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Duty on Salt.-James Monroe. --Post Office Investigation.
(FEB. 7, 1831.
DUTY ON SALT.
President of his innocence. A full examination was had, Mr. BENTON gave notice, that tomorrow lic should the guilt proved, and the officer removed. I state this ask leave to bring in a bill to abrogate the duty on salt.
case, sir, to show that any apparent reluctance of the
Poslinaster General to submit to this examination, or any JAMES MONROE.
disposition to limit or restrict it, will be ground of suspicion The bill for the adjustment of the claim of James Mon- against him before the American people. roe, passed in the other House, was read a first time, and But, say gentlemen, we are prejudging a case which laid on the table until to-morrow, at the suggestion of Mr. we may be called to try as a high court of impeachment. POINDEXTER, who wished time to prepare an amend- We answer-our duties are Jegislative, executive, and ment to it.
judicial; and shall we refuse to perform one class of these POST OFFICE INVESTIGATION.
duties, because it may conflict with the others? If we are
never to perform legislation, lest by possibility we should The resolution of Mr. GRUNDY, declaring that the meet with impeachable matter, there are few cases where select committee, appointed to examine into the present we can act at all. In all this, however, our course is a condition of the Post Office Department, are not autho- very plain one. The framers of the constitution supposed rized to call witnesses who have been removed before the cases of impeachment would rarely occur, and they them for the purpose of ascertaining the causes of their judged correctly. It was never expected or intended that removal, being again taken up-
this power should in the least control or restrain our leMr. HOLMES rose, and resumed the remarks which gislative duties. In the course of inquiry into facts or he commenced when the subject was last under consider-conduct as a basis of legislation, we are never to anticipate ation. I confess, said Mr. H., that since our last adjourn- high misdemeanors or impeachable matter; and it is the ment, my surprise has been increased, rather than dimin- same with our executive duties. Suppose a district judge, ished, at the objection to the inquiry. What possible rca- while under impeachment in the other House, should be son can there be why the Senate should not have an an- nominated to the Senate for a justice of the Supreme Court, swer to this question-" for what cause or causes were must we not inquire into his qualifications, and conseyou removed from office?" It cannot arise from a sym- quently into the offence of which he stands charged? Or pathy for the witness. If tho answer would criminate are we to translate him to the Supreme bench, without him, he has a right to withhold it. The question is, ne-noticing the fact that he stands charged with official tyvertheless, proper, whether he can exculpate or is willing ranny or corruption by the grand inquest of the nation? to criminate himself, or refuses to answer at all. In erery Sir, it appears to me there is in this an affectation of judicial tribunal, a question which may possibly, or will delicacy--a morbid sensibility--it is altogether new; the probably, criminate the witness, is always proper, but the Senate has never hesitated to inquire into official misconobligation to answer is another affair.
duct, the better to enable them to perform legislative or But here the witness does not object, but is willing to executive duties. Let me instance a distinguished case
Every obstacle in regard to the witness is, there that of the Seminole war. A committee of the Senate fore, removed. Why, then, is this merely preliminary was elected by ballot purposely to investigate the conduct question to be refused
of General Jackson in that war. This investigation involvIs the Postmaster General afraid of the answer? Hased the questions whether the commander of the army bad he been consulted, and does he think it most prudent to violated the constitution of the United States, in waging object? If so, there is strong ground to suspect him. war against a foreign Power; and, if so, whether he could What high-minded, honorable, and honest man would fear be justified by orders from the President or Secret:vry of an answer to such a question? Is he afraid or ashamed War. This was looking into impcachable matter which that the people of the United States should know the prin- might involve the Secretary of War, and even the Presiciples by which he acts?
