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REGISTER O DEBATES IN COITORESS.
TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS--Second Session.
LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE U. STATES.
PENNSYLVANIA.-James Buchanan, Richard CoulMAINE.-- John Holmes, Peleg Spragile.
ter, Thomas H. Crawford, Jarmar Denny, Joshua Evans, NEW HAMPSUTRE.-Samuel Bell, Levi Woolbury.
Chauncey Forward, Joseph Fry. Jr. James Ford, Innis MASSACHUSETTS.-Nathaniel Silsbee, Dan'l Webster. Thomas Irwin, Adam King, George G. Leiper, H. A.
Green, Jolin Gilmore, Joseph Hlemphill, Peter Ihrie, jr. CONNECTICUT.-Samuel A. Foot, Calvin Willey. RITODE ISLAND. -Nehemiah R. Knight, Asher Robbins. M'Creery, William Ramsay, John Scott, Philander Ste
Muhlenburg, Alem Marr, Daniel H. Miller, William VERMONT.-Dulley Chase, llorati. Seymour. NEW YORK ---Natlin Sanford, Charles E. Duilley.
phens, John B. Sterigere, Joel B. Sutherland, Samuel A. NEW JERSEY—Theodore Irelinghuyseni, Mahlon Dick.
Sinith, Thomas H. Sill.
DELAWARE.-Kensey Johns, Jr. PENNSYLVANIA.-William Marks, Isaac D. Barnard. C. Howard, George E. Mitchell, Michael C. Sprigg, Ben
MARYLAND.-Elias Brown, Clement Dorsey, Benj. DELAWANE.-John M. Clayton, Arnold Naudain. MARYLAND).-Samuel Smith, Ezekiel Chambers.
edict I. Semmes, Richard Spencer, George C. WashingVIRGINIA.-L. W. Tazewell, John Tyler.
ton, Ephraim K. Wilson. NORTH CAROLINA. - James Treilell, Bedford Brown. s. Archer, William Armstrong, John S. Barber, John M.
VIRGINIA,-Mark Alexander, Robert Allen, William SOUTH CAROLINA-William Smith, Robert Y. Hayne. Patton, J. T. Boulding, Richard Coke, Jr. Nathaniel H. GEORGIA. --George M. Troup, John Forsyth. KENTUCKY.- John Rowan, George M. Bibb.
Claiborne, Robert B. Craig, Philip Moddridge, Thomas TENNI SEE.--Hugli L. White, Felis Grundy.
Davenport, William F. Gordon, Lewis Maxwell, Charles OHIO.--Benjamin Ruggles, Jacob Burnet.
F. Mercer, William M'Coy, Geo. Loyall, John Roane, LOUISIANA.-Josialı S. Johnston, Edward Livingston, Joseph Draper, Andrew Stevenson, John Taliaferro,
. INDIANA.-William Flendricks, James Noble.
NORTH CAROLINA.--Willis Alston, Daniel L. BarMISSISSIPPI.- Powhatan Ellis, George Poindexter.
ringer, Samuel P. Carson, H. W. Conner, Edmund DeILLINOIS. -- Elias K. Kane, David J. Baker. ALABAMA.- John M'Kinley, William R. King.
berry, Edward B. Dudley, Thomas H. Hall, Robert Pot. MISSOURI. --David Barton, Thomas II. Benton.
ter, Wm. B. Shepard, Augustine H. Shepperd, Jesse Speight, Lewis Williams, Abraham Rencher.
SOUTH CAROLINA.-Robert W. Barnwell, James HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Blair, John Campbell, Warren R. Davis, Wm. Drayton, MAINE.-John Anderson, Samuel Butman, George Starling Tucker.
Wm. D. Martin, George M’Duffie, Wm. T. Nuckolls, Evans, Rufus M'Intire, Cornelius Holland, Joseph F.
GEORGIA.—Thomas F. Foster, Charles E. Haynes, Wingate, Leonard Jarvis. NEW HAMPSHIRE-John Brodhead, Thomas Chand. Richard II. Wilde, James M. Wayne.
