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Halleck to

CHAP. V. army." President Lincoln saw that a substratum of personal prejudice lay under this somewhat harsh condemnation, which extended not merely to Lane's soldiers, but to the entire separate Texas expedition as well. Halleck complained of "movements havMcClellan, ing been governed by political expediency, and in 1862. W. R. many cases directed by politicians in order to subserve particular interests." Lane was, indeed, chargeable with a selfish ambition in this proposed movement, and soon endeavored even to supplant Hunter.

Jan. 20,

Vol. VIII., p. 509.

Lincoln to

Secretary 1862. W. R.

of War, Jan. 31,

Vol. VIII., p. 538.

Lincoln, recognizing Lane's great energy and influence in Kansas, had intended to make it tributary to the Union cause, but he had no idea of giving him the superior direction or management. His letters show with what prudence, but also with what firmness, he interfered to regulate this distant personal entanglement. "It is my wish," he wrote, January 31, 1862, "that the expedition commonly called the 'Lane Expedition' shall be, as much as has been promised at the Adjutant-General's office, under the supervision of General McClellan, and not any more. I have not intended, and do not now intend, that it shall be a great, exhausting affair, but a snug, sober column of 10,000 or 15,000. General Lane has been told by me many times that he is under the command of General Hunter, and assented to it as often as told. It was the distinct agreement between him and me, when I appointed him, that he was to be under Hunter." All Lane's efforts to set aside Hunter proved fruitless. Under date of February 10, 1862, Lincoln repeated his decision: "My wish has been and is to avail the Government of the services of both General Hunter

and General Lane, and, so far as possible, to personally oblige both. General Hunter is the senior officer, and must command when they serve together; though, in so far as he can, consistently with the public service and his own honor, oblige General Lane he will also oblige me. If they cannot come to an amicable understanding, General Lane must report to General Hunter for duty, according to the rules, or decline the service." Naturally after this Lane lost his interest in the expedition, of which he had caused himself to be proclaimed the real leader and hero. Halleck's decided aversion to the whole scheme already rendered it practically useless, and other causes soon assisted to divert the forces gathered for the purpose to different destinations. It came officially to an end when, on March 11, 1862, Hunter's department was once more consolidated with Halleck's.

Henry Wager Halleck was born in Westernville, Oneida County, New York, January 15, 1815. He was educated at Union College, and entered the military academy at West Point, where he was graduated third in a class of thirty-one, and was made second lieutenant of engineers July 1, 1839. While yet a cadet he was employed at the academy as assistant professor of engineering. From the first he devoted himself with constant industry to the more serious studies of his profession. He had attained a first lieutenancy when the Mexican war broke out, and was sent to the Pacific coast. A variety of valuable services in the military and naval operations prosecuted there secured him the brevet of captain from May 1, 1847. On the conquest of California by the United States forces, he

CHAP. V.

Lincoln to
Hunter

and Lane,

Feb. 10,

1862. W. R.

Vol. VIII.,

p. 551.

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took part in the political organization of the new State, first as Secretary of State under the military Governors, and afterwards as leading member of the Convention which framed the Constitution under which California was admitted to the Union. He remained in the army and in charge of various engineering duties on the Pacific coast until August 1, 1854, having been meanwhile promoted captain of engineers. At that date he resigned his commission to engage in civil pursuits. He became a member of a law firm, and was also interested in mines and railroads, when the outbreak of the Rebellion called him again into the military service of the Government. He had become not only practically accomplished in his profession as a soldier, but also distinguished as a writer on military art and science. Halleck's high qualifications were well understood and appreciated by General Scott, at whose suggestion he was appointed majorgeneral in the regular army, to date from August 19, 1861, with orders to report himself at army headquarters in Washington. A phrase in one of Scott's letters, setting forth McClellan's disregard for his authority, creates an inference that the old general intended that Halleck should succeed him in chief command. But when the latter reached Washington, the confusion and disasters in the Department of the West were at their culmination, and urgent necessity required him to be sent thither to succeed Frémont.

General Halleck arrived at St. Louis on November 18, 1861, and assumed command on the 19th. His written instructions stated forcibly the reforms he was expected to bring about, and his earliest.

reports indicate that his difficulties had not been CHAP. V. overstated-irregularities in contracts; great confusion in organization; everywhere a want of arms and supplies; absence of routine and discipline. Added to this was reported danger from the enemy. "I am satisfied," he telegraphed under date of November 29, "that the enemy is operating in and against this State with a much larger force than was supposed when I left Washington, and also that a general insurrection is organizing in the counties near the Missouri River, between Boonville and Saint Joseph. A desperate effort will be made to supply and winter their troops in this State, so as to spare their own resources for a summer campaign." An invasion was indeed in contemplation, but rumor had magnified its available strength. General Price had, since the battle of Lexington, lingered in Southwestern Missouri, and was once more preparing for a northward march. His method of campaigning was peculiar, and needed only the minimum of organization and preparation. His troops were made up mainly of young, reckless, hardy Missourians, to whom a campaign was an adventure of pastime and excitement, and who brought, each man, his own horse, gun, and indispensable equipments and clothing. The usual burdens of an army commissariat and transportation were of little moment to these partisans, who started up as if by magic from every farm and thicket, and gathered their supplies wherever they went. To quote the language of one of the Missouri rebel leaders: "Our forces, to combat, or cut them off, would require only a haversack to 1861. W. R. where the enemy would require a wagon." The

Nov. 24,

Vol. VIII.,

pp. 691, 692.

elect

McClellan,
Nov. 29,

1861. W. R.

Vol. VIII., p. 392.

CHAP. V. evil of the system was, that such forces vanished quite as rapidly as they assembled. The enthusiastic squads with which Price had won his victory at Lexington were scattered among their homes and haunts. The first step of a campaign, therefore, involved the gathering of a new army, and this proved not so easy in the opening storms of winter as it had in the fine midsummer weather.

Price,

tion, Nov. 26,

Proclama 1861. W. R. pp. 695, 696.

Vol. VIII.,

On the 26th of November, 1861, Price issued a call for fifty thousand men. The language of his proclamation, however, breathed more of despair than confidence. He reminded his adherents that only one in forty had answered to the former call, and that "Boys and small property-holders have in the main fought the battles for the protection of your property." He repeated many times, with emphasis: "I must have fifty thousand men." His prospects were far from encouraging. McCulloch, in a mood of stubborn disagreement, was withdrawing his army to Arkansas, where he went into winter quarters. Later on, when Price formally requested his coöperation, McCulloch as formally refused. For the moment the Confederate cause in Southwestern Missouri was languishing. Ex-Governor Jackson made a show of keeping it alive by calling the fugitive remnant of his rebel Legislature together at Neosho, and with the help of his sole official relic - the purloined State Seal-enacting the well-worn farce of passing a secession ordinance, and making a military league with the Confederate States.

The Confederate Congress at Richmond responded to the farce with an act to admit Missouri to the Confederacy. An act, of more promise

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