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MUSIC IN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS.
The questionnaire sent to State departments of education was as follows:
1. Is music required in the public schools of the State in grades below the high school?
2. If so, how long has it been required?
3. If not, was it required at any time in the past?
4. Do the requirements specify the nature and grade of work required?
If so, what are the important specifications?
5. Are State adoptions'' of textbooks made?
6. If so, please give titles and authors of textbooks in music last adopted.
7. Is music required in the high schools of the State?
If so, what is the nature and extent of the work required?
8. Are special teachers or supervisors of music in the public schools required to pass examinations before receiving teachers' certificates?
9. If so, kindly check below the subjects in which they are examined:
Elementary theory and sight singing.
History of music, æsthetics of music, musical appreciation.
Methods, practice, material.
History of education, pedagogy.
10. Are certificates from schools of music accepted in lieu of examination?
If so, what type of schools are so accredited?
11. If neither examination nor a certificate is required, what qualifications must prospective supervisors of music show?
12. Is an examination in music included in the requirements for a grade teacher's certificate?
13. If so, what does the examination include beyond rudiments of music?
14. By what means, if any, is the efficiency of the instruction in music in the public schools of the State ascertained?
15. By what means is such instruction encouraged?
16. Are State specialists or supervisors of music employed?
If so, how many?
17. Is music taught in reformatory institutions?
This questionnaire was forwarded to 48 States, and to Hawaii, the Philippine Islands, and Porto Rico. A report that would include all these was earnestly desired, and a second copy of the questionnaire was sent to States failing to respond in the first instance. At the present time (January, 1914), when further postponement of
the report is inadvisable, Colorado has not replied. The tables and percentages given therefore embrace a maximum of 47 States. The reports from Hawaii, the Philippine Islands, and Porto Rico, which are of unusual interest, are given separate consideration. It will be noted, however, that all of the 47 States replying are not included in the total of affirmative and negative replies recorded for certain questions. This is due primarily to failure of some States to answer these questions at all. In other instances the questions are answered indirectly by statements that reveal practices which do not fall exactly under the implications of the inquiry. Such special provisions, if they are clearly described and if they are of considerable general interest, are given special mention.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
(1) Is music required in the public schools of the State below the high school?
(2) If so, how long has it been required?
(3) If not, was it required at any time in the past?
The number of States requiring music in the grades is 10; those not requiring music in the grades number 37.
Of these 37 States not requiring music, Connecticut quotes a special statute authorizing any "town school committee to employ one or more teachers to give instruction in the rudiments and principles of vocal and instrumental music in its several schools." Indiana answers the question by the words "when locally required." Massachusetts cites a statute that names music in a large list of subjects that "may be taught in the public schools" (another list of subjects being required). Oregon replies "optional." South Carolina makes no reply beyond sending a "course of study for elementary and high schools," issued by the State department of education, which includes "singing" in the outline for each grade. Tennessee reports, "Vocal music is in our course of study." Vermont reports, "The Vermont law does not require music to be taught, but a school board may provide for such instruction within the township, or the joint committee of union of townships for supervisory purposes may employ an instructor in singing and the State will rebate $200 of salary paid each instructor, if salary is not less than $600." Virginia answers," Not absolutely required, but local boards are authorized to provide for it." These eight are probably matched by similar provisions in other States included among the 37, and are properly classified in the negative group, with the possible exception of the 2 that include music in their State courses of study. Usually such State courses are not mandatory, but are rather recommendations of proper courses. There is little doubt, from other evidence at hand,
that this is the case with the 2 States now in question and the classification made is therefore almost certainly correct.
The following is a list of the 10 States requiring music in the grades, together with the number of years during which the requirement has been in force for each: California, 33 years; Iowa, 14 years; Kansas, 1 year; Louisiana, 10 years; Maryland, 13 years; Nevada, 4 `years; Oklahoma, 5 years; South Dakota, 3 years; Utah, not stated; Washington, "for years."
The geographical element in this list compels attention. Cultivation of music is usually a mark of social maturity, yet here we find the newer States making early provision for musical development. The conclusion is that the strong idealism and humanism of the West, coupled with the opportunity to observe and select from highly developed social and educational systems of different orders, have resulted in an educational program that at the outset recognizes values which have come to older Commonwealths by slow stages of evolutionary development. Climate, and the temperament that results from it, as well as racial inheritance, may also be factors with regard to the interest in California; and in Louisiana the Latin racial strain at an early date bequeathed to the State musical institutions and traditions that persisted and grew with the years.
The support given music in the schools is not all measured by the inquiry as to whether it is or is not a legally required subject. Other means of support and encouragement will be revealed in later paragraphs. It is sufficient to mention now that in many States general interest and demand have all the effect of legal enactment-indeed, more than such enactment would have if unsupported by popular interest and that in these States advanced work in music is to be found in practically every school district.