dent; both, by the constitution, impeachable officers. Is this objection without bis consent? If so, it is surely The committee were not restricted in that case, but they using bim unfairly; and, if it came from a political foc, did investigate, and inade a report, which, in explicit and might be just ground of complaint. But public opinion decisive terms, censures the conduct of the commanding will, at any rate, ascribe this reluctance at inquiry to him. general, and this at a time too when the public pulse beat The resolution to trammel the inquiry comes from his per-high in his favor. sonal and political friends, and it will be believed that it is But, sir, this objection proves too much. There is by his consent, and at his request. Why, it will be in- scarcely a branch of the resolution of inquiry but is liable quired, do you suppress an answer to such a question? If to the same. The present condition and entire managethis officer removed does not, in his answer, give the true ment of this department gives us a broad commission incause, cannot you? Do you fear his perjury? You have deed, and we cannot move a single step without being the means to answer and detect him. Do you fear his exposed to meet, by possibility, impeachable matter. The truth? That is just what we want. A witness who has Senator from New Hampshire is willing for general, but been Assistant Postmaster General thirty years, and against not for particular inquiry as a basis of legislation. What whom no official misconduct has been alleged, is not to be can he mean? What would be general enough to suit him? lightly esteemed. His testimony would be believed quite Is an inquiry into the causes of removal too " particular as soon as that of the Postmaster General himself. How are we to inquire into “the entire management of
I remember that an officer, a friend of mine, of higo the Post Office Department,” without going into particurespectability, was accused of misconduct, and the charges lars? What prudent man would be satisfied with the conwere grave and serious. They were made to President cerns of his farm or plantation, without examining the Monroe at the close of his administration, and he left them detail? to his successor. I expressed to Mr. Adams a strong belief The Senator from Tennessee insinuates strongly that the of the innocence of my friend, and insisted that at least he question which so much aflicts him and his frierid, the Postought to be heard in his own defence. To this request master General, is “unbecoming, and calculated to convey in his behalf the President assented--a commission was false impressions." With all due deference to that Senainstituted to hear the parties and evidence. On my return tor, I must take the liberty to be my own judge of prohome, I informed my friend that an inquiry was directe, priety, subject, however, to the discipline which the rules at my request, at which he seemed dissatisfied, and to of the Senate prescribe. Unbecoming! Not suitably rethink it was unnecessary. From that time I began to sus- spectful, I suppose, to the brigh dignitary to whom it repect, and to regret that I had spoken so confidently to the lated! Unbecoming to inquire of a witness, why this dig
Feb. 7, 1831.)
Post Office Investigation.
nitary did a certain official act? And has it come to this rendered as available funds. Now, were it true that Mr. 80 soon? Sir, if decorum is to be properly graduated, let McLean had reduced the funds $74,714 15, and had calthis clerk of the President, this new fledged head of a culated $26,541 88 as good, which afterwards turned out department, always solicit, and with all humility, that this to be bad, still is it fair to charge Mr. McLean with an Senate will charitably examine his case, and hear his rea- expenditure of $101,256 03 over his income? But Mr. sons or his excuses. Calculated to convey false impressions! Barry's excess of expenditure over his income from July, How? Impressions are made every where that these re-1829, to July, 1830, is
$82,000 movals are persecutions. Are these impressions correct Add to this the sum expended by him from April to or false? If false, how can an inquiry into the true cause July, which he has included in the $74,714 15, make them more false than they are?
charged to Mr. McLean's administration, 32,000 These removals may have been made purposely to in. Add, moreover, as in the general appropriation crease Executive power and patronage. If so, a bill like bill,
60,640 that of 1826 may be reported to correct this abuse. If, then, when no proscription in that department had been And you will find that in the first five quarters of felt or even suspected, it was deemed necessary to pre Mr. Barry's administration, he has expended vent even the possibility of post office patronage, how over and above the income,
174,640 much more is it now necessary to interpose, when every This is not all. Under the act of May, 1828, there one opposed or even suspected is swept off as with a were established two hundred and thirty additional post whirlwind? Then no post office patronage had been felt; routes, at an expense, probably, of $40,000. More than even jealousy had scarcely imagined it. Then the Post- half of this expense was, probably, incurred by Mr. master General had not subscribed to the proscription sys- McLean. These routes went into operation in January,
The late Postmaster General had never deemed it 1829, and the profits of the first quarter did not fall due consistent with his official duty to require a political creed until April
