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public acts be, as far as practicable, simple, undisguiseul, comsider it citier honest or wise to purchase local favop and intelligible, that they may become fit subjects for at the sacrifice of principle and the general gool. the approbation or animadversion of the people. The So understanding public sentiment, and thoroughly bill authorizing a subscription to the Louisville and Port- satisfied that the best interests of our common coni''y land canal affords a striking illustration of the difficulty imperiously require that the course which I have ret of withholding additional appropriations for the same ob. mendeal in this regard should be adopted, I have, upos ject, when the first erroneous step has been taken by in. the most mature consideration, determined to pursue it. stituting a partnership between the Government and pri. It is due to candor, as well as to my own feelings, that vate companies. It proposes a third subscription on the I should express the reluctance and anxiety which I mais! part of the United States, when each prec. ding one was at all times experience in exercising the undoubted right at the time regarded as the extent of the aid which Go- of the Executive to withhoh bis assent from bills on antiar vernment was to render to that work; and the accompa- grounds than their inconstitutionality. That this r.git nying bill for light-houses, &c. contains an appropriation should not be exercised on slig'it occasions, all will itfor a survey of the bed of the river, with a view to its mit. It is only in midters of deep interest, when the improvement, by removing the obstruction which the ca principle involved may be justly regarded as next in imnal is designed to avoid. This improvement, if success portalice to infractions of the Constitution itself, tha: ful, would afford a free passage 10 the river, an I reniler such a step can be expected to meet with the approba the canal entirely useless. To such improvidence is the tion of the people. Such an occasion du I conscientiouscourse of legislation subject, in relation to internal im ly believe the present to be. In the discharge of this provements on local matiers, even with the best inten lelicate and highly responsible cluy, I am sustained by tions on the part of Congress.
the reflection that the cxcrcise of this power hus leur Although the motives which have influenced me in this leemel consistent with the obligation of official duty by matter may be already sulliciently statel, I am, never- several of my predecessors; and by the persuasiem, ton, theless, induced by its importance to add a few observa. that, whatever liberal institutio:is may have to fear from tions of a general character.
the encroachments of Execntive power, which has be In my objections to the bills authorizing subscriptions every wliere the crise of so mucli strife and blooly cou to the Maysville and Rockville Road Companies, lex. tention, but little danger is to be apprehendu! tro na por pressed iny views fully in regard to the power of Con. cedent by which that authority atenies to itself the eles gress to construct roads and canals within a State, or to cise of powers that bring in their train influence and pr. appropriate inoney for improvements of a local character. Stronage of great extent; and thus exclucles the operativa 1, at the same time, intimated my belief that the right to of personal interests, every where the bane of oblicul make appropriations for such as were of a national cha. trust. I derive, tuo, no small degree of satisfaction from racter baci been so generally acted upon, and so long the reflection, tinal, if I have mistaken th: interests an! acquiesced in by the Federal and State Governments and wishes of the people, the Constitution alfor is the means the constituents of each, as to justify its exercise on the of soon redressing the error, by selecling for the place ground of continued and uninterrupted usage; but that it their favor las bestowed upon me a citizen whose opi was, nevertheless, highly expedient that appropriations, rions may accord with their own. I trust, in the mean even of Wut character, should, with thie exception made time, the interests of the nation will be saved fron preat the time, be deferred until the national debt is paiil, judice, by a rigid application of that portion of the prish. and that, in the mean while, some general rule for the ac. lmes liich miglit otherwise be applied to liflerentes tion of the Gwernment in that resp ct ought to be estajects to that highest of all our obligations, the payment blished.