Wilson Lumpkin, Henry G. Lamar, Wiley Thompson, ler, Joseph Hammons, Jonathan Harvey, Henry Hub.
KENTUCKY.- James Clark, N. D. Coleman, Thomas bari, John W. Weeks.
Chilton, Henry Daniel, Nathaniel Gaither, R. M. Johnson, MASSACHUSETTS. --John Bailey, Isaac C. Bates, John Kincaid, Joseph Lecompte, Chittenden Lyon, RoB. W. Crowninshield, John Davis, Henry W. Dwight, bert P. Letcher, Charles A. Wickliffe, Joel Yancey. Edwarıl Everett, Benjamin Gorham, George Grennell, jr.
TENNESSEE.-John Blair, John Bell, David Crock. James L. Hodges, Joseph G. Kendall, John Reed, Jo- eit, Robert Desha, Jacob C. Isacks, Cave Johnson, Pryor seph Richardson, John Varnum.
Lea, James K. Polk, James Standefer. RHODE ISLAND – Tristam Burges, Dutee J. Pearce.
ORIO.-Mordecai Bartley, Joseph H. Crane, William CONNECTICUT.-Noyes Barber, William W. Ells. Creighton, James Findlay, Wm. W. Irvin, William Kenworth, J. W. Huntington, Ralph J. Ingersoll, W. L. non, Humphrey H. Leavitt
, Wm. Russel, Wm. StanberStorrs, Ebenezer Young. VERMONT.-William Cahoon, Horace Everett, Jona- ry, James Shields, John Thompson, Joseph Vance, Sam
uel F. Vinton, Elisha Whittlesey. than flunt, Rollin C. Mallary, Benjamin Swift. NEW YORK.-William G. Angel, Benedict Arnold, Edward D. White.
LOUISIANA.--Henry H. Gurley, W. H. Overton, Thomas Beekman, Abraham Bockee, Peter I, Borst, C.
INDIANA.-Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John C. Cambreleng, Jacob Crocheron, Timothy Childs, Hen
Test. ryB. Cowles, S. W. Eager, Charles G. Dewitt, John D.
ALABAMA.-R. E. B. Baylor, C. C. Clay, Dixon H. Dickinson, Jonas Earll, jr. Isaac Finch, Michael Hoffman, Lewis. Joseph Hawkins, Jehiel Fl. Halsey, Perkins King, James
MISSISSIPPI.-Thomas Hinds. Lent, John Magee, Henry C. Martindale, Robert Monell,
ILLINOIS. -Joseph Duncan. Thomas Maxwell, E. F. Norton, Gershom Powers, Ro
MISSOURI,-Spencer Pettis. bert S. Rose, Jonah Sanford, Henry R. Storrs, James Strong, Ambrose Spencer, John W. Taylor, Phineas L.
Delegates. Tracy, Gulian C. Verplanck, Campbell P. White.
NEW JERSEY.-Lewis Condict, Richard M. Cooper, MICHIGAN TERRITORY.—John Biddle. Thomas H. Hughes, Isaac Pierson, James F. Randolph, ARKANSAS TERRITORY.-A. H. Serier. Samuel Swann.
FLORIDA TERRITORY.-Joseph M. White, Vol. VII-A..
MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
An arrangement has been effected with Great Britain, STATES,
in relation to the tracie between the Uniteil States and TO BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS,
her West India and North American Cilones, which has At the commencement of the Second Sessim
settled a question that has for years affinieel mater for
contention and almost uninterrupted discussion, and lias of the Twenty-first Congress.
been the subject of no less than 5x negotiations, in a man. DECEMBER 7, 1830.
ner which promise, results highly favorable to the parties.
