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4. Do the requirements specify the nature and grade of work required?—Yes. If so, what are the important specifications?-Begin with rote songs, then continue with song singing and sight reading in tonic sol-fa and staff notation (Grades I-IV). Chorus work (Grades V-VIII). Special attention to ear training and tone production throughout the grades.

5. Are "State adoptions" of textbooks made?—Yes.

6. If so, please give titles and authors of textbooks in music last adopted.-Tonic

Sol-Fa I, II, III (Batchellor) Silver Song Series (Silver Burdett Co.); Educational Reader (Ginn & Co.); Laurel Music Reader (Birchard & Co.); Songs We Like to Sing (Ginn & Co.); and supplementary music.

7. Is music required in the high schools?-No regular course.

If so, what is the nature and extent of the work required?—[No answer.] 8. Are special teachers or supervisors of music in the public schools required to

pass examinations before receiving teacher's certificates?—Yes.

9. If so, kindly check below the subjects in which they are examined:

Elementary theory and sight singing.-Yes. Harmony.-Yes. Counterpoint.-
No. History of music, æsthetics of music, musical appreciation.—Yes.
Voice.-Yes. Piano.-Yes. Methods, practice, material.-Yes. History
of education, pedagogy.-Yes. Psychology.-Yes.

10. Are certificates from schools of music accepted in lieu of examination?—Yes. If so, what type of schools are so accredited?-Schools and colleges which give courses in public-school music.

11. If neither examination nor a certificate is required, what qualifications must prospective supervisors of music show?-[No answer.]

12. Is an examination in music included in the requirements for a grade teacher's certificate?-It is.

13. If so, what does the examination include beyond rudiments of music?—Individual sight reading, ear training, song interpretation, elements of harmony, and methods.

14. By what means, if any, is the efficiency of the instruction in music in the public schools ascertained?--By close supervision.

15. By what means is such instruction encouraged?-Teachers' classes, summer school, supervision.

16. Are State specialists or supervisors of music employed?—Yes.

If so, how many?-Three or four.

17. Is music taught in reformatory institutions?--Yes.

Provision for high-school music is all that is lacking in this report. The replies to questions 4, 8, 9, 12, and 13 are of especial interest and value. No one can justly maintain that these provisions are unreasonable or impracticable, or are, indeed, anything but sensible and efficient. Such provisions should unquestionably be included in the laws of every State. They represent competent legislative direction of a phase of education that is now here in stalwart proportions, and that but for lamentably tardy legislative and scholastic understanding and provision would long since have taken its place as one of the strongest and most desirable elements in our educational system instead of being what, through neglect, it now often is, an alien activity, without standards and achieving strange and unworthy results.


Special attention is called to the report of the Nebraska State music committee, abstracts from which are given herewith. This report represents a notable advance in provision for musical education, and is deserving of the most careful and sympathetic study.



The following courses are presented for high schools having competent instructors in music:


Chorus singing must include the instruction necessary for correct part singing, interpretation, and the principles of correct voice production to be taught incidentally. Two periods a week with a program each semester requiring at least four hours of extra work, including the rendition of the program. Pupils less musical should be required to do some home practice. Credits, one-fourth each semester. Total credits possible, two.


Band or orchestra on same basis as chorus. Total credits possible for both combined, three.


Special orchestral course.-Because orchestra ensemble is so valuable in music education, it being susceptible of the highest artistic development of any kind of music that can be performed in high schools, and since a good orchestra is such a valuable organization in raising the artistic standard and in creating and fostering school spirit, this special course is offered. Players in the orchestra who are taking one private lesson of 30 minutes each week and one lesson in appreciation may substitute two hours, 120 minutes, of prepared orchestral ensemble each week in place of theory and harmony to earn one credit each semester. Total credits possible, six. This course must not be taken unless the instructor be a special orchestral conductor who thoroughly understands stringed instruments and has had considerable experience in orchestral work. The private lessons of this course are under the same regulations as those in applied music in Course V.


Music appreciation study may be based upon the course for high schools by Anne Shaw Faulkner, published by the Victor Talking Machine Co. "Appreciation of Music," by Thomas W. Surrette and D. G. Mason, published by the Hamilton W. Gray Co., New York City, and Baxter Perry's "Analysis of Famous Piano Compositions" are valuable contributory material. Local artists and mechanical musical instruments should be used in giving this course. Also the private students who are well advanced should give some of the selections. The work of this course is to study the form and structure of different kinds of music, to learn the leading composers and become familiar with many of the famous compositions, to study styles of various artists by means of the talking machine, and to get a definite idea of good interpretation. Credit, one-fifth each semester. This course is open to any one, whether he is taking other music work or not. It is required of every one who takes credit for private study.


Applied music.-Private lessons in piano, organ, voice, or principal instrument of the symphonic orchestra (violin, viola, cello, flute, clarinet, cornet, or trombone),

studied outside of school, may be credited as follows: Two lessons of 30 minutes each, or the equivalent, per week with a private teacher, a minimum preparation of three hours being given each lesson. If one lesson of 30 minutes is taken, the minimum preparation should be four hours. Each student receiving credit for private instruction must also take two lessons each week in theory and harmony and one lesson each week in musical appreciation, all lessons requiring preparation. Credits, one-fifth for each lesson each semester. Total credits possible, two each year.