of the public debt, and an opportunity be afför ielt These S'ggestions were not necessary to the decision the adoption of some better rule for the operations 0: t... of the question then before mc; and were, I realily and Government in this malier than any which has inthurn init, intended to awaken the attention, and draw forth been acted upon. the opinions and observations, of our constituents, p9n Proloundly impressed with the importance of the sub, a subject of the highest importance to their interests, inod jeci, not merely as it relates to the general prosperity of One Destined to exert a powerful influence upon the fu-line country, but to the safety of the federal systein, Ice ture operations of our political system. I know of no not avoiel l'epeating iny earnest hope that all round wit tribunal to which a public man in this countrv, in a cise zens, who take a proper interest in the success and has of doubt and difficulty,can appeal with greater advanligemony of our admirable political institutions; and who are or mor: propriety, than the judgment of the peopl; an lincapable of desiring 10 convert al opposite stile ut alulongli musi necessarily, in the discharge it' my olli. I things irito means for the gratification of personel ! cial duties, be governcil by the dictates of my own jud; tioni!!, laving aside mmor considerations, il discatid menl,!l have no desire to conceal my anxious wish to con- ing local prejudices, unite their honest exertions to estat forin, its far as I c:!!!, to the views of those for whom I ac. lish some fixed general principle, which shall be cele
Allirregular expressions of public opinion are of neces. lated w effect the greatest extent of public gooul ! te: sily :iten lel with some cut as to their accuracy: 1)?', gard to the subject of internal imprurenent, and allora mikng full allowances on that account, I cannot, I think, the least gruumi for sectionaleliscontent. deecive myself in believing that the its referred to its The general ground of my objection to local approprio well as the suggestions which I allowed myself to make itions ivas been dieretofore expressed; and I stali exhiede in relation to their bearins upon the firttil'e operations vor to avoid a repetition of whide has been alreadly urgetof the Governinent, have been approved by the great bo the importance of sustaining the State shereigntres, 4 dy of the people. That those whose immediate pecuniary Ar its is consistent with the righttal action of the Federal interests are io be affueled by proposeil expenditoris Government, and of preserving the greatest attainable should shrink from the application of a rule which pre- harmony between them. I will now only adelan evler fers their more general and remote interests to those sion of iny conviction--a conviction wiich every day's which are personal and immcliute, is to be expected experience serves to confirm--that the political criei But even such olejections mst, from the nature of our winch inculcates the pursuit of those great objects as a population, be but temporay in their Juration; and it it paramount duty is the truc faith, and one to w bieli so were otherwise, ont cotirse stould be the same, for the are mainly indebted for the present succesj of the ultiro time is yet, I hope, far distant, when those entrusted with system, and to which we must alone luuk tur its futurt. power to be exercised for the gool of the whole, will stability.
That there are diversities in the interests of the litter
They rest, as fiera, they have come to my knowledge, ert States which conpose this extensive contexteracy, on the following grounds: 1st, un objection to the ratio must be admitted. Thuse diversities, arising fro:n situa of clistribution; 2.1, an apprehension that the existence of tion, climate, population, and pursuits, are doubtless, as such a regulation would produce improvalent and oppresit is natural they should be greatly exaggerated by jea. sive taxation to raise the funds for distribution; 3:1, that lousies, and that spirit of rivalry so inseparable from neigh the mode proposed would lead to the construction of boring communities. These circumstances make it the works of a local nature, to the exclusion of such as are duty of those whole entrusted with the managernent of general, and as would consequently be of a more useful its affairs to neutralize their effects as far as practicable, charactér; and, last, that it would create a discreditable by making the beneficiand operation of the Federal God injurious dependene, on the part of the State Go. verninent as cqual and equitable among we several vernments, upon the federal power. Of those who obStates as can be done consistently with the great en is of ject to the mtio of representation as the basis of distribuits insistiwi.
lion, som insist that the importations of the respective It is only necessary to refer to unloubtel facts, to see Stale; would constitute one that would be more equitita how Grillo pustacti ottie Governinent upon the siab ble; and others, again, that the extent of their l'especjici under consideration have when short of this object. tire territories would furnish a standard which would be The expenditures iieretofore made for internal improves more expedient, and sufficiently equitable. The ratio of ments amount to parts of live milions of dollars, and representation presented itself to my mind, and it still have been distributed in very unequal proportions Jocs, as one of vbvious equity, because of its being the amongst the Siates. The estimated expense of works of litio of contribution, whether the funds to be clistributed which surveys bare icen malle, together with thai of oth be derived from the customis or fron direct taxation. It ersprejecleil airl partially surveyed, ainuunt lornore than oes not follow, however, that its adoption is indispensaninety-six millions of dollars.
ble to the establish:nent of the system proposedl. There That such mprovements, on account of particular cir- may be considerations appertaining to the subject which cumstances, in:y be more advantageously and beneficial would render a departure, to some extent, from the rule ly made in some states than in others, is cloubilesi true; l of contribution, proper. Nor is it absolutely necessary bui that they are of a character which should prevent an that the basis of elistribution be contineri to one ground. equitable distribution of the finds amongst the severni It may, if, in the judgment of those whose right it is to States, is not to be concelled. The want of this equitit fix it, it be deemed politic and just to give it that characble distribution cannot tail to prove a prolific source of ir. ter, have regard to several. rilation amongst the States.