The abstract right of Great Britain to mi mopolize the Fellow-Citizens of the Senate
trade with her colonies, or to esclude us from a particionil of the Thouse of Representatires : pation therein, has never been denied by the U. States. The pleasure I have in congraiulating you on your But we have contended, and with reason, that is, at any return to your constitutional duties is inuch heightened time, Great Britain may desire the productious of this by the satisfaction which the condition of our beloved country as necessary' 10 her colonies, they must be recountry at this period justly inspires. The beneficent ceived upon principles of just reciprocity; and further, Author of all good h:13 granted to us, during the present that it is making an invitious and inntrenilly distinction, year, liralth, peace, ani plenty, and numerous causes for 10 open her colonial ports to the vessels of other nations, joy in the wonderful success which attends the progress and close thein agtiesi those of the United states. of our fi'er institutions.
Antecedently to 17, 3 portion of our produenons was With a population unparalleled in its increase, and pos- admitted into ille colonial islands of Great Britain, by parsessing a character which combines the bardihood of en. ticular concession, limited to ihe term of one year, but terprise with the considerateness of wisdom, we see in i renewed from year to year. In the transportation of every section of our happy country a steadly improvement these productions, however, our vessel Wire not allowed in the means of social intercourse, and correspondent of to engage; this being a privilege réserved to British shipfects upon the genitis and laws of our extenlech republic. ping, by which one our produce could be taken to the
The apparent exceptions to the harnony of the proc. islands, and theirs broughi tous in return. From Ner. pect are to be referred rather to inevitabic (iversities in foundland and her continental possessions, all our proulliethe various interests which enter into the composition of lions, as well as our vessels, were excludeil, with occa. so extensive a whole, than to any want of attachment 10 sional relaxations, by which, in seasons of distress, the the Union--interests whose collisions serve only, in the former were admitted in British bottoms. end, io foster the spirit of conciliation anıl patriotism, so By the treaty of 1794, she oli reil to conceale to us, for essential to the preservation of that union which, I most a livrited time, the righi of carrying to his West India devoutly hope, is destined to prove imperishable. possessions, in our vessels not exceeding seventy tons
In the midst of these blessings, we have recently wit burden, and upon the same terms as British vessels, any nessed changes in the condition of other nations, which productions of the United States wbich British vessels may, in their consequences, call for the utmost vigilance, might import therefrom. But this privilege was coupled wisdom, and unanimity, in our councils, and the exercise with conditions which are supposed to have led to its reof all the moderation and patriotism of our people. jection by the Senate : that is, that American yessels
The important modifications of their Government, ef shouki land their return cargoes in the United States only i fected with so much courage and wiselom by the people anıl, moreover, that they should, during the continuance of France, afford a happy presage of their future course, of the privileg“, be precluded from carrying molasses, and has naturally elicited from the kindred feelings of sugar, coffee, cocoa, or cotton, either from those islands this nation that spontaneous and universal burst of ap- or from the U.States, to any other part of the world. Great plause in which you have participated. In congratulating Britain reaalily consented to expunge this article from the you, my fellow.citizens, upon an event so auspicious to treaty; and subsequent atteinpts to arrange the terms of the dearest interests of mankind, I do no more than re the trade, cither by treaty stipulations or concerted legis. spond to the voice of my country, without transcending, lation, having fuile, it has been successively suspended in the slightest degree, that salutary maxim of the illus- and allowel, according to the varying legislation of the trious Washington, which enjoins an abstinence from all parties, interference with the internal affairs of other nations. The following are the prominent points which have, in From a people exercising, in the most unlimited degree, later years, separated the two Governments. Besides a the right of self government, and enjoying, as derived restriction, whereby all importations into her colonies in from this proud characteristic, under the favor of heaven, American vessels are confined to our own products carried much of the happiness with which they are blessed ; a hence, a restriction to which it does not appear that we people who can point in triumph to their free institutions, have ever objected, a leading object on the part of Great and challenge comparison with the fruits they bear, as Britain has been to prevent us from becoming the carri. well as with the moderation, intelligence, and energy, , ers of British West India commodities to any other counwith which they are administered ; from such a people, try than our own. On the part of the United States, it the deepest sympathy was to be expected in a struggle has been contended, 1st. That the subject should be refor the sacred principles of liberty, conducted in a spirit gulated by treaty stipulations in preference to separate le. every way worthy of the cause, and crowned by an hero- gislation ; 2d. That our productions, wiien imported into ic moderation which has disarmed revolution of its terrors. Une colonies in question, should not be subject to higher Notwithstanding the strong assurances which the main duties than the productions of the mother country, or of whom we so sincerely love and justly admire has given to her other colonial possessions ; And, 3d. That vur ves. the world of the high character of the present King of the sels should be allowed to participate in the circuitous trade French, and which, if sustained to the end, will secure lo between the United States and different parts of the Brihim the proud appellation of Patriot King, it is not in his tish dominions. success, but in that of the great principle which has borne The first point, after having been, for a long time, him to the throne-tho, paramount authority of the pub- strenuously sisted upon by Great Britain, was given up lic will-that the American people rejoice.