No instance was reported of a requirement for music being in force for a time and later being annulled.
(4) Do the requirements specify the nature and grade of work required? ... .. If so, what are the important specifications? There is considerable difficulty in classifying under general headings the answers to these queries. Specifications of the nature and grade of work required are appropriate in outlines issued by State boards of education rather than in statutory enactments. If the outlines of a State board are mandatory, as in Utah, for instance, such detailed outlines are, of course, genuine requirements. In most States, however, such outlines are only recommendations. If the State requires music, these recommendations assume the character of detailed statements of the legislative purpose, and thus obtain a large measure of authority; but if music is not a State requirement, they remain
only recommendations possessing such authority as any recommendation from distinguished and competent men may have, and no more. Work of certain nature and grade can not be said, therefore, to be required unless it is specified in the school law, or unless it is specified by a State board that has, and uses in the specifications, legislative power; or, stated positively, it may be said to be required if specified in the statutes or by a board with legislative power. These are the terms understood in the following classifications, both in States in which music (of some nature, not specified) is required by statute and in States where it is not required by statute.
The number of States reporting the nature and grade of work required in music (in grades below the high school) as not specified is 33. In 31 of these States music in the grades is not required at all; in 2, Nevada and South Dakota, it is required in general, though details of study, we here find, are not stipulated.
The number of States reporting the nature and grade of work required in music (in grades below the high school) as being specified is 8. They are California, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Oklahoma, Utah, and Washington.
Among the 31 States not requiring music in the grades at all are found the following, which deserve special comment:
Arizona reports: "In music our schools are in advance of the law. The course of study (State) outlines a plan generally followed by teachers."
Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin similarly report a course of study outlined but without mandatory power, except in the case of Georgia, which gives limited power, as noted later. Probably many other States not specifically reporting this plan have it nevertheless, and in them, as in Arizona, the outline may be virtually, if not nominally, authoritative. At any rate, it is unquestionably of very great benefit.
State adoption of textbooks has the force of a specification of the nature and grade of work desired, if not required. It will be seen later that several of the States making no positive requirement yet exert a measure of control by at least prescribing that any instruction given shall follow a selection of approved texts.
With regard to important specifications, the following information was gained. In studying this summary it should be observed that the specifications are not, in the case of Georgia, State-wide requirements, for they are put forth in a State which leaves the study of music in general to local option. A distinction is therefore made between this State and those which require music in all schools and then further specify the nature of this required course. This distinc
tion is marked by the words "Music required" or "Music not required." It should be remembered that music in the grades below the high school only is spoken of here:
California.-Music required. "Each county specifies the work required."
Georgia.-Music not required. The nature and grade of work, however, are specified "in those systems requiring" music at all. Features of these specifications are not reported.
Ioua.-Music required. "Elements of vocal music."
Kansas.-Music required. "Complete course specified." Features of the specifications not reported.
Louisiana.-Music required. The printed course of study is cited for detailed information. This may be summarized by saying that the requirements are those of any standard series of school music textbooks.
Maryland.-Music required. Breathing and phonic exercises and daily rote singing in first two years. "An occasional exercise for instruction following suggestions contained in song book" added in third year. From this year on the teacher is advised to follow a good textbook.
Oklahoma.-Music required. "Elements of music-vocal."
Utah.-Music required. The State course of study prescribes music, and "the use of the course of study is mandatory." [Details of the course in music not reported.]
Washington. Music required. The printed outline in the course of study is cited for details. The requirements imply the following of regular sets of school music textbooks.
(5) Are "State adoptions" of textbooks made?
(6) If so, please give titles and authors of textbooks in music last adopted.
The number of States reporting that State adoptions of music textbooks are made is 10; the number of States reporting that State adoptions of music textbooks are not made is 35.
The 10 States reporting State adoptions are as follows: States in which music is required (in the grades)-Louisiana, Nevada, Oklahoma, Utah. States in which music is not required (in the grades)— Arizona, Idaho, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
Among the 35 States in which State adoptions are not made are the following 6 remaining from the group which require music: California, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, South Dakota, and Washington. Of these, Maryland and Washington have county adoptions.
To summarize: Of 35 States that do not have State adoptions 29 do not require music and 6 do require it; and of 10 States that have State adoptions 6 do not require music and 4 do require it.
The 2 States remaining, of the 47 reporting, probably do not have State adoptions. They are States that do not require music; and having reported music to be not required, they probably assume that this implies no prescription of texts. Had texts been prescribed, they would almost certainly have reported them.
The texts adopted, or put on an approved available list, by 9 of the 10 States following such a plan are in all cases standard and include all the more widely known series of books. The remaining