In my first message, I stated it to be iny opinion that We have it constantly before our eyes, that professions “it is not probable that any adjustment of the tarifl' upon of superior ze:sl in the cause of internal improvement, and principles satisfactory to the people of the Union, will, a disposition to lavish the public funds upon objects of intil a remote period, if ever, leave the Government withthat character, are daily and earnestly put forth by aspi- out a considerable surplus in the treasury beyond what vanity to power, as constituting the highest claiing to the may be required for its current service.” Tave had no Londence of the people. Would it be strange, under cause to change that opinion, but much to confirm it. such circumstances, and in times of great excitement, Should these expectations be realizel, a suitable fund hat grants of this description should find their motives in would thus he produced for the plan under consideration bjects winch may not accord with the public gool? 10 operate upon; and if there be no such fund, its adopHose who have not hac occasion to see and regret the Lion will, in my opinion, work no injury to any interest; actication of a sinister influence in these matters in past for I cannot assent' to the justness of the apprehension imus, have been more fortunate than mysell in their ob.
that the establishment of the proposed system would tend ervation of the course of public affairs. If to these evils to the encouragement of improvident legislation of the e added the combinations and angry contentions to character supposed. Whatever the proper authority, in hich such a course of thingy gives rise, with their bale- the exercise of constitutional power, shall, at any time
influences upon the legislation of Congress touching hereafter, decide to be for the general gooil, will, in that e leading and appropriate duties of the Federal Go
as in other respects, deserve and receive the acquiesl'nmeint, it was but dong justice to the character of our
cence and support of the whole country; and we have cople to expect the severe condemnation of the past ample security that every abuse of power in that regard, hich the recent exhibition of public semiment has evinced. by the agents of the people, will receive a speedy and Nothing short of a radical change in the action of the effectual corrective at their hands. The views which I vernment upon the subject, can, in my opinion, reme. take of the future, founded on the obvious and increasing
the evil. it, as it would be natural to expect, the improvement of all classes of our fellow.citizens, in intelates which have been least favored in past appropria ligence, and in public and private virtue, leave nie withng silould insist on being redressed in those hereafter out much apprehension on that head. be made, at the expense of the States which have so
I do not doubt that those who come after us will be as gely and disproportionately participated, we have, as much alive as we are to the obligation upon all the trusiters now stand, but little security that the attempi tees of political power to exempt those for whom they uld do more than change the inequality from one quar
act from all unnecessary burdens; and as sensible of the to ano her.
great truth, that the resources of the nation, beyond those l'hus viewing the subject, I have heretofore felt it my required for the immediate and necessary purposes of y to recommend the adoption of some plan for the Government, can no where be so well deposited as in the ribution of the surplus funds which may at any time pockets of the people. pain in the treasury after the national debt shall have
It may sometimes happen that the interests of particular o paid, among the States, in proportion to the number States would not be deemed to coincide with the general
ier representatives, to be applied by them to objects interest in relation to improvement within such "states. nternal improvement.
But, if the clanger to be apprehended from this source is though this plan has met with ta vor in soune portions sufficient to require it
, a discretion might be reserved to berate consideration. A briet notice of these objec: character as the states concerned might not be disposed shere will not, therefore, I trust, be regarded as out to unite in, the application of the quotas of those states,
under the restriction of confining to each State the exlace.
penditure of its appropriate quota. It may, liowever, be general weal. Unless the American people have dege. assumed as a safe general rule, that such improvements nerated, the same result can be again effected, whenever as serve to increase the prosperity of the respective States experience points out the necessity of a resort to the same in which they are made, by giving new facilities to trade, means to uphold the fabric which iheir fathers have rearand thereby augmenting the wealth and comfort of their ed. It is beyond the power of man to make a system of inbabitants, constitute the surest mode of conferring per government like ours, or any other, operate with precise manen: and substantial advantages upon the whole. The equality mpon States situated like those which compose strength, as well as the true glory, of the confeçleracy, is this Confederacy; nor is inequality always injustice. Evemainly founded on the prosperity and power of the severy State cannot expect to shape ihe measures of the Geral independent sovereignties of which it is composed, neral Government to suit its own particular interests. The 1 and the certainty with which they can be brought into causes which prevent it are scated in the nature of things, successful, active co operation, through the agency of the and cannot be entirely counteracted by human means Federal Government.
