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PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO
To take time and space to emphasize the importance of the science of sociology seems hardly necessary. Like all sciences this one has an ultimate utilitarian purpose, however much we may seem to be investigating truth merely for its own sake. The purpose of sociology is to aid in the perfection of social relations and to assist, so far as possible, our endeavors consciously to direct the course of evolution. No one believes that society is perfect. We are persistently - almost frantically - endeavoring to improve the social organization, but with only indifferent results. Much of our effort is misdirected and wasted. The reasons are that we work with too limited a range of vision, and we fail to understand fully the forces which we would direct. Narrowness and ignorance tend to counteract the effects of our enthusiasm and devotion. The scientific study of society should give us a clearer comprehension of human relationships and of the forces at work in the social process, and should enable us to direct our efforts much more effectively.
Sociology is still such a new science that no general agreement has been reached with regard to its subject matter. Its present weakness is due not so much to a lack of material as it is to the absence of organization in the material available. Sociology is, therefore, in a position to be advanced both by the contribu
new material and also by a more systematic arrangement of the material already at hand.
If I have departed in the present volume from the usual treatment of the subject matter, it is to emphasize genetic factors in the social process; because I believe that the character and quality of the population are of much more importance in the life and development of social groups than would be indicated by the treatment of most writers. Throughout I have emphasized the physical and biological factors rather than the psychological. To the last I have given rather brief treatment, not because I
underestimate their importance but because I believe they may best be developed as a separate branch of the science.
This volume is written primarily for the use of college students; but it is hoped that it will be serviceable also to those general readers who wish to gain a clearer understanding of the important subject of human relations.
The references at the ends of the chapters should not be considered as in any sense a bibliography.
bibliography. They are merely a few of the many possible selections which seemed to me suitable for more extended reading. They are designed primarily for the needs of undergraduate students; but occasionally more advanced readings have been included when these have seemed to be particularly pertinent to the subject discussed.
Chaper XXX, on Science, has already appeared in substantially the present form in the Popular Science Monthly for September, 1911, and is reprinted here with the consent of the editor.
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Professor S. J. Holmes, of the University of California, who kindly read the chapters on heredity and made a number of valuable suggestions. In justice to Professor Holmes it should be said, however, that he is in no way responsible either for the method of treatment or for the statements made in those chapters. Professor T. D. A. Cockerell, of the University of Colorado, has also kindly assisted in arranging the diagram illustrating the order of evolution, diagram which was compiled from a number of sources. And finally I wish to acknowledge my heavy indebtedness to my wife, who has been of invaluable assistance to me in preparing the manuscript for the press.
FREDERICK A. BUSHEE. BOULDER, COLORADO
THE SCOPE AND METHOD OF SOCIOLOGY .
SOCIOLOGY DISTINGUISHED FROM THE SPECIAL SOCIAL SCIENCES.
THE RELATION OF SOCIOLOGY TO THE OTHER PRIMARY SCIENCES.
SOCIOLOGY DEALS WITH UNIFORMITIES.
PROGRESS DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER FORMS OF SOCIAL CHANGE.
METHODS OF REASONING. Deduction and induction. The method of dif-
ference. The method of concomitant variations.
SOURCES OF MATERIAL. Statistics. History. Observation. Introspection.
THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE SOCIAL IDEALS.
SIGNIFICANT FACTS OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RELATIONS.
DEMOCRATIC AND ARISTOCRATIC IDEALS.
THE ORGANIC CONCEPT OF SOCIETY.
PROGRESS REQUIRES A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT.
PASSIVE ADAPTATION TO THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. Individual sur-
vival. Health. Group survival.