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deceived, and are honest in protecting property placed in their care, although they formerly obtained their chief support from plunder seized in their forays.

The Apaches were divided into a number of tribal groups which have been so differently named and defined that it is sometimes difficult to determine to which branch writers refer. The most commonly accepted divisions were the Querechos or Vaqueros, consisting of the Mescaleros, Jicarillas, Faraones, Llaneros, and probably the Lipan; the Chiricahua; the Pinale

; ños; the Coyoteros, comprising the White Mountain and Pinal divisions; the Aravaipa; the Gila Apache, including the Gilenos, Mimbrenos and Mogollons; and the Tontos.

Until 1904 there lived with the Apache of Arizona a number of Indians of Yuma stock, particularly “Mohave-Apache,” or Yavapai, but these are now mostly established at old Camp McDowell. The forays and conquests of the Apache resulted in the absorption of a large foreign element, Piman, Yuman, and Spanish, although captives were treated with disrespect and marriages with them broke clan ties. The Pinal Coyoteros, and evidently also the Jicarillas, had some admixture of Pueblo blood. The Tontos were largely of mixed blood according to Corbusier, but Hrdlicka's observations show them to be pure Apache.

ARAVAIPA (Nevome Pima; aarivapa, "girls,” possibly applied to these people on account of some unmanly act). An Apache tribe whose home was in the canyon of Aravaipa creek, a tributary of the Rio San Pedro, southern Arizona, although like the Chiricahua and other Apache of Arizona, they raided far southward, and were reputed to have laid waste every town in northern Mexico as far as the Gila, prior to the Gadsden purchase in 1853, and with having exterminated the Sobaipuri, a Piman tribe, in the latter part of the 18th century. A writer in Bulletin No. 30, of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, says: In 1863 a company of California volunteers, aided by some friendly Apaches, at old Camp Grant, on the San Pedro, attacked an Aravaipa rancheria, at the head of the canyon, killing 58 of the 70 inhabitants, men, women, and children -the women and children being slain by the friendly Indians, the men by the Californiansin revenge for their atrocities. After this loss they sued for peace, and their depredations practically ceased.” I have been unable to find any record of this raid, and am forced to believe that the writer has reference to the Camp Grant massacre, which occurred in 1871, a full description of which is given in Volume 2 of this History, at page 269, et seq. About 1872 they were removed to San Carlos Agency. The remnant of this tribe is now under the San Carlos and Fort Apache agencies on the White Mountain reservation. CHIRICAHUA ( RIO

(Apache: great mountain”). An important division of the Apache, so called from their former mountain home in southeastern Arizona. Their own name is Aiaha. The writer last above quoted, in regard to this tribe, says: “The Chiricahua were the most warlike of the Arizona Indians, their raids extending into New Mexico, southern Arizona, and northern Sonora, among their most noted leaders being Cochise, Victorio, Loco, Chato, Nachi, Bonito, and Geronimo." This is evidently a mistake; Victorio, Loco and Geronimo were Mimbres Apaches, and some of the others belonged to other tribes, but were affiliated with the Chiricahuas by marriage. Physically they do not differ materially from the other Apache. The men are well built, muscular, with well developed chests, sound and regular teeth, and abundant hair. The women are even more vigorous and strongly built, with broad shoulders and hips and a tendency to corpulency in old age. They habitually wear a pleasant open expression of countenance, exhibiting uniform good nature, save when in anger, at which time their faces take on a savage cast. White thought their manner of life, general physique, and mental disposition seemed conducive to long life. Their characteristic long legged moccasins of deerskin had a stout sole turned up at the toes, and the legs of the moccasins, long enough to reach the thigh, were folded back below the knee, forming a pocket in which were carried paints and a knife. The women wore short skirts of buckskin, and the men used to display surplus skins folded about the waist. Their arrows were made of reed tipped with obsidian or iron, the shaft winged with three strips of feathers. They used in battle a long spear and when obtainable a sling shot made by inserting a stone into the green hide of a cow's tail, leaving a portion of the hair attached. They possessed no knowledge of weaving blankets. White supposed that they had immigrated into Arizona from New Mexico three or four generations back. Their camps were located on the highlands in winter, that they might catch the warm rays of the sun, and in summer near the water among stunted trees that sheltered them from its scorching glare. Their bands or clans were named from the nature of the ground about their chosen territory. Both men and women were fond of wearing necklaces and ear pendants of beads. The hair was worn long and flowing, with a turban, to which was attached a flap hanging down behind; they plucked out the hairs of the beard with tweezers of tin, and wore suspended from their necks a small round mirror which they used in painting their faces with stripes of brilliant colors. Strings of pieces of shell were highly prized. Their customary dwelling was a rude brush hut, circular or oval, with the earth scooped out to enlarge its capacity. In winter they huddled together for warmth and, if the hut was large, built a fire in the center. When they changed camps they burned their huts, which were always built close together. They subsisted on berries, nuts, and the fruits of various trees, mesquite beans, and acorns, of which they were particularly fond, and they ground the seeds of different grasses on a large flat stone and made a paste with water, drying it afterward in the sun. In common with other Apache tribes they relished the fruit of the giant cacti and of the yucca, and made mescal from the root of the agave. Fish they would not eat, or pork, but an unborn calf and the entrails of animals they regarded as delicacies, and horse and mule flesh was considered the best meat. Though selfish in most things, they were hospitable with food which was free to anyone who was hungry. They were scrupulous in keeping accounts and paying debts.

Like many other Indians they would never speak their own names or on any account speak of a dead member of the tribe. They tilled the ground a little with wooden implements, obtaining corn and melon seeds from the Mexicans. In their clans all were equal. Bands, according to White, were formed of clans, and chiefs were chosen for their ability and courage, although there is evidence that chieftainship was sometimes hereditary, as in the case of Cochise, who appointed his oldest son his successor, which was confirmed or ratified by the tribe. Chiefs and old men were usually deferred to in council. They used the brain of the deer in dressing buckskin. It is said that they charged their arrows with a quick, deadly poison, obtained by irritating a rattlesnake with a forked stick, causing it to bite into a deer's liver, which, when saturated with the venom, was allowed to putrefy. They stalked the deer and the antelope by covering their heads with the skull of the animal and imitating with their crouching bodies the movements of one grazing; and it was their custom to approach an enemy's camp at night in a similar manner, covering their heads with brush. They signaled in war or peace by a great blaze or smoke made by burning cedar boughs or the inflammable spines of the giant cactus. Of their social organization very little is definitely known, and the statements of the two chief authorities are widely at


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