Mutual forbearance, therefore, becomes a cluty obligatory It is, moreover, within the knowledge of such as are upon all; and we may, I am confident, count on a cheri. at all conversant with public affairs, that schemes of inalul compliance with this bigla injunction, on the part of ternal improvement have, from time to time, been pro our constituents. It is not 10 le supposed that they will poseil, whichi, from their extent and seeming magnifi object to make such comparatively inconsiderable sueri. cence, were regarded as of national concernment; boull fices for the preservation of rights and privileges, which Wilrich, upon filler consideration and further experience, other less favored portions of the world have in vain wall would now be rejected with great unanimity.
ed through seas of blood to acquire. That the plan under consideration would derive impor Our course is a safe one, if ii be but faithfully adbered tant advantages írom its certainty; and that the money's 10. Acquiescence in the constitutionally expressed will set apart for these purposes would be more judiciously of the majority, and the exercise of that will in a spirit applied and economically expended under the direction of moderation, justice, and brotherly kindness, will conof the State Legislatures, in which every part of each stilte il cement which would forever preserve our Union. State is immediately representer, cannot, I think, be Those who cherishi and inculcate senuwents like thosc, doubtes. In the new States particularly, wbere a com- render a most essential service to their country; whilst paratively small population is scattereil over an extensive those who seek to weaken their influence, are, however surface, and the representation in Congress consequently conscientious and praiseworthy their intentions, in effect very liinited, it is natural to expect that the appropria its worst enemies. tions made by the Fedcral Government woull be more If the intelligence and influence of the country, inlikely to be expended in the vicinity of those members stearl of laboring to foment sectional prejudices, to be Urough whose immediate agency they were obtained, made subservient to party warfare, were, in good faith, than if the funds were placed under the control of the applied to the eradication of causes of local discontent, Legislature, in which every county of the State has its by the improvement of our institutions, and by facilitat. own representative. This supposition does not necessaling their adaptation to the condition of the times, this rily impugn the motives of such Congressional represe: task would prove one of less difficulty. May we not tatives, nor is it so intended. We are all sensible of the hope that the obvious interests of our common country, bias to which the strongest minds and purest hearts are, and the dictates of an enlightened patriotism, will, in the under such circumstances, liable. In respect to the last end, lead the public mind in that direction. objection, its probable effect upon the dignity and inde After all, the nature of the subject does not admit of a pendence of the State Governments, it appears to me on: plan wholly free from objection. That which has for ly necessary to state the case as it is, and as it would be if some time been in operation is, perhaps, the worst that the measure proposed were adopted, to-show that the could exist ; and every advance that can be made in its operation is most likely to be the very reverse of that improvement is a matter eminently worthy of your most which the objection supposes.
deliberate attention. In the one case, the State woull receive its quota of Its very possible that one better calculated to effect the national revenue for domestic use, upon a fixed prin- the objects in view may yet be devised. If so, it is to be cipie, as a matter of right, and from a fund to the creation hoped that those who disapprove of the past, and dis of which it had itself contributed its fair properion. sent from what is proposed for the future, will feel it their Surely there could be nothing derogatory in that. As duty to direct their attention to it, as they must be sensi matters now stand, the States themselves, in their sove- ble that, unless some fixed rule for the action of the Fe. l'eign character, are not imfrequen ly petitioners at the deral Government in this respect is established, the course bar of the Federal Legislature for such allowances out of now attempted to be arrested will be again resorted to the national treasury as it may comport with their plea. Any mode which is calculated to give the greatest degree sure or sense of duty to bestow upon them. It cannot of effect and harmony to our legislation upon the sub. require argument to prove which of the two courses is ject—which shall best serve to keep the movements of most compatible with the efficiency or respectability of the Federal Government within the sphere intended by the State Governments.
those who modelled and those who adopted it-which But all these are matters for discussion and clispassion shall lead to the extinguishment of the national debt in ate consideration. That the desired adjustment would the shortest period, and impose the lightest burdens up; be attended with difficulty,affords no reason why it should on our constituents, shall receive from me a cordial and not be attempted. The effective operation of such mo- firm support. lives would have prevented the adoption of the Constitut.