If only one lesson per week is taken privately, the complete credit will be fourfifths each semester and the additional fraction may be secured in one of the other music courses.

[NOTE. No school should attempt to give credit in private music work unless the theory and harmony and appreciation can be taught in the school regularly by a competent instructor.]

Private work must be examined either at the end of the year or at the end of each semester by an impartial and competent examiner. The private teacher must report quarterly to the high-school principal, stating the technical work required during the quarter, giving the scope and quality of the pupil's accomplishment, giving a list of the compositions studied, defining the extent to which the study was carried, and indicating the proficiency of the pupil by a grade as used in the high school. These reports are to be made in duplicate on blanks provided by the school. One report shall be signed by the teacher, the other left unsigned. The unsigned copies shall be the basis for the examination.

Before a pupil is accepted for credit in private lessons his parents or guardian should agree to see that the proper amount of practice is performed by the pupil. The private teacher should cooperate with the school in securing adequate results. The examiner should refuse to give credit to any student whose work is below standard.


Theory and harmony may be given in classes twice each week. It should comprise work equal to the scope of the theory work in the "Progressive Series," by Godowsky, published by the Art Publication Society of St. Louis, or it may follow the work as taught by any standard conservatory of music.

It is recommended that the "Progressive Series" of piano lessons mentioned above should be made the basis for the piano instruction, or that the course be equal to that series in comprehensiveness and system.


Few high schools should attempt to carry out all these courses, but should center their efforts on the courses that can best be handled and that best serve their interests.

Each school offering music credits for graduation should provide the high-school inspector a complete synopsis of the work offered.

No student may receive more than eight credits in music.

All who register for credit in piano or violin during the year 1914 must have had at least one year's work of not fewer than 40 lessons.

After 1914 all who register for credit in piano or violin must have had at least two years' work of not fewer than 80 lessons. This is intended not only to raise the standard of work for private music study and to place the quality of the music work on an equal basis with other high-school subjects, but to emphasize the fact that one who has not had considerable training in piano and violin before the high-school age can not hope to accomplish much in music.


In investigating the opportunities offered for the training of teachers of music the following questionnaire was used:1


1. Is a course offered for training teachers of music?

2. If so, how many years are required to complete that course?

3. Is the course designed for the instruction of grade teachers or for the training of supervisors of music?

4-A. Synopsis of course in music for grade teachers. 4-B. Synopsis of course for training supervisors.

5. What degrees are conferred?

6. Are summer courses offered?

7. Does the school provide night classes?

In all, 164 institutions divided among 42 States are included in the subjoined report. These institutions are State normal schools, private normal schools, and city training schools. Included among the State normal schools are many county normal schools, of which latter class Wisconsin and Michigan especially report a number.

Included among the city training schools and private normal schools are six kindergarten schools. As the training in music of prospective kindergarten teachers is of very great importance, such answers as were given were included in the tables wherein they receive special designation.

With these qualifications the division among the three classes of schools reporting is as follows: Number of State normal schools, 106; number of private normal schools, 46; number of city training normal schools, 12; total, 164.


The provisions in general made by these schools for training teachers of music are set forth in Table 30, which covers the following questions:

(1) Is a course offered for training teachers of music?

(3) Is the course designed for the instruction of grade teachers or for the training of supervisors of music?

1 Main topics only are given.


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1 Six State and six county.

* Kindergarten schools.

It will be observed that a number equal to 20 per cent of all these schools, the business of which it is to prepare at least the grade teacher for work, offer no training in music whatever. Three of these schools are city training schools in cities which include music among the subjects regularly taught in the grades. One of these latter, however, reports that the question "is now under discussion by a special committee appointed by the board of education."

Of the 164 institutions, 43 make some provision (the nature of which will be seen later) for the training of supervisors of music. While the city training schools, the kindergarten schools, and the county normal schools that are included in the 164 could not be expected to make such provision, this number is yet too small in relation to the almost universal demand for music in our public schools. Only 34 State institutions out of 87 (omitting 19 county normal schools), or, roughly, about two-fifths, make provision for training supervisors of music. As a result, our supervisors are trained in private music schools or under private music teachers as musicians rather than as teachers, or are trained in normal schools as teachers rather than as musicians. A judicious balance in these two phases of training is urgently needed; and the normal schools, with their institutional strength, their corps of affiliated music teachers, and in connection with their present offerings of instruction in music for grade teachers could more readily than any other agency undertake and successfully carry forward such courses.

(2) If a course for training teachers of music is given, how many years are required to complete that course?

As two possible courses are under investigation, the answers to this question are divided into two tables. In connection with the courses for grade teachers, it was found that the year was too large a unit of measurement for a number of schools. This will be noted in the terms of the table following.

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