by the act of Parliament of July, 1825 ; all vessels sut: I ain bappy to inforın you that the anticipations which fered to trade with the colonies being permitted to clear were indulged at the date of my last communication on from the ice with any al'ticles which British vessels might the subject of our foreign affairs, bave been fully realized export ; and proceed to any part. of the world, Great in several important particulars.
Britain and her dependencies alone excepted. On our
part, each of the above points had, in succession, been tain, and concluded in a manner strongly indicative of a explicitly abandoned in negotiations preceding that of sincere desire to cultivate the best relations with the which the resilt is now announced.
United States. To reciprocate this disposition to the ful. This arrangement secures to the United States every lest extent of my ability, is a duty which I shall deem it a advantage asked by thein, and which the state of the ne. privilege to discharge. gotiation allowed us to insist upon. The tralle will be Although the result is, itself, the best commentary on placed upon a footing decidedly more favorable to this the services rendered to his country by our Minister at country ihan any on which it ever stood ; and our com- the court of St. James, it would be doing violence to my merce and navigation will enjoy, in the colonial ports of feelings were 1 to dismiss the subject without expressing Great Britain, every privilege allowed to other nations. the very high sense I entertain of the talent and exertion
Thai the prosperity of the country, so far as it depends which have been displayed by him on the occasion. on this trade, will be greatly promoted by the new arrange The injury to the commerce of the United States rement, there can be no doubt. Independently of the more sulting from ihe exclusion of our vessels from the Black obrious advantages of an open and direct intercourse, its sea, and the previous footing of mere sufferance upon establishment will be attended with other consequences which even the limited trade enjoyed by us with Turkey of a higher value. That which has been carried on since has hitherto been placed, have, for a long time, been a the mutual interdict under all the expense and inconve- source of much solicitude to this Government, and seve. nience unavoidably incident to it, would have been in- ral endeavors have been made to obtain a better state of supportably onerous, had it not been, in a great degree, things. Sensible of the importance of the object, I felt lightened by conceried evasions in the mode of making it my duty to leave no proper means unemployed to acthe transhipments, at what are called the neutral ports. quire for our flag the same privileges that are enjoyed by 'These indirections are inconsistent with the dignity of na the principal powers of Europe. Commissioners were, tions that have so many motives, not only to cherish feels consequently, appointed, to open a negotiation with the ings of mutual friendship, but io maintain such relations Sublime Porte. Not long after the member of the comus will stimulate their respective citizens and subjects 10 mission who went directly from the United States had efforts of direct, open, and honorable coinpetition only = saileil, the account of the treaty of Adrianople, by which and preserve them from the influence of seductive and one of the objects in view was supposed to be secured, vitiating circumstances.