Among the objects of great national concern, I cannot tion under which we have so long lived, and under the omit to press again upon your attention that part of the benign influence of which our belovedl country has so Constitution which regulates the election of President signally prospered. The framers of that sacred instru: and Vice President. The necessity for its amendment is ment had greater difficulties to overcome, and they did made so clear to my mind by the observation of its erils, overcome thein. The patriotism of the people, directed and by the many able discussions which they bare elicit; by a deep conviction of the importance of the Union, pro.ed on the floor of Congress and elsewhere, that I should duced mutual concession and reciprocal forbearance. be wanting to my duty were I to withhold another exStrict right was merged in a spirit of compromise, and the pression of my deep solicitude upon the subject. Our result has consecrated their disinterested devotion to the system fortunately contemplates a recurrence to first prin
ciples, differing, in this respect, from all that have pre commendation, with an increased confidence that its ceiled it, and securing it, I trist, equally against the de adoption will strengthen those checks by which the Concay and the commotions which have marked the prostitution designed to secure the independence of each gress of other Governments. Our fellow.citizens, 100, (lepartment of the Government, and promoie the health. who, in proportion to their love of liberty, keep a steadly ful and equitable administration of all the trusts which it eye upon the means of sustaining it, do not require to be has createid. The agent most likely contravene this teninded of the duty they owe to tiemselves to remedy design of the Constitution is the Chief Magistrate. In all essential defects in so vital a part of their system. order, particularly, that his appointment may, as far as While they are sensible that every evil attendant upon possible, be placed beyond the reach of any improper its operation is not necessarily indicative of a bad organi influences; in orier, that he may approach the soleinn rezation, but may proceed from temporary causes, yet the sponsibilities of the highest oifice in the gift of a free habitual presence, or even a single instance of evils people, uncommittel to any other course than the strict which can be clearly traced to an organic detect, will not, line of constitutional duty ; and that the securities for
I trust, be overlooked through a too scrupulouis venera- this independence may be rendered as strong as the na. s tion for the work of their ancestors. The Constitution ture of power, and the weakness of its possessor, will
was an experiment committed to the virtue and intell - admit, I cannot too earnestly invite your attention to the | gence of the great mass of our countrymen, in whose propriety of promoting such an amendment of the Con.
ranks the framers of it themselves were to perform the stitution as will render him ineligible after one term of i pari of patriotic observation and scrutiny; and if they service.
have passed from the stage ot' cxistence with an increas It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the ed confidence in its general adaptation to our condition, benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued we should learn from authority so high the duty of forti- for nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the fying the points in it which iime proves to be exposed, Indians beyond the white settlements, is approaching rather than be deterred from approaching then by the to a happy consummation. Two important tribes have suggestions of fear, or the dictates of misplaced lever accepted the provision made for their removal at the last
session of Congress ; and it is believed that their examA provision which does not secure to the people a diople will induce the remaining tribes, also, to seek the rect choice of their Chief Magistrale, but has a tendency same obvious advantages. to defeat their will, preserted to my inind such an incon The consequences of a speedy removal will be im. sistency with the general spirit of our institutions, that I portant to the United States, to individual States, and to was induced to suggest for your consideration the substi- the In-lians themselves. The pecuniary advantages which tute which appeared to me at the same time the most it promises to the Government are the least of its re. likely to correct the evil and to meet the views of our commendations. It puts an end 10 all possible danger constituents. The most mature reflection since has added of collision between the authorities of the General and strength to the belief that the best interests of our coun. State Governments, on account of the Indians. It will try require the speedy adoption of some plan calculated place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of to effect this end. A contingency which sometimes pla. country now occupied by a few savage hunters. By ces it in the power of a single member of the House of opening the whole territory between Tennessee on the Representatives to decide an election of so high and so- north, and Louisiana on the south, to the settlement of lemn a character, is unjust to the people, and becomes, the whites, it will incalculably strengthen the southwest. when it occurs, a source of embarrassment to the indivi- ern frontier, and render the adjacent States strong duals thus brought into power, and a cause of distrust of enough to repel future invasion without remote aid. It the representative body. Liable as the confederacy is, will relieve the whole State of Mississippi, and the from its great extent, to parties founded upon sectional western part of Alabama, of Indian occupancy, and enainterests, and to a corresponding multiplication of candi- ble those States to advance rapidly in population, wealth, dules for the Presidency, the tendency of the constitu- and power. It will separate ihe Indians from immediate tional reference to the House of Representatives, is, to contact with settlements of whites ; free them from the devolve the election upon that body in almost every in- power of the States ; enable them to pursue happiness stance, and, whatever choice may then be made among in their own way, and under their own rude institutions ; he candidates thus presented to them, to swell the influ will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their ence of particular interests tu a degrec inconsistent with numbers; and perhaps cause them gradually, under the che general good. The consequences of this feature of protection of the Government, and through the influence he Constitution appear far more threatening to the peace of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits, and be. nd integrity of the Union than any which I can conceive come an interesting, civilized, and Christian community. s likely to result from the simple legislative action of the These consequences, some of them so certain, and the Federal Government.
