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McDowell reservation, which was assigned for their use November 27th, 1901, by the Secretary of the Interior, until Congress should take final action. When removed to the Verde Agency in May, 1873, their number was estimated to be about one thousand. By Executive order of September 15th, 1903, the old reservation was set aside for their use. At that time they numbered between five and six hundred, but this number probably included some Apache-Yumas.
In 1905 the ravages of tuberculosis were reported to be largely responsible for a great mortality, the deaths exceeding the births four to one. On their reservation they have been making rapid progress in civilized pursuits, being, at this time, entirely self-supporting. They are good laborers, industrious and reliable.
YUMAS (Yahmáyo, “son of the captain.”) One of the chief divisions or tribes of the Yuman family, formerly residing on both sides of the Rio Colorado next above the Cocopa, or about sixty miles above the mouth of the river, and below the junction of the Gila. Fort Yuma is situated about the center of the territory formerly occupied by them.
These Indians, for the most part, are on the California side, their reservation being established in that state, but as their history is closely connected with Arizona, it is probably not out of place to give this short sketch of the tribe.
When Oñate visited the locality in 1604–05, he found the Yumas established in nine rancherias on the Colorado, entirely below the mouth of the Gila. Physically the Yuma were an athletic
people, tall, straight, and sinewy, superior in this respect to most of their congeners. They were brave and, as we have seen, were at war with the whites until conquered by Major Heintzelman in 1853, since which time they have been peaceful. They were in no sense nomadic, seldom leaving their villages, where, like the Mohave, they practiced a rude agriculture, raising corn, beans, pumpkins and melons. This tribe was much demoralized through contact with the whites during the early 60's. They are now making rapid advances in civilization.
The Apache-Yumas, or Yulkepaia, which, according to Corbusier, probably means “spotted belly sparrows, was a body of Yuman Indians known as Apache-Yumas, said by Corbusier in 1886, to have sprung recently from a mixture of Yumas, Mohaves and Yavapais. They claimed as their home the desert stretch of western Arizona between the Colorado river and the country of the Yavapai, over which they roamed until placed on the Verde reservation, Arizona, in May, 1873. In 1875 most of these, numbering in all about five hundred,
were removed to the San Carlos reservation. They speak the Yuma dialect. They were warlike and gave our soldiers and settlers much trouble before they were finally subdued.
EARLY HISTORY — LANGUAGE - - ALWAYS PEACE
ABLE—CHIEF SUPPORT AGRICULTURE, WEAP-
Нок. Frank Russell, in the 26th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, 1904-05, gives the following in regard to the Pima Indians:
“The tribe known as the Pimas was so named by the Spaniards early in the history of the relations of the latter with them. The oldest reference to the name within the writer's knowledge is that by Velarde: “The Pima Nation, the name of which has been adopted by the Spaniards from the native idiom, call themselves Otama, or, in the plural, Ohotoma; the word Pima is repeated by them to express negation. This ‘negacion’ is expressed by such words as Pia, 'none,' piatc, ‘none remaining,' pimatc, 'I do not know or “I do not understand. In the last the sound of tc is often reduced to a faint click. The Americans corrupted this to ‘Pimos,' and while this form of the word is now used only by the illiterate living in the neighborhood of the tribe, it is fairly common in the literature referring to them. They call themselves A-a--tam,