reached this country. The Black Sea was understood to When your preliminary interposition was asked at the be opened to us. Under the supposition that this was close of the last session, a copy of the instructions under the case, the additional facilities io be derived from the which Mr. McLane has aclel, together with the conmu. establishment of commercial regulations with the Porte nications which had at that time passed between him and were deemed of sufficient importance to require a prothe British Government, was laid before you. Although secution of the negotiation as originally contemplated. there has not been any thing in the acts of the two Go It was therefore persevered in, and resulted in a treaty, vernmnts wisic requires secrecy, it was thought most which will be forth with laid before the Senate. proper, in the then state of the negotiation, to make that By its provisions, a free passage is secured, without cominunication a confidential one. So soon, however, as limitation of time, to the vessels of the United States, to the evidence of execution on the part of Gredi Britain is and from the Black Sea ,including the navigation thereof; received, the whole matter shall be laid before you, when and onr trade with Turkey is placed on the fouting of the it will be seen that the apprehension which appears to most favored nation. The latter is an arrangement whol, have suggesteil one of the provisions of the act passed at ly independent of the treaty of Adrianople ; and the your last scusiou, that the restoration of the trade in ques. former derives much value, not only from the increased tion might be connected with other subjects, anel was security which, under any circumstances, it would give sought to be obtained at the sacrifice of the public inter to the right in question, but from the fact, ascertained in cst in other particulars, was wbully untoudui!; and that the course of the negotiation, that, by the construction the change which has taken place in the views vi the put upon that treaty by Turkey, the article relating to British Government leurs been induced by considerations the passage of the Bosphorus is confined to nations have as honorable to buti partics, as, I trusl, the l'esult willing treaties with the Porte. The most friendly feelings prove benchcial.
appear to be entertained by the Sultan, and an enlight. This desirable result was, it will be seen, greatly pro. ened disposition is evinced by him to foster the intercourse moted by the liberal and confiding provisions of the act between the two countries by the most liberal arrangeof Congress of the last S:ssion, by which our ports were, ments. This disposition it will be our duty and interest upon the reception and animciation by the President of 10 cherish. the requires assurance on the part of Great Britai!), Our relations with Russia are of the most stable chafort! will opened to her vessels, before the arrangeinent racier. Respect for that Empire, and confidence in its could be curied into effect on her part : pursuing, in this friendship towards the United States, have been so long act o! prospective legislation, a similar course to thril entertained on our part, and so carefully cherished by adopted by Great Britain, iu abolishing, by her act of Pitre the present Emperor and his illustrious predecessor, as to liament, i 1825, a restriction then existing, and perinito have become incorporated with the public sentiment of ting our vessels to clear from the colonies, on their return the United States. No means will be left unemployed on voyagen, för any foreign country whatever, before British my part to promote these salutary feelings, and those imvesseis liau! been reheved from the restriction imposed by provements of which the commercial intercourse between our law, of returning directly from the Uniled States to the two countries is susceptible,and which have derived inthe colonies--- 1'striction which she required and excreased importance from our treaty with the Sublime Porte. picted that we should abolish. Upon each occasion, it I sincerely regret to inform you that our Minister latelimited and temporary advantage has been given to the ly commissioned to that Court, on whose distinguished opposite party, but an Ivantage of no importance in talents and great experience in public affairs I place great comparison will the restoration of mutual contidence reliance, has been compelled, by extreme indisposition, and good feelings, in the ultimate establishment of the to exercise a privilege, which, in consideration of the ex Wale apon fair principi
tent to which is constitution had been impaired in the It gives me anfeignell pleasure to assure you that this public service, was conmitted to his discretion-of leavnegotiation has been, tiroughout, characterised by the ing temporarily his post for the advantage of a more ge. mosl frank and trendly spirit on the part of Great Bri- nal climate.
remonstrance and reclimation. I am not yet possessed
21st Cong. 2 Sess.]