, and were, consequently, not paid in to Mr. as a qualification for office. His inquiries were, “is he McLean, but to Mr. Barry. He admits, also, that the inhonest, capable, and faithful to the constitution?” Adams come from the office has increased in the last year about or Jackson were no questions with him; and had it not $150,000. Now, the appropriation bill of the first year been for this his Roman virtue, he would still have been of Mr. Barry paid him abont $10,000 more than it did in retained—the managers had need of his character and in- the last year of Mr. McLean; and with all these facilities, Auence, but they were afraid of his integrity. To keep how does it happen that Mr. Barry has consumed, in five him, they made his department a constituent part of the quarters, $114,000 of the Post Office funds over and above cabinet, that his acts may be under its control. If they the income, received upwards of $10,000 from the genecould get him in their team, they might use him to their ral appropriation bill above the former year, the avails of purpose. But Mr. McLean had too much integrity and the whole first quarter of the new routes established in independence of character to become a machine to execute May, 1828, $150,000 of additional revenue, and yet that a system which he abhorred; he was not proscribed, but the available funds, which, in 1828, were $332,000, should, laid on the political shelf. Removals from office are to be in 1830, be down to $148,000? Should we this year apmade for the benefit of the people, for whose protection propriate no more than the $60,640, (the appropriation and safety these officers are established. If officers who of the last,) and the draft upon the surplus fund should were unworthy should have been retained, the error be no greater than for the year 1830, $82,000, the expenshould be corrected; if officers worthy should have been diture for 1831 would consume the whole amount of this displaced for the purpose of providing for others less surplus fund, and the department will be literally bankqualified or vicious, why should not this mischief require rupt. That is, for the first time since its establishment, a remedy? In the case before us, it may be that the re- it will fail to support itself. movals in the Post Office Department have created the Now, this aspect of affairs may be erroneous, but I can embarrassment--that there are embarrassments, we have see no error. It presents at least a subject of inquiry. no reason to doubt.
We would examine if these things are so! and, if they Would it not be well, then, to inquire into the causes, are, whether the changes of the officers may not have and, if these unprecedented removals should have been produced this effect. If Mr. McLean had retained six the causes, to prescribe a remedy?
hundred bad officers, so bad that they deserved to be reIt is most certain that since the present Postmaster Gen- moved even without notice, and his successor had substieral took charge of the department, its movements have tuted as many faithful men in their stead, it would seem a been retrograde.
little strange that while the officers were becoming better, The late Postmaster General, Mr. McLean,
the office was growing worse. In the first aspect of this states that, in 1828, the funds. were, $616,394 affair, it would seem that in these exchanges we had made That the bad debts or unavailable funds were 284,289 a bad bargain.
The late Postmaster General bad never proscribed-Leaving of available funds at the disposal of
and never inquired of the party feelings of an officer or a the department,
332,105 candidate. Yet, it is believed that, when the present In November, 1829, Mr. Barry has reduced
Chief Magistrate came into office, a decided majority of these funds from $616,394 to
541,680 the postmasters were in his favor. I do not ascribe this From which he deducts the unavail
majority to any sinister concluct of the late Postmaster able funds reported by his prede
General; it was probably because it was the settled cessor,
plan of the supporters of General Jackson's election, He then deducts further bad debts
that they took care, and were on the alert, to recommend which he pretends to have disco
one of his partisans to fill every vacant office. Take an vered,
example in Maine: in the county of York, my own coun310,830 ty, there were thirty-one postmasters--Jackson twenty
three, Adams eight. One would have supposed that the Leaving a balance of,
$230,850 proportion of twenty-three to eight, in a district that chose He then endeavors to give the cause of this climinution an Adams elector, would have satisfied the most insatiable thus: he says Mr. McLean reduced this fund $101,256 03 and vindictive persecutor; especially as the remaining in this way: he expended $74,714 15, and the residue, cight were offices so insignificant, that they were scarcely $26,541 88, is composed of unavailable, which Mr. McLean worth holding, and most of them, probably, more trouble
Post Office Investigation.
[FEB. 7, 1831.
than profit. But no! the knife was applied even here: made to sanctify the means. When Constantinople was three of these have been removed, two resigned to save taken by the Turks, Irene, a beautiful Grecian lady, of the trouble," and one remains; and of the remaining two an illustrious family, fell into the hands of Mahomet the I am not certain. Thus we see in a single congressional Second, then in the prime of youth and glory. His sadistrict, the whole post office influence, with custom- vage heart was subdued by her charms; he made her his house officers and all others, brought to bear on the wife, and secluded himself with her, denying access even freedom of election, and then the administration will boast to his ministers. The soldiers, accustomed to activity and of success! An
of officers let loose to dragoon the plunder, began to murmur, and the infection soon spread people, the election is carried, and then you stand upon eren among the commanders. The Pacha Mustapha was public opinion. Now, this is the very evil that the inquiry the first to acquaint his master of stories told publicly to is intended to remedy. It is the abuse of public opinion; the prejudice of his glory. The tyrant, after an awful it is the morbid state of the body politic, produced by this pause, formed his resolution: he ordered Mustapha to asdeleterious influence by a subsidized press and a corrupt semble the army, and then retired to Irene's apartment. post office, which we deprecate.