rest su probable, make the complete execution of the It was a leading object with the framers of the Con. plan sanctioned by Congress at their last session an object Citution to keep as separate as possible the action of much solicitude. f the Legislative and Executive branches of the Go Toward the aborigines of the country no one can inernment.
To secure this object, nothing is more dulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go ssential than to preserve the former from the temp. further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandertions of private interest, and, therefore, so to direct ing habits, and make them a happy and prosperous peo. e patronage of the latter as not to permit such temp-ple. I have endeavored to impress upon them my own tions to be offered. Experience abundantly demon- solemn convictions of the duties and powers of the Gecates that every precaution in this respect is a valuable neral Government in relation to the State authorities. feguard of liberty, and one which my reflections upon For the justice of the laws passed by the States within e tendencies of our system incline me to think should the scope of their reserved powers, they are not respon.
made still stronger. It was for this reason that, in sible to this Governıncnt. As individuals, we may enternnexion with an amendment of the Constitution, re- tain and express our opinions of their acts ; but, as a Go. oving all intermediate agency in the choice of the Pre-vernment, we have as little right to control them as we Lent,'I recommended some restrictions upon the re-eli | have to prescribe laws to foreign nations. Sility of that oflicer, and upon the tenure of otlices ge. With a full understanding of the subject, the Choctaw rally. The reason still exists; and I renew the re. I and Chickasa w tribes have, with great unanimity, deter
mined to avail themselves of the liberal offers presented tory, to pay the expense of his removal, and support him s by the act of Congress, and have agreed to remove be- year in his new aboʻle? How many thousands of our own yond the Mississippi river. Treaties have been made people would gladly embrace the opportunity of remor. with them, which, in due season, will be submitted for ing to the west on such conditions ! . If the offers made consideration. In negotiating these treaties, they were to the Indians were exten«lel to them, they would be made to understand their true condition ; and they have hailed with gratitude and joy. preferred maintaining their independence in the Western And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a torests to submitting to the laws of the States in which they stronger attachment to his home, than the settled, civi. now reside. These treaties being probably the last which lized Christian? Is it more aflicting to him to leave the will ever be made with them, are characierized by great graves of his fathers, than it is to our brothers and chilliberality on the part of the Government. They give the dren? Rightly considered, the policy of the General Indians a liberal sum in consideration of their removal,and Government towarıls the red man is not only liberal but comfortable subsistence on their arrival at their new homes. generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the If it be their real interest to maintain a separate existence, States, and ningle with their population. To save him they will there be at liberty to do so without the incon- from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the veniences and vexations to which they would unavoida. General Government kindly offers him a new home, and bly have been subject in Alabama and Mississippi. proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and
Humanily has often wept over the fate of the abori- settlement. gines of this country; and philanthropy has been long In the consummation of a policy originating at an earbusily employed in devising means to avert it. But its ly period, and steadily pursued by every administration progress has never for a moment been arrested ; and one within the present century--so just to the States, and so by one have many powerful tribes disappeared from the generous to the Indians, the Executive feels it has a riglie earth. To follow to the tomb the last of his race, and to to expect the co-operation of Congress, and of all good tread on the graves of extinct nations, excites melancho. and disinterested inen. The States, moreover, have a ly reflections. But true philanthropy reconciles the right to clemand it. It was substantially a part of the commind to these vicissitudes, as it does to the extinction of pact which made them members of our confederacy. one generation to make room for another. In the mo With Georgia, there is an express contract ; with the numents and fortresses of an unknown people, spread new States, an implied one, of equal obligation. Why, over