President's Message. if, as it is to be hoped, the improvement of his health The commercial intercourse between the two countries should be such as to justify him in doing so, he will re is susceptible of highly advantagevus improvements; but pair to St. Petersburgh, and resume the discharge of his the sense of this injury has hall, and must continue to official duties. I have received the most satisfactory as- have, a very unfavorable influence upon thein. From its surance that, in the mean time, the public interests in satisfactory adjustment, not only a firin and cordial friendthat quarter will be preserved from prejudice, by the ship, but a progressive development of all their relations, intercourse which he will continue, through the Secretary inay be expected. It is, therefore, my earnest hope that of Legation, with the Russian cabinet.
this old and vexatious subject of difference may be specdYou are apprised, although the fact has not yet been ily removed. officially announced to the House of Representatives, I feel that my confi:lence in our appeal to the motives that a treaty was, in the month of March last, concluded which should govern a just and magnanimous Nation, is between the United States and Denmark, by which alike warranted by the character of the French people, $ 650,000 are secured to our citizens as an indemnity for and by the high voucher we possess for the enlarged spoliations upon their commerce in the years 1808, 1809, views and pure integrity of the monarch who now pre1810, and 1811. This treaty was sanctioned by the Se siiles over their councils; and nothing shall be wanting nate at the close of its last session, and it now becomes the on my part to meet any manifestation of the spirit we ani. duty of Congress to pass the necessary laws for the or. ticipate in one of corresponding frankness and liberality, ganization of the Board of Commissioners to distribute The subjects of difference with Spain have been the indemnity amongst the claimants. It is an agrecable brought to the vie:v of that Government, by our Minister circumstance of this adjustment, that its terms are in con. there, with much force and propriety ; and the strongest forinity with the previously ascertained views of the assurances have been received of their carly and favorde claimants themselves ; thus removing all pretence for a ble consideration. future agitation of the subject in any form.
The steps which remainel to place the matter in conThe negotiations in regard to such points in our foreign troversy between Great Britain and the United States relations as remained to be adjusted, have been actively fairly before the arbitrator, have all been taken in the prosecuted during the recess. Material advances have same liberal and friendly spirit which characterized those been made, which are of a character to promise favorable before announced. Recent events have doubtless served results. Our country, by the blessing of God, is not in a to delay the decision, but our Minister at the Court of the situation to invite aggression ; and it will be our fault if distinguished arbitrator luas been assiired that it will be she ever becomes so. Sincerely desirous to cultivate the made within the time contemplated by the treaty. most liberal and friendly relations with all ; ever ready to I am particularly gratified in being able to state that a fulfil our engagements with scrupulous fidelity ;, limiting decidedly favorable, and, as I hope, lasting change has our demands upon others to mere justice; holding our been effected in our relations with the neighboring reselves ever ready to do unto thein as we would wish to be public of Mexico. The unfortunate and unfounded sus. done by, and avoiding even the appearance of undue picions in regard to our disposition, which it became my partiality to any Nation, it appears to me impossible that painful duty to advert to on a former occasion, have been, a simple and sincere application of our principles to our I believe, entirely removed; and the Government of Mes foreign relations can ali to place them ultimately upon fico has been made to understand the real character of the the footing on which it is our wish they should rest. wishes and views of this in regard to that country. The
Of the juints feferred to, the most prominent art, our consequence is, the cstablishment of friendship anul muciaims upoli
France for spoliations upon our commerce ; tual confidence. Such are the assurances which I have similar claims upon Spain, together with embarrassments received, and I see no calıse to doubt their sincerity. in the commercial intercourse between the two countries, I had reason to expect the conclusion of a commercial which ought to be removed ; the conclusion of the treaty treaty with Mexico in season for communication on the of commerce and navigation with Mexico, which has been present occasion. Circumstances which are not explain so long in suspense, as well as the final settlement of li ied, but which, I am ersuded, are no the result of 311 mits beween ourselves and that republic; and finally the indisposition on her part to enter into it, have producul arbitrament of the question between the United States the delay. and Great Britain in regard to the northeastern boun There was reason to fear, in the course of the last sull. dary.
