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tattooed their chins in three blue vertical lines running from the lower lip.

PINALENOS (Spanish: "Pinery people”). A division of the Apache, evidently more closely related to the Chiricahua than to any other group. Their principal seat was formerly the Pinaleño Mountains, south of the Gila river in southeastern Arizona, but their raids extended far into Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. They are now under the San Carlos and Fort Apache agencies, Arizona, being officially known as Pinals, but their numbers are not separately reported. The Pinaleños and the Pinal Coyoteros have often been confused.

TONTOS (Spanish: “fools," so called on account of their supposed imbecility; the designation, however, is a misnomer). A name so indiscriminately applied as to be almost meaningless: (1) To a mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Mohave, with some Pinaleño Apache, placed on the Rio Verde reservation in 1873, and transferred to the San Carlos reservation in 1875; best designated as the Tulkepaia. (2) To a tribe of the Athapascan family well known as Coyotero Apache. (3) To the Pinaleños of the same family. (4) According to Corbusier, to a body of Indians descended from Yavapai men and Pinal Coyotero_(Pinaleño) women who have intermarried. The term Tontos was therefore applied by writers of the 19th century to practically all the Indians roaming between the White Mountains of Arizona and the Colorado river, comprising parts of two linguistic fami

a

zona.

lies, but especially to the Yavapai, commonly known as Apache-Mohave.

SAN CARLOS APACHE. A part of the Apache dwelling at the San Carlos agency, Ari

The name has little ethnic significance, having been applied officially to those Apache living on the Gila river in Arizona, and sometimes referred to as Gileños, or Gila Apache.

GILA APACHE. The name Gila, or Xila, was apparently originally that of an Apache settlement west of Socorro, in southwestern New Mexico, and as early as 1630 was applied to those Apache residing for part of the time on the extreme headwaters of the Rio Gila in that territory, evidently embracing those later known as Mimbrenos, Mogollons and Warm Springs (Chiricahua) Apaches, and later extended to include the Apache living along the Gila river in Arizona. The latter were seemingly the Aravaipa and Chiricahua, or a part of them. There were about 4,000 Indians under this name in 1853, when some of their bands were gathered at Fort Webster, New Mexico, and induced by promises of supplies for a number of years to settle down and begin farming. They kept the peace and made some progress in industry, but were driven back to a life of pillage when the supplies were stopped, the treaty not having been confirmed. They are no longer recognized under this name. The term Gileños has also been employed to designate the Pima residing on the Gila in Arizona.

MOGOLLON (from the mesa and mountains of the same name in New Mexico and Arizona, which, in turn, were named in honor of Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollon, governor of New Mexico in 1712-15). A subdivision of the Apache that formerly ranged over the Mogollon mesa and mountains in western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. They were associated with the Mimbrenos at the Southern Apache agency, New Mexico, in 1868, and at Hot Springs agency in 1875, and are now under the Fort Apache and San Carlos reservations in Arizona. They are no longer officially recognized as Mogollons.

MIMBRENOS (Spanish: “people of the willows”). A branch of the Apache who took their popular name from the Mimbres mountains, southwestern New Mexico, but who roamed over the country from the east side of the Rio Grande in New Mexico to the San Francisco river in Arizona, a favorite haunt being near Lake Guzman, west of El Paso, in Chihuahua. In habits they were similar to the other Apache, gaining a livelihood by raiding settlements in New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico. They made peace with the Mexicans from time to time, and before 1870 were supplied with rations by the military post at Janos, Chihuahua. They were sometimes called Coppermine Apaches on account of their occupancy of the territory in which the Santa Rita mines in southwestern New Mexico are situated. In 1875 a part of them joined the Mescaleros and a part was under the Hot Springs (Chiricahua) agency, New Mexico. They are now divided between the Mescalero reservation, New Mexico, and Fort Apache agency, Arizona.

The Indians of this tribe under Mangus Colorado, intermarried with the Chiricahuas, and upon the death of that chief joined with Cochise. Geronimo, Loco and Victorio, were among their noted chiefs.

WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE. Formerly the Sierra Blanca Apache, a part of the Coyoteros, so called on account of their mountain home. The name is now applied to all the Apache under Fort Apache agency, Arizona, consisting of Aravaipa, Tsiltaden or Chilion, Chiricahua, Coyotero, Mimbreno and Mogollon.

TSILTADEN ("mountain side”). A clan or band of the Chiricahua Apache, associated with and hence taken to be a part of the Pinaleños; correlated with the Tziltaden clan of the Pinal Coyoteros, the Tziseketzillan of the White Mountain Apache, and the Tsayiskithni of the Navaho. They are now under the San Carlos Agency, Ari

zona.

CHAPTER II.

THE APACHE (Continued). LEGENDSSCARCITY OF_BELIEF IN CREATION

WAR BETWEEN BIRDS AND BEASTS-KILLING
OF THE DRAGON-RELIGION OF THE APACHE
-FAITH IN PRAYER — ADMINISTRATION OF
MEDICINE — MEDICINE MEN - HODDENTIN-

APACHE DANCES SPIRIT DANCE. The Apaches have few legends. The only thing I have been able to find in reference to their belief in creation is the statement of Geronimo, given in his autobiography in the first chapter, which follows:

“In the beginning the world was covered with darkness. There was no sun, no day. The perpetual night had no moon or stars.

“There were, however, all manner of beasts and birds. Among the beasts were many hideous, nameless monsters, as well as dragons, lions, tigers, wolves, foxes, beavers, rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, and all manner of creeping things such as lizards and serpents. Mankind could not prosper under such conditions, for the beasts and serpents destroyed all human offspring

“All creatures had the power of speech and were gifted with reason.

“There were two tribes of creatures: the birds, or the feathered tribe, and the beasts. The former were organized under their chief, the eagle.

“These tribes often held councils, and the birds wanted light admitted. This the beasts

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