mr. A. M. Stevens writes:

“ 'Their thronged mythology has given rise to a very complex system of worship, which rests upon this theory: in early days certain superhuman beings, called Cachinas, appeared at certain seasons, bringing blessings or reproofs from the gods, and, as indicated by their name, they listened to the people's prayers and carried back their desires to the gods. A long while ago they revealed certain mystic rites to a few good men of every clan, by means of which, mortals could communicate directly with the gods, after which their visits ceased, and this, the Moquis say, was the origin of their numerous religious or Katcheena societies. To a limited extent certain women were also similarly endowed; hence, the membership of some of these societies consists entirely of men, others of women only, and in many both sexes bear a part. The public ceremonies of these societies are participated in by all members, fancifully dressed in cotton tunics, kilts, and girdles, and wearing large masks decorated with the emblems pertaining to the Katcheena whose feast they celebrate. Emerging from the kiva, the maskers form in procession and march to the village court, where they stand in line, rattle in hand, and as they stamp their feet with measured cadence they sing their traditional hymns of petition. The surrounding house terraces are crowded with spectators, and some of these celebrations partake much of the nature of dramas. Feats of war are mimicked or the actions of wild animals and hunters, and many mythic incidents are commemorated, while interludes afford an opportunity for a few grotesquely arrayed buffoons to crack coarse jests for the amusement of the rude audience. Every moon witnesses some celebration.'

“Mr. J. H. Beadle, after visiting the Moquis in 1872 (in ‘The Undeveloped West; pp. 582– 583), wrote of their religion as follows:

All my endeavors failed to discover the slightest trace of any religion. The simplest form in which I could put questions on that point seemed to completely bewilder them. The Spanish word Dios they had never heard, and the American word God, only as an oath, and did not know what it implied. To my question, “Who made all these mountains ?”

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Papa only smiled, then stared, and finally replied, “Nada; siempre son aqui (nothing; they are always here). Fearing from this that my limited command of Spanish had caused him to misunderstand me, I entered into a very minute explanation, in the simplest possible words, of our belief, and had him repeat till I was sure he fully understood it, but apparently it roused no answering conceptions in his mind. Part of the talk struck me as so curious, that I at once copied it:

‘Myself: "The Melicans and Mexicans have one they call God or Dios. We think He made us; made this mesa; made these mountains; made all men and all things. We talk to and ask good things of this God.” “ 'Papa: 'Yes; I much hear Melican man say,

‘ “G-d d-n” (repeating an oath too blasphemous to be written).

Myself: 'No, no; that is bad. He was a bad Melican man who said that. We think this God all good. Have the Moquis a God like that?'

'Papa: ‘Nothing (nada). The grandfathers said nothing of Dios, what you say Got-God' (making several attempts at the word).

‘Myself: ‘But say to me, who made this mesa; these mountains; all that you see there.'

'Papa: ‘Nothing; it is here.'

'Myself: "Was it always here?' “'Papa, (with a short laugh): ‘Yes; certainly, always here. What would make it be away from here?'

""Myself: ‘But where do the dead Moquis go; where is the child I saw put in the sand yesterday; where does it go ?'

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