mer, that the harmony of our relations might be disturbed The negotiation with France has been conducted by by the acts of certain clainants, un:ler Mexican grants our Minister with zeal and ability, and in all respects to foi territory which has hitherto been un ler our juristic my entire satisfaction. Althougli the prospect of a favo. tion. The co-operation of the representative of Mexico rable termination was occasionally dimmed by counter near this Government was asked on the occasion, and was pretensions, to which the United States could not assent, readily afforded. Instructions and advice have been giver he yet had strong hopes of being able to arrive at a satis to the Governor of Arkansas and the Officers in commal factory settlement with the late Government. The nego- in the axljoining Mexican State, by which, it is hoped, tiation has been renewed with the present authorities, the quiet of that frontier will be preservedl, until a anual and, sensible of the general and lively confidence of our settlement of the dividing line shall have removed all citizens in the justice and magnanimity of regenerated ground of controversy, France, I regret the more not to have it in my po ver, The exchange of ratification of the treaty concluded yet, to announce the result so confidently anticipated. last year with Austria has not yet taken place. The deNo ground, however, inconsistent with this expectation, lay has been occasioned by the non-arrival of the ratificahas been taken ; and I do not allow myself to doubt that tion of that Government within the time prescribed by the justice will soon be done to us. The amount of the treaty. Renewal authority has been asked for by the claims, the length of time they have remained unsatisfied, representative of Austria ; and, in the mean time, the ra: and their incontrovertible justice, make an earnest prose pidly increasing trade and navigation between the two cution of them by this Government an urgent duty. The countries have been placed upon the most liberal fouling illegality of the seizures and confiscations out of which of our navigation acts. They have arisen is not disputed ; and whatever distinc Several alleged deprecations liave been recently Lions may have heretofore' been set up in regard to the milted on our commerce by the vational vessels ut Pur liability of the existing Government, it'is quite clear that tugal. They have been made the subject of immerlate şych considerations cannot now be interpozed.
[21st Coro. 20 Sess.
2.11 of suflicient inforination to express a delinitive opinion of jects, I should not live withheld my assent.
their character, but expect soon to receive it. No pro now reliurned does so in several particulars, but it also per means shall be omitteil to o'tain for our citizens all contains appropriations for surveys of a local character, the redress to wrich they inity :ppear to be entitled. which I cannot approve. Il gives ine satisfaction to find
Almost at the moment of the adjournment of your list that no serious inconvenience has arisen from withholl. if sessioni, iwo bills, the orre entitled “ An act for making ing my approval froin this bill; nor will it, I trust, be
appropriations for buikling liglit-houses, lişlit-boats, bea- canse of regret that an opportunity will be thereby affordcons, and monuments, placing buoys, and for improving ed for Congress to review its provisions under circun. harbors and directing surveys," and the other, " An act stances better calculated for full investigation than those to authorize a subscription for stock in the Louisville and under which it was passed. Portland Canal Company," were subnitted for my appro Io speaking of clirect appropriations, I mean not to inval. It was not possible, within the time allowed me, clude a practice which has obtained to some extent, and before the cluse of the session, to give these bills the to which I have, in one instance, in a different capacity, consideration which was due to their character and impor- given my assent—that of subscribing to the stock of pri
tance; and I was compelled to retain them for that pur- vite associations. Positive experience, and a more ihose pose. I now avail myself of this early opportunity to re. rough consideration of the subject, have convinced me of
turn them to the loises in which they respectively ori- the impropriety as well as inexpediency of such investgauteil, with the reasons whicii, a'ler mature delibera- ments. All improvements effected by the funds of the tion, compel me to withhold my approval,
nation, for general use, shoukl be open to the enjoyment The practice of defraying out of the Treasury of the of all our fellow citizens, exempt from the payment of United States the expenses incurred by the establishinent tolls, or any imposition of that character. The practice an I support of liglat-houses, beacons, buoys, and public of thus iningling the concerns of the Government with piers, within the bays, inlets, burbors, and ports of the those of the States or of individuals, is inconsistent with United States, to render the navigation thereot safe and the object of its institution, and highly impolitic. The Casy, is coeval with the adoption of the Constitution, and successful operation of the federal systein can only be has been continuteil without interruption or dispute. preserved by confining it to the few and simple, but yet