“Never before,” says the historian, "did that princess In New Hampshire there are two hundred and thirty- appear so charming; never before was the prince so apsix postmasters, and between the 4th of March, 1829, parently kind and affectionate.” He ordered her maidens and the 22d March, 1830, forty-five had been removed; to dress her in the most splendid and costly attire--led her and without any notice, as I am told, of the least com- into the midst of the army, and, taking off her veil, deplaint against them, except they would not obey your manded of his officers if they had ever beheld such a god, nor worship the image which ye have set up. It is beauty? Then drawing his cimeter, and seizing her by reported to me, and from a source entitled to full credit, her locks, he severed her head from her body at one that a certain distinguished officer of the palace, upon stroke! Then, turning to his grandees, with eyes wild whom this Senate has since stamped its veto, presented on and furious, with the gasping head in one hand, and the one morning a proscription list containing twenty-five, bloody sword in the other -- * This sword,” he exclaimed, with an order that they should be removed, and, without " when it is my will, knows how to cut the bands of love!" examination or scruple, they were all struck from the Thus does a mad ambition extinguish all the tender symrolls at a single dash. Sir, it is said that the chief of the pathies and endearing charities of social and domestic life. Cyclops, Polyphemus, would be satisfied with two full Your sword of proscription, regardless of them all, is now grown Greeks for his supper, including Aesh, blood, and brandished, reeking with blood. The charms of virtue, bones; but your Postmaster General must, to satisfy his the ties of friendship, the sufferings of revolutionary pamaw, devour twenty-five Yankees at a breakfast! Only triotism, are no protection, no security against this rethink! Insatiable! unconscionable! Twenty-five full lentless monster, proscription. blooded New Hampshire Yankees at a single meal! Such And rivals, sir, when they can agree in a distribution of a monster can scarcely be found even in the regions of power, will each claim to be allowed his proscription list. fiction; but this is a horrid reality.
The triumvirate agreed to divide the Roman Empire, and But every thing is done now upon “high responsi- each to take his share-I do not allude to the first triumbility.” This panoply of oppression and fraud is to shield virate, composed of Julius Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus: the subordinate officers as well as the President. Every I mean the last–Lepidus, Mark Antony, and Octavius. It petty tyrant is to cover his crimes by this ægis. No, sir, was concluded to meet on an island in the Rhine to settle the truth must be that neither the President nor his mi- the compact. Each was to be protected by a selected nions can give any good reason for these corrupt and cor- guard, and such is the jealousy of rival politicians, that, rupting measures, and they, therefore, have to resort to in this case, the island must first be searched, to ascertain silence as their only defence against an indignant and in- if assassins were lurking there; next, each of their persulted people. They know, and every one here knows, sons must be examined, to see if there were daggers that the removals have been chiefly made to provide for concealed instheir clothes. Finding all safe in these particupartisans, and they are ashamed to acknowledge it. Sir, lars, they proceeded to divide the empire. Both Antony it must be so; for what rational man would not even volun- and Octavius considered Lepidus a sort of dead weight, a tetr his reasons, where his motives were just and honora- millstone about their neck; and, to get rid of him, they ble? A gentleman was waked in the night by some one assigned him the West, including Spain, where the Roin his cellar stealing his meat; he jumped out of bed, and man authority was very precarious.
