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9-15.47 59648 INTRODUCTION. BEFORE any thing is said of the present Volume, it is new cessary to notice some observations which have been made oni the one published last year. It is not intended to point out its utility as a book of reference, for that is now well understood; nor is there a wish to enlarge on the flattering eagerness with which it has been fought by all those who pay much attention to politics, and particularly by the Members of both Houses of Parliament. To dwell on the acknowledged usefulness of the work would justly be deemed an unnecessary display of vanity; but it is the Editor's duty to answer those who have charged it

with errors.

Some gentlemen have asserted the treaty of partition signed at Pavia to be a forgery : and others who have been inclined to doubt this affertion, have nevertheless discovered that the substance of it, inserted in the former volume, is evidently spu. rious, because it is not in the usual form of such instruments : This informality the Editor perceived on first reading it, and for that reason it was not inserted as the treaty itself, but expressly as the substance of the treaty; and a number of circumstances, both in the declarations and conduct of the allied powers, strongly concur to establish its credit. In July, 1791, the Emperor was in Italy, and invited all the principal powers in Europe to join in a confederacy, (see Vol. I. p. 169.)" In the October following his Imperial Majesty “requested the "powers to whom he addressed himself, to declare, by their

respective ministers at Paris, that their Coalition existed." (see Vol. I. p. 152.) And on the 18th of March, 1792, the court of Vienna “ refused to agree to the dissolution of the confederacy " in which the King of Hungary was engaged with the most " respectable powers in Europe,(p. 177.)

Such are the proofs of the existence of a confedea racy, the conditions of which are thought unfit for the public eye. And if we compare the conduct of the allies with the articles of the treaty of Pavia, we must either be confirmed in the truth of some such transaction, or conclude that those who forged the instrument knew and described the real views of the princes concerned; for, as far as it has been in their power, A 2

they

iv

INTRODUCTION. they have acted upon the ftipulations it contains, and have fet the declaration at Pilnitz totally afide. Did not the Emperor take poffeffion of all the towns in the French Netherlands, in his own name, agreeably to the treaty of Pavia, and not in the name of the King of France, as he was bound to do by the declaration at Pilnitz ? Did not General Wurmfer, when successful on the Rhine, express his wishes that the Alfacians would reunite themselves to their German brethren ? (lee Vol. I. p. 134.) Has not the Empress invaded Poland? And has not the King of Prussia obtained poffeffion of Dantzick and Thorn? Every proceeding of the allies strengthens the opinion that the substance of the treaty of Pavia is authentic ; and as it not only was supported by such a combination of circumstances, but was in general circulation, and had obtained considerable credit throughout Europe, infomuch that it had been inserted in many of the most respectable works, without a doubt of its being genuine, the Editor thought it his duty to give it a place; convinced that those who contended for its authenticity, would have much more cause of complaint at its omiffion, than they who asserted it to be a forgery, would have by its insertion.

The other papers which it has been said should not have appeared in the collection, are the two letters from M. Maret to Mr. Miles. These have been objected to for two reasons, first, that Mr. Miles proves in his pamphlet M. Maret had no official commission to the Government of this country, and secondly, that it was improper to dignify the private letters of one friend to another with the title of State Papers. The first of these objections is mistakenly made. M. Maret was not indeed sent as a formal ambassador or 'minifter plenipotentiary, but he was an agent appointed by the French Government-to negotiate for the preservation of peace, and as such was received and treated with by Mr. Pitt. The National Convention after it declared war, published " An Exposition of the Conduct of the French « Nation towards the English People," in which Maret’s pa: pers are inserted with those of Chauvelin. The French confidered him, in fact, as an agent of the highest iinportance, and therefore the two letters to Mr. Miles were judged to be very Hery material. It is not alone the official-memorials of Minif

ters

ters that always explain their real views. A private communi.

cation is frequently much more explicit : and whenever we are

so fortunate as to obtain any' letters of the confidential agents of

a government, which throw light on interesting matters of

ftate, we shall consider them to be, in the best sense of the

words, State Papers.

Having now answered the only objections made to the first

volume of this work, it is necessary to state, that, in compil-

ing the second, a considerable number of French reports and

decrees have been inserted, because they best describe the inter-

nal situation of the country, the principles which actuate the

people, and the disposition of the government;-circumstances

now declared by the British ministry, to be the principal if not

the only reason for continuing hostilities, and therefore it is ex-

pedient to give them a place, as the object of this collection is

to bring together all papers explanatory of the causes of the

present war, and the sentiments of the different powers engaged

in it,

Under the title of “ Correspondence,” it has been thought

expedient to place some papers not exactly of that description.
Most of those published in Germany, particularly the impor-
tant Proceedings of the Diet of Ratisbon, are put under this
head, because some have such a reference to others that their
relative meaning might not have been so well understood had
they been otherwise arranged.

The Editor trusts, the Public will perceive in this volume

the same unwearied exertion to deserve a continuance of that

diftinguished patronage with which the former was honoured.

The English and foreign publications have been carefully col-

lated to complete the Collection, several of the articles have

never before appeared in English, and others are now first pub-

lished from the original MSS.-Regretting the inconvenience

arising to many noblemen and gentlemen from the unavoidable

delay of the Publication, the Editor engages, by slightly altering

his plan, to produce it at a much earlier period in future.

9th March, 1795

CONTENTS.

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