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kept growing larger and larger as Earth Doctor danced near it, until it became the earth. In the same way the solid sky was formed. Earth Doctor pounded ‘medicine' in a bowl and shortly afterward there appeared over the surface a transparent substance resembling ice. Earth Doctor threw this substance toward the north, where it fell but shortly afterward rose again and then sank below the horizon, never to rise again. He threw another fragment into the south; this struck the earth or sky and bounded back, whereupon he picked it up and again threw it to the south. This time it rose and passed over the sky. These fragments became the sun and the moon, both formed in the same way. Earth Doctor spurted a mouthful of medicine-water into the sky and created the stars, first the larger and then the smaller, the last of all being nebulas like the Milky Way. Having formed the celestial bodies, he made seeds of all food used by man, after which he created men and women from a particle of sweat or grease from his body.

“Buzzard Doctor lives in the Underworld, where there are many people similar to those who inhabit the earth. The entrance to this underworld is in the east.

As soon as men and women had been created they began to quarrel; this angered Earth Doctor and he put them to death. After he had killed all human beings, Earth Doctor and Buzzard emerged together from the Underworld and the former begged the latter to help him recreate men and women. The result was men who were gray-haired at birth. Earth Doctor again destroyed man because he smoked too much, but on the fourth trial there emerged from the earth four men who later became great medicine-men-Land, Buzzard, Tcuhu, and Tohouse.

“The youth Tcuhu became a great warrior and married many women, whom he deserted before children were born.'


A FLOOD LEGEND. “The Pima believed that the flood was caused by Earth Doctor, who stuck his staff into the ground, making a hole out of which water issued, covering the earth. Tcuwut, Tcuhu, and Tohouse crawled into ollas and floated away. When the earth was covered with water, Hummingbird, led by Buzzard, flew into the sky, crying out that they would return after the water should have subsided. Buzzard soared aloft to an opening in the sky, through which he passed, but his companion could not follow him. Both were caught in the passage, and there they hung. Humming-bird cried because it was cold in the sky region, but Woodpecker made a nest of feathers to keep them warm.

The flood rose until the water reached them and there may still be seen on the feathers of the woodpecker where the water touched him.

“The olla in which Tcuhu was concealed

" floated far away into the southwest, but that containing Earth Doctor went northwest. The third, in which was Tohouse, went east. The tracks of the ollas of Earth Doctor and Tohouse Doctor crossed several times and as they did so Earth Doctor addressed the other as Elder Brother. There were seven persons saved from the flood, and these were called brothers. Their names are Tcuwut, Tcuhu, Tohouse, Buzzard, Woodpecker, Humming-bird, and an unknown. When the water had subsided these seven brothers held a council to determine the position of the middle of the earth. Woodpecker was sent to the east and Humming-bird to the west, to find it. Three times they returned without success, but on their fourth meeting they reported that they had found the middle of the earth.

Tcuhu plucked a hair from the right side of his head and, putting it in his mouth, drew it back and forth, stretching it and miraculously forming a snake, which he laid on the earth at his north side. He took a hair from the left side of his head and, stretching it out as before, created a second snake, which he laid at the west side. He then laid one at the south and another at the east. These snakes prevent the water from flooding the land and cause it to flow in channels or rivers. Tcuhu created ants, which he put on the wet ground; these threw up hills that became dry land. After the water had subsided Earth Doctor, Tcuhu, and Tohouse set themselves to re-create men, having agreed not to inform one another what kind of beings each would make. To prevent one another from seeing their work they faced in different directions-Earth Doctor to the east, Tohouse to the south, and Tcuhu to the west. When their creations were finished it was found that Tcuhu had made men similar in form to those now living, but that Tohouse's men had webbed fingers like ducks, while those created by Earth Doctor

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had but one leg each and subsisted not on food, but on smells, which they inhaled. Tcuhu asked Tohouse why he made his men with webbed fingers. "That they may live in water,' responded Tohouse. Tcuhu was dissatisfied with the beings made by Tohouse, and he threw them into the water, where they became ducks. The creations of Earth Doctor became fishes and snakes; he was much pleased with his children, which descended into the Underworld where he daily visits them.

Earth Doctor stuck his staff into the ground to cause the flood, and water covered the earth, most of the people perished, but some escaped and followed White Feather, who fled to the top of Superstition Mountains. The water rose, covering all the valley until it was as high as the line of white sandstone which is a conspicuous landmark. White Feather, surrounded by his followers, tried all his magic in vain to prevent the further rise of the flood. When he saw he was powerless to prevent this, he gathered all his people and consulted them, saying, 'I have exhausted all magic powers but one, which I will now try.' Taking in his left hand a medicine stone from his pouch, he held it at arm's length, at the same time extending his right hand toward the sky. After he had sung four songs he raised his hand and seized the lightning and with it struck the stone which he held. This broke into splinters with a peal of thunder and all his people were transformed into the pinnacles of stone which can now be seen projecting from the summit of one of the peaks of the Superstition Mountains.

“The followers of Touhu and Tohouse united and built a house. Four days after this house was begun Tcuhu sent Tohouse to visit a people he had created, in order to learn what language they spoke. When Tohouse found that they spoke Apache and so reported, Teuhu assigned them to the land of cold wind and rain. Touhu again sent Tohouse to discover whether there were other people on the earth; returning after a time the latter reported to Tcuhu that he had heard of men speaking Mohave, Yuma, and Maricopa, but not Pima. After four days Tcuhu again sent Tohouse to search for any men allied to his people, and he reported finding those who continually said, 'Ston, ston,' 'it is hot.' He returned and told Tcuhu he had found lost brothers, because he had detected in their speech a Pima word. Tcuhu said they must be his people; he said also: 'I will give them dark cool nights in which they can sleep, and I will send them dreams and they shall be able to interpret these dreams.' All these peoples were gathered into the house Tcuhu had built (Casa Grande?). But after a while there were bickerings and quarrels among men. The Apache left for the mountains where they said they also would have dreams and thus they became the hereditary enemies of the Pima. At this time all the Pima inhabited the Salt River Valley, not far from the site of the present Phoenix.

“White Feather and his people lived in a settlement called Sturavrik Čivanavaaki, near Tempe, the site of which is now a large mound,


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