the extensive regions of the West, we behold the in authorizing Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Mississipmemorials of a once powerful race, which was extermi- pi, and Alabama, to form constitutions, and become sepa. nated, or has disappeared, to make room for the existing late Stutes, did Congress include within their limits er savage tribes. Nor is there any thing in this, whichi, tensive tracts of Indian lands, and, in some instances, upon a comprehensive view of the general interests of powerful Indian tribes ? Was it not understood by both the human race, is to be regretted. Philanthropy could parties that the power of the States was to be co-extennot wish to see this continent restorerl to the condition sive with their limits, and that, with all convenient desin which it was found by our forefathers. What good patch, the General Government should extinguish the Inman would prefer a country covered with forests, and dian title, and remove every obstruction to the complete ranged by a few thousand savages, to our extensive re- jurisdiction of the State Governments over the soil' public, studded with cities, towns, and prosperous farms; Probably not one of those States would have accepted a embellished with all the improvements which art can de- separate existence---certainly it would never have been vise, or industry execute; occupied by more than twelve granted by Congress-had it been understood that they millions of happy people, and filled with all the blessings were to be contined forever to those small portions of of liberty, civilization, and religion !
their nominal territory, the Indian title to which had at The present policy of the Government is but a conti-l the time been extinguished. nuation of the same progressive change, by a mikler It is, therefore, a duty which this Government owes to process. The tribes which occupied the countries now the new States, to extinguish, as soon as possible, the In. constituting the Eastern Stales were annihilatel, or have dian title to all lands which Congress themselves have inmelted away, to make room for the whites. The waves cluded within their limits. When this is done, the duof population and civilization are rolling to the West. ties of the General Government in relation to the States ward ; and we now propose to acquire the countries oc- and Inclians within their limits are at an end. The las cupied by the red men of the South and!West, by a fair dians may leave the State or not, as they choose. The exchange, and, at the expense of the U. States, to send purchase of their lands does not alter, in the least, their them to a land where their existence may be prolonged, personal relations with the State Government. No act and perhaps made perpetual. Doubtless it will be painful of the General Government has ever been deemed neces. to leave the graves of their fathers; but what do they more sary to give the States jurisdiction over the persons of the than our ancestors did, or than our children are now doing? Indians. That they possess, by virtue of their sovereign To better their condition in an unknown land, our fore- power within their own limits, in as full a manner before fathers left all that was dear in earthly objects. Our child as after the purchase of the Indian lands ; nor can this dren, by thousands, yearly leave the land of their birth, to Government add to or diminish it. seek new homes in distant regions. Does humanity weep May we not hope, therefore, that all good citizens and none at these painful separations from every thing, animate and more zealously ihan those who think the Indians oppresinanimate, with which the young heart has become en: scd by subjection to the laws of the States, will unite in twined ? Far from it. It is rather a source of joy that attempting to open the eyes of those children of the our country affords scope where our young population forest to their true condition, and, by a speedy removal, may range unconstrained in body or in mind, developing to relieve them from the evils, real or imaginary, present the power and faculties of man in their highest perfec. or prospective, with which they may be supposed to be tion. These remove hundreds, and almost thousands of threatened. miles, at their own expense, purchase the lands they oc. Among the numerous causes of congratulation, the cupy, and support themselves at their new home from condition of our impost revenue deserves special men. the moment of their arrival. Can it be cruel in this Go- tion, inasmuch as it promises the means of extinguishing! vernment, when, by events which it cannot control, the the public debt sooner than was anticipated, and furnishIndian is made discontented in his ancient home, to pur- es a strong illustration of the practical effects of the pres ! chase bis lands, to give him a new and extensive terri. sent tarift" upon our commercial interests.