As our foreign com nerce increased, and was extended important objects for which it was designed. into the interior of the country by the establishment of i different practice, if allowed to progress, would ports of entry and delivery upon our navigable river's, the ultimately change the character of this Governinent, by sphere of those expenditures received a corresponding consolida!ing into one the General and State Governenlargement. Lighi-houses, beacons, buoys, public piersi, ments, which were intended to be kept forever distinct. and the removal of sand bars, sawyers, and other partial I cannot perceive how bills authorizing such subscriptions or temporary impediments in the navigable rivers and can be other:vise regur.led than as bills for revenue, and Jurbors which were einbraced in the revente districts conseq'le:htly subject to the rule in that respect prescrifrom time to tine established by law, were iluthorized bed by the Constitution. If the interest of the Governupon the same principle, and the expense detrayed in the ment in private companies is subordinate to that of indi
That these expenses have at times been viduals, the management and control of a portion of the extravagant and isproportiorate, is very probable. The public fimds is delegated to an authority unknown to the circunstances under which they are incarred, are well Constitution, and beyond the supervision of our consticalculated to lead to such a result, unless their application lents: if sup rior, its officers and agents will be conis subjected to the closest scrutiny. The local advantages stantly exposed to imputations of favoritisin and oppresarising froin the disbursement of public money top fro-sion. Direct prejudice to the public interest, or an alienquently, it is to be feared, invite appropriations for ob. ation of the afl'ections and respect of portions of the jects of this character that are neither necessary nor use people, may, theretur, in addition to the general disfill The number of light-avuse kuupers is already very credit resulting to the Guvernment from embarking with Herye, in the bill before me proposes to all to it tilty its constituents in pecuniary speculations, be looked for 0:19 more, of various descriptions. from representations as the probable fruit of such associations. It is nu alupo i the subject wluch are unclerstood to be entitled to swer to this objection to say that the extent of conserespect, I am induced to believe that there has not only quences like these cannot be great from a limited anel been great improvidence in the past expenditures of the small number of investments : because experience in Government ipon these objects, but that the security of other matters tcaches us, and we are not at liberty to navigation lis, in some instances, been diminished by the disregard its admonitions, tha', unless an entire stop be multiplication of light-houses, and consequent change of put to them, it will soon be inpossible to prevent ineir ligtits, upon the coast. It is in this, as in other respects, accumulation, until they :vre spread over the whole counour duty to avoid all unnecessary expense, as well as eve. try, and made to embrace many of the private and apo ry increase of patronage not called for by the public ser: propriate concerns of inclividuals,
But, in the discharge of that duty in this particu The power which the General Government would aclur, it initst not be forgotton that, in relation to our foreign quire within the several States by becoming the princicoinmerce, the burden and benefit of protecting in ac. pul stockhold:r in corporations, controlling every canal cuininoiduting it necessarily go together, and must do so and each sixty or hundred miles of cvery important l'oad, Es long as the public revenue is drawn from the people and giving a proportionate vote in all iheir elections, is chrough the custo:n house. It is indisputable, that wliat. utmost inconceivable, and, in my view, dangerous to the ever gives facility anil security to navigationi, cheapens liberties of the people. inports ; and all who consune them are alike interested This mode of aiding such works is, also, in its nature, i whatever prociuces this effect. Itihey consume', they deceptive, anil in many cases conducive to improvidence -18ht, its they now do, to pay; otherwise, they do núi in the adıninistration of the national funds. Appropria
The consilier in the most inland State derives the tions will be obtained with much greater facility, and une advist:from every necessary and prudent ex- granted with less Security to the public interest, when
viture for the facility and security of our foreign com. the measure is thus (lisguisel, than when definite and dicrce and navigation, that he does who resides in a ma recl expenditures of money are asked for. The interests time Siate. Local expenditures have nut, of themselves, of the nation woull doubulcis be better served by avuidcorrespondent operation.
ing all such indirect modes of aiding particular objects. From a bill making direct appropriations for such ob. li a Government like ours, more especially, should all