Mark Antony's went and opened his cellar door. It was all dark: he share was the North, including Gaul; and Octavius took listened; all was still as death. “Who is there?” he in- the South, including Africa, the islands, and the south part quired. No answer. “What are you doing in my cel- of Italy, embracing Rome. lar?”, Not a word. “Why don't you speak?” “Why, This being settled, each presented his proscription list faith, sir," replied the other, “it is because I don't know of those who were to become the victims of this very dis. what to say." Now, these men have got into the people's interested, patriotic distribution of the republic. When cellar, and are making dreadful havoc with the meat, and Octavius saw Cicero, his old friend and preceptor, stand they won't speak, because they don't know wbat to say. at the head of Antony's list, his youthful heart was horLast session we predicted that irresponsibility, which is ror struck, and he vehemently and peremptorily protested the legitimate meaning of " high responsibility,” would against the barbarous deed. But all would not do; it was descend to the subordinate officers of the Executive de- a sine qua non, and ambition at last yielded to the demand; partments; that espionage and proscription would be the lists were all confirmed, and, in consequence, there pursued with a corrupt and cruel hand; and, not being a were assassinated in one night three hundred Senators, subject of inquiry, it would be beyond the people's reach, and two thousand Roman Knights! Proscription here is because it was beyond their means of knowledge. You not yet quite so bloody, nor do I know that each of any see, then, the principle which this resolution involves-- triumvirate here has presented his list. In looking round a principle fit only for tyrants--a rod fit only for slaves. us, however, it would not, I think, require a very fertile Pass this resolution, and you make proscription a legiti- fancy to find an analogy to this triumvirate to which I have mate work. Pass this resolution, and it is fair to infer referred. You recollect the catastrophe there; I express that each petty officer of the President will become a no wish in regard to the result here. I should prefer that partisan tyrant, beyond the reach of the representatives some Brutus should be found to succeed against the whole of the people, and answerable to no human tribunal. coalition. But if not, if the result is to be the same, and
When ambition is set upon its purpose, the end is always young Octavius is to subdue his rivals, and to become the
FEB. 7, 1831.)
Post Office Investigation.
Augustus, I should rejoice, at least, that the temple of that his senior partner has acquired an entire ascendency Janus was to be shut.
over him; and by this means I account for many things Sir, when this resolution was offered, I was reading the which I now see and hear, so entirely inconsistent with important news which I had just received of the revolu- that gentleman's former political course. Our separation tion in Poland, and was exulting in the glorious event. In must be perpetual; and I can only now look back with a half reverie, my mind was ruminating on the vicissitudes pride and pleasure at what he once was, while I contemwhich that gallant people had experienced; the barbarous plate with pain and grief what he now is. and despotic partition, when the unfortunate Stanislaus Before I proceed to answer the arguments of gentlewas compelled by the Cazarina, Maria Theresa, and Fre- men, the Senate will indulge me in presenting to them a derick, to surrender the best part of his dominions. I true account of the fiscal operations of the Post Office then glanced on more modern times, when another parti- Department, so far as may be necessary to a right undertion had completed the catastrophe. I thought, too, of a standing of the conduct of its present presiding officer. Kosciusko, a Pulaski, and a Poniatowski. In this state of The charge against him is, that in the last fiscal year, endmind, I heard read a resolution from a republican Senator, ing the 1st July, 1830, he has expended one hundred and going to establish a principle that a subordinate executive fifty thousand dollars more than has been expended in the officer was not to answer an inquiry into his official con- same time at any former period. This is a fact; and its duct. The contrast was so impressive, that, I confess, a existence is eagerly seized, and presented as evidence of chill struck me to the heart. When all Europe is alive to a profligate waste of the public money. If the fact stood popular rights, and the people are every where demand-alone, and unaccompanied by any explanation, it might be ing a surrender or restriction of Executive power, that entitled to some consideration; but when it shall be seen not only we the people, and we the representatives of the that this expenditure has been produced by contracts not people, but we the Senate of the United States, “most made by the present incumbent, but by his predecessor-potent, grave, and reverend seignors,” are to go in a body contracts not improvidently made, but made advantageand surrender our liberties, and those of our constituents, ously and beneficially for the country--when it shall apnot merely at the foot of the throne, but at the feet of a pear that portions of this money have been expended in petty subdelegate!
increasing mail facilities, in changing horse to stage routes, Mr. President, it is in vain to expect a full exposition in accelerating the mails from twice and three times a of the affairs of this department--and I now forewarn my week to daily mails, through the great arteries of the friend, the chairman, that his honest zeal will be disap- country, and extending it to every newly created seat of pointed. I have seen enough already to convince me that justice in the Union; and when it shall also appear that a full and fair report is not to be had. If the Postmaster this increased expenditure has been accompanied by a General asks for limits to the investigation, his friends on corresponding revenue to the department, it would seem the committee will indulge him, and eventually he will to me that a sense of justice should induce the gentlemen succeed where he wishes in shutting out inquiry. In this, on the other side to suspend, at least, a portion of their I cast no imputation upon any of the committee or the censure. Senate--the effect which I predict may perhaps arise from The report which the committee expect from the dean honest, though, I fear, a premature confidence in the partment will show the original contracts, and the inintelligence and fidelity of that officer. I repeat, a full creased labor imposed on the contractors, and the addiand fair report of the entire management of this depart- tional sums agreed to be given by the department for the ment is not to be expected this session, if ever. With- additional duties required: and it is a fact highly creditout the inquiry into the causes of removal, it is impossi- able to the Postmaster General, that a far less sum, in the ble.
aggregate, is now allowed, than the law warranted him Sir, I have done. In times when some New England in giving. States indicated a wish to nullify the acts of the General I will now proceed to show to the Senate a history of the Government, the Senator from l'ennessee (Mr. GRUNDY) expenditure complained of. For the year ending 1st July, and myself took sweet counsel together, and reprobated such infatuation. Now, when Georgia and South Carolina from Maine, wbich makes it to consist of James Madison, are still more infatuated, he abandons the old ground. Felix Grundy, his Satanic Majesty, and John Holmes. Would that this were all. But it seems to me he has come "I was honored too much when my name was inserted to this absurdity--Independent States beyond federal con- in the title of the firm. I never had, nor have I now, trol, and a federal Executive above responsibility! “Oh capital or capacity for business sufficient to entitle me to world, thy slippery turns!"
such distinction; and, therefore, in the new arrangement Mr. GRUNDY again rose. The Senator from Maine, about to be made, my name will not be inserted, either in said Mr. G., has thought proper, in his concluding re- the title of the firm, or upon the sign-boait. Mr. Madimarks, to remind me of our ancient association, and of son has become old and rich; for an honest and well-earned that period when we struggled together in behalf of our fame is a politician's wealth. He has retired from busicountry. It is true, sir, there was a time when that Sena-ness, and Andrew Jackson has taken his place; the busitor and myself held full political communion together, ness will, hereafter, be conducted under the name and and stood side by side against those whom we considered style of Andrew Jackson and Company. Of this film I hostile to the interests of our country. But these times will be an humble and unnamed partner. The gentleman have passed by. Men and things have changed; and, from Maine will not assist in conducting the business of perhaps, no two men now stand more apart and further this firm, and the third person named has a violent antipaseparated from each other. This was announced at the thy to it. Therefore, the best thing that can be done, is last session, when, in the presence of this Senate, a solemn to dissolve the partnership, and let the two characters last dissolution and severance of our political connexion took named establish a new firm, under the name and style of place.* I then apprehended, and I now see with sorrow, (meaning the Devil and John Holmes.] In making
this division, great reliance is placed on the many excel. * This has allusion to the following extract from Mr. lent qualities and superlative virtues of the gentleman Grundy's speech on Mr. Foot's resolution, at the last ses from Maine, which will enable him to keep the senior sion:
member of the firm in order, should he prove refractory. **The Senate will excuse me for saving a few words in To this dissolution of the old firm, and the establishment relation to the partnership made up by the Boston parson, of the two new ones, I call all these Senators to bear tesduring the last war, and now added to by the gentleman mony."
Post Office Investigation.
[Feb. 7, 1831.
1828, the expenditures exceeded the receipts $25,015 85. transportation, equal to 812,871 miles a year, beyond the
ginia, Raleigh, North Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina,
To be added for increased number of trips There is now of available funds at the disposal of the on the same, amounting, annually, to department, the sum of $143,724 22. As a further evi. 118,456 miles, at 5 cents per mile,
5,922 80 dence of the increasing prosperity of this department, 1 Increased number of trips on former stage will read from the report accompanying the President's routes, amounting, annually, to 138,358 message, so much as will show some of the improvements miles, at 13 cents per mile,
17,985 54 wliich have been made by the present Postmaster Gene- Increased number of trips on horse and sulky ral:
routes, amounting, annually, to 31,824 “ Between the 1st of July, 1829, and the 1.it of July, miles, at 5 cents per mile,
1,591 20 1830, the transportation of the mail was increased, in stages, equal to 755,767 miles a year; on horseback and in sul- Making the total annual value of the imkies, 67,104 miles a year; making